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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729635/superior-non-specific-motor-learning-in-the-blind
#1
Florence Morin-Parent, Louis de Beaumont, Hugo Théoret, Jean-Francois Lepage
It is well established that blindness induces changes in cerebral function and structure, namely affecting the somatomotor regions. However, the behavioural significance of these changes on the motor system, and on motor learning in particular, remains elusive. In this study, we used a modified version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT) with auditory cues to assess sequence specific and non-specific motor learning in blind adults and sighted controls, and compare them with sighted controls performing the classic visual SRTT...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725870/human-factors-in-cybersecurity-examining-the-link-between-internet-addiction-impulsivity-attitudes-towards-cybersecurity-and-risky-cybersecurity-behaviours
#2
Lee Hadlington
The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a 'risky' cybersecurity behaviours scale...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722246/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-masticatory-muscle-sensitization-in-female-rats-through-peripheral-cannabinoid-receptor-activation
#3
H Wong, S Hossain, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether intramuscular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), by acting on peripheral cannabinoid (CB) receptors, could decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced sensitization in female rat masseter muscle; a model which mimics the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to explore the peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors in the masseter muscle while behavioural and electrophysiology experiments were employed to assess the functional effects of intramuscular injection of THC...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720525/motor-resonance-during-action-observation-is-gaze-contingent-a-tms-study
#4
Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Claudia C Gonzalez, Alexander V Nowicky, A Mark Williams, Daniel T Bishop
When we observe others performing an action, visual input to our mirror neuron system is reflected in the facilitation of primary motor cortex (M1), a phenomenon known as 'motor resonance'. However, it is unclear whether this motor resonance is contingent upon our point-of-gaze. In order to address this issue, we collected gaze data from participants as they viewed an intransitive action - thumb abduction/adduction - under four conditions: with natural gaze behaviour (free viewing) and with their gaze fixated on each of three predetermined loci at various distances from the prime mover...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720508/to-swim-or-not-to-swim-a-population-level-model-of-xenopus-tadpole-decision-making-and-locomotor-behaviour
#5
Roman Borisyuk, Robert Merrison-Hort, Steve R Soffe, Stella Koutsikou, Wen-Chang Li
We present a detailed computational model of interacting neuronal populations that mimic the hatchling Xenopus tadpole nervous system. The model includes four sensory pathways, integrators of sensory information, and a central pattern generator (CPG) network. Sensory pathways of different modalities receive inputs from an "environment"; these inputs are then processed and integrated to select the most appropriate locomotor action. The CPG populations execute the selected action, generating output in motor neuron populations...
July 15, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719508/is-the-organisation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-low-back-pain-related-to-pain-movement-and-or-sensation
#6
Edith Elgueta-Cancino, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul Hodges
Primary motor cortex (M1) organisation differs between individuals with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP), in parallel with motor and sensory impairments. This study investigated whether movement behaviour and tactile/pain sensation are related to M1 organisation in CLBP. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to map the M1 representation of the erector spinae and multifidus muscles in 20 participants with and without CLBP. Cