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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144107/safe-return-to-driving-following-severe-acquired-brain-injury-role-of-a-short-neuropsychological-assessment
#1
Donatella Saviola, Antonio DE Tanti, Jessica Conforti, Lucio Posteraro, Alessia Manfredini, Chiara Bagattini, Benedetta Basagni
BACKGROUND: Driving is a complex ability requiring a broad range of motor, cognitive- behavioural and visual skills that may be impaired after severe Acquired Brain Injury (sABI). Resumption of driving is perceived as a major need by patients, being closely linked to personal autonomy, work and social activities. AIM: The objective of this study was to identify a short battery of neuropsychological tests with predictive value with regard to safe return to driving after sABI...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126777/graded-photochemical-spinal-cord-injury-results-in-chronic-hyperalgesia-and-depression-like-behaviour-but-no-anxiety-exacerbation-in-female-balb-c-mice
#2
Pere Boadas-Vaello, Judit Homs, Marta Portero-Tresserra, Beltrán Álvarez-Pérez, Meritxell Deulofeu, Enrique Verdú
Neuropathic pain (NP) is present in 40-to-50% of spinal cord injured patients. It tends to chronicity and correlates with lower quality-of-life. Moreover, the role of NP in the eventual exacerbation of anxiety- and depression-like behaviours during its development and chronification in genetically susceptible individuals remains unclear. Thus, although solely few animal models are available, new specific models are needed to complete the array of chances to assay new therapeutic strategies with the aim of treating chronic NT and its associated mood disorders...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126394/prospective-study-of-autism-phenomenology-and-the-behavioural-phenotype-of-phelan-mcdermid-syndrome-comparison-to-fragile-x-syndrome-down-syndrome-and-idiopathic-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Caroline Richards, Laurie Powis, Jo Moss, Christopher Stinton, Lisa Nelson, Christopher Oliver
BACKGROUND: The limited behavioural phenotype literature on Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) indicates atypically high levels of activity, impulsivity and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviours. Divergent profiles of ASD in PMS are also reported, with some studies demonstrating similarities to idiopathic ASD and others indicating an uneven profile of social and communication impairments and repetitive behaviours. An evaluation of the behavioural phenotype of PMS and the prevalence and phenomenology of ASD is warranted, particularly given the causal involvement of the SHANK3 gene in the aetiology of PMS...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126022/the-impact-of-police-presence-on-angry-and-aggressive-driving
#4
Predrag Stanojević, Mark J M Sullman, Dragan Jovanović, Dragana Stanojević
An extensive body of research has found that angry and aggressive driving are both significantly related to crash involvement. There has also been a large body of research investigating the situational factors related to angry and aggressive driving, but one interesting question that has not yet been answered is whether the enforcement of traffic laws causes or reduces angry and aggressive driving. The independent region of Northern Kosovo represents a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of a lack of traffic enforcement on driving behaviour...
November 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124791/impact-of-different-intensities-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-the-cortical-properties-during-tms-eeg-and-working-memory-performance
#5
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Caley M Sullivan, Robin F H Cash, Paul B Fitzgerald
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124768/the-peripheral-nervous-system-of-the-ascidian-tadpole-larva-types-of-neurons-and-their-synaptic-networks
#6
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiuyan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Physical and chemical cues from the environment are used to direct animal behaviour through a complex network of connections originating in exteroceptors. In chordates, mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) must signal to the motor circuits of the central nervous system (CNS) through a series of pathways that integrate and regulate the output to motor neurons; ultimately these drive contraction of the tail and limb muscles. We used serial-section electron microscopy to reconstruct PNS neurons and their hitherto unknown synaptic networks in the tadpole larva of a sibling chordate, the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123189/a-common-neonicotinoid-pesticide-thiamethoxam-alters-honey-bee-activity-motor-functions-and-movement-to-light
#7
S Tosi, J C Nieh
Honey bees provide key ecosystem services. To pollinate and to sustain the colony, workers must walk, climb, and use phototaxis as they move inside and outside the nest. Phototaxis, orientation to light, is linked to sucrose responsiveness and the transition of work from inside to outside the nest, and is also a key component of division of labour. However, the sublethal effects of pesticides on locomotion and movement to light are relatively poorly understood. Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a common neonicotinoid pesticide that bees can consume in nectar and pollen...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123186/the-biomechanical-coordination-during-oropharyngeal-swallowing-an-evaluation-with-a-non-invasive-sensing-system
#8
Qiang Li, Yoshitomo Minagi, Takahiro Ono, Yongjin Chen, Kazuhiro Hori, Shigehiro Fujiwara, Yoshinobu Maeda
Swallowing is a very important and complex physiological behaviour. The dynamic of swallowing has created great interest as any procedural abnormality will result in dysphagia and even lower quality of life. However, a non-invasive evaluation of biomechanical coordination during oropharyngeal swallowing, which includes the activities of the tongue, the hyoid and swallowing-related muscles, has not yet been achieved. In the present study, we recruited fifteen subjects, and a non-invasive sensing system composed of a pressure sensor, a bend sensor, surface electrodes and a microphone was created to simultaneously monitor tongue pressure, hyoid motion, and surface EMG of swallowing-related muscles, as well as take sound recordings, when the subjects swallowed 5 ml of water...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120916/impulsivity-in-personality-disorders-current-views-and-future-directions
#9
Catherine McHugh, Sivasankaran Balaratnasingam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impulsivity is considered a trans-diagnostic feature of many mental disorders, yet our understanding of the concept and approaches to measurement have evolved significantly with advances in neuroimaging. This review will provide an overview of impulsivity as it is currently understood, its association with personality disorder and implications for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Impulsivity is now considered to involve failure of inhibitory control, either motor or cognitive, and deficits of the reward valuation system...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120562/be-vigilant-for-dementia-in-parkinson%C3%A2-s-disease
#10
Flavia Niccolini, Konstantinos Diamantopoulos, Stelios Kiosses, Marios Politis
It is estimated that up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease will eventually develop cognitive impairment over the course of their illness. Even at the time of diagnosis, cognitive impairment has been reported in 20-25% of patients. Commonly affected cognitive domains are executive function, visuospatial ability and attention control. In addition, patients with Parkinson's disease dementia may present with deficits in language function and verbal memory. Psychosis may occur in approximately 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease, and is associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120427/fully-integrated-silicon-probes-for-high-density-recording-of-neural-activity
#11
James J Jun, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Joshua H Siegle, Daniel J Denman, Marius Bauza, Brian Barbarits, Albert K Lee, Costas A Anastassiou, Alexandru Andrei, Çağatay Aydın, Mladen Barbic, Timothy J Blanche, Vincent Bonin, João Couto, Barundeb Dutta, Sergey L Gratiy, Diego A Gutnisky, Michael Häusser, Bill Karsh, Peter Ledochowitsch, Carolina Mora Lopez, Catalin Mitelut, Silke Musa, Michael Okun, Marius Pachitariu, Jan Putzeys, P Dylan Rich, Cyrille Rossant, Wei-Lung Sun, Karel Svoboda, Matteo Carandini, Kenneth D Harris, Christof Koch, John O'Keefe, Timothy D Harris
Sensory, motor and cognitive operations involve the coordinated action of large neuronal populations across multiple brain regions in both superficial and deep structures. Existing extracellular probes record neural activity with excellent spatial and temporal (sub-millisecond) resolution, but from only a few dozen neurons per shank. Optical Ca(2+) imaging offers more coverage but lacks the temporal resolution needed to distinguish individual spikes reliably and does not measure local field potentials. Until now, no technology compatible with use in unrestrained animals has combined high spatiotemporal resolution with large volume coverage...
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116017/regenerative-potential-of-primary-adult-human-neural-stem-cells-on-micropatterned-bio-implants-boosts-motor-recovery
#12
Carole Davoust, Benjamin Plas, Amélie Béduer, Boris Demain, Anne-Sophie Salabert, Jean Christophe Sol, Christophe Vieu, Laurence Vaysse, Isabelle Loubinoux
BACKGROUND: The adult brain is unable to regenerate itself sufficiently after large injuries. Therefore, hopes rely on therapies using neural stem cell or biomaterial transplantation to sustain brain reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement in sensorimotor recovery brought about by human primary adult neural stem cells (hNSCs) in combination with bio-implants. METHODS: hNSCs were pre-seeded on implants micropatterned for neurite guidance and inserted intracerebrally 2 weeks after a primary motor cortex lesion in rats...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114969/apathy-in-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder-is-common-and-under-recognised
#13
Thomas R Barber, Kinan Muhammed, Daniel Drew, Michael Lawton, Marie Crabbe, Michal Rolinski, Timothy Quinnell, Zenobia Zaiwalla, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Masud Husain, Michele Tm Hu
BACKGROUND: Apathy is an important neuropsychiatric feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), which often emerges before the onset of motor symptoms. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) have a high probability of developing Parkinson's disease in future. Neuropsychiatric problems are common in RBD, but apathy has not previously been detailed in this key prodromal population. METHODS: 88 patients with polysomnographically proven RBD, 65 patients with PD and 33 controls were assessed for apathy using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS)...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108016/behavioral-and-pathophysiological-outcomes-associated-with-caffeine-consumption-and-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-rmtbi-in-adolescent-rats
#14
Glenn R Yamakawa, Connor Lengkeek, Sabrina Salberg, Simon C Spanswick, Richelle Mychasiuk
Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107746/how-many-deficits-in-the-same-dyslexic-brains-a-behavioural-and-fmri-assessment-of-comorbidity-in-adult-dyslexics
#15
Laura Danelli, Manuela Berlingeri, Gabriella Bottini, Nunzio A Borghese, Mirko Lucchese, Maurizio Sberna, Cathy J Price, Eraldo Paulesu
Dyslexia can have different manifestations: this has motivated different theories on its nature, on its underlying brain bases and enduring controversies on how to best treat it. The relative weight of the different manifestations has never been evaluated using both behavioural and fMRI measures, a challenge taken here to assess the major systems called into play in dyslexia by different theories. We found that adult well-compensated dyslexics were systematically impaired only in reading and in visuo-phonological tasks, while deficits for other systems (e...
September 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102966/effects-of-scalp-electroacupuncture-on-the-pi3k-akt-signalling-pathway-and-apoptosis-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-palsy
#16
Hanhong Zhang, Jing Gao, Mengmeng Wang, Xuefeng Yu, Xiuhua Lv, Huan Deng, Xiangwei Fan, Kaiyun Chen
Background Substantial evidence from clinical reports has established that most cerebral palsy (CP) patients benefit from a comprehensive rehabilitation exercise training programme. Such advances are enhanced when scalp electroacupuncture (EA), applied at a location corresponding to the projection of the motor area, is combined with rehabilitation exercise training. However, little information exists regarding the mechanistic basis for these effects.Objective To examine whether EA stimulation within the scalp projection location of the motor area can inhibit apoptosis of hippocampal neurons by regulating the PI3k/Akt signalling pathway in a rat model of CP...
November 4, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101788/virtual-testing-of-speed-reduction-schemes-on-urban-collector-roads
#17
Lorenzo Domenichini, Valentina Branzi, Monica Meocci
Urban collector roads are complex driving environments often encompassing both the mobility and the access road functions. In these conditions motorized traffic and vulnerable road users compete continually. Speed reduction measures may play a relevant role in these contexts, provided that such measures are also designed in compliance with the driver's capabilities and expectations. The paper describes a test procedure using driving simulation experiments, designed to evaluate the reconfiguration project of Via Pistoiese, an urban road collector located in Florence (Italy)...
October 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100144/moving-from-laboratory-to-real-life-conditions-influence-on-the-assessment-of-variability-and-stability-of-gait
#18
Paola Tamburini, Fabio Storm, Chris Buckley, Maria Cristina Bisi, Rita Stagni, Claudia Mazzà
The availability of wearable sensors allows shifting gait analysis from the traditional laboratory settings, to daily life conditions. However, limited knowledge is available about whether alterations associated to different testing environment (e.g. indoor or outdoor) and walking protocols (e.g. free or controlled), result from actual differences in the motor behaviour of the tested subjects or from the sensitivity to these changes of the indexes adopted for the assessment. In this context, it was hypothesized that testing environment and walking protocols would not modify motor control stability in the gait of young healthy adults, who have a mature and structured gait pattern, but rather the variability of their motor pattern...
October 26, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097256/the-pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-motivational-deficits-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
A Chagraoui, L Boukhzar, F Thibaut, Y Anouar, D Maltête
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disorder that leads to disabling motor symptoms and a wide variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Apathy is the most common psychiatric disorder in the early stages of untreated PD and can be defined as a hypodopaminergic syndrome, which also includes anxiety and depression. Apathy is also considered the core feature of the parkinsonian triad (apathy, anxiety and depression) of behavioural non-motor signs, including a motivational deficit. Moreover, apathy is recognised as a distinct chronic neuropsychiatric behavioural disorder based on specific diagnostic criteria...
October 31, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096633/cerebral-malaria-induces-electrophysiological-and-neurochemical-impairment-in-mice-retinal-tissue-possible-effect-on-glutathione-and-glutamatergic-system
#20
Karen R H M Oliveira, Nayara Kauffmann, Luana K R Leão, Adelaide C F Passos, Fernando A F Rocha, Anderson M Herculano, José L M do Nascimento
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection. This condition has usually been associated with cognitive, behavioural and motor dysfunctions, being the retinopathy the most serious consequence resulting from the disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this complication remain incompletely understood. Several experimental models of CM have already been developed in order to clarify those mechanisms related to this syndrome...
November 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
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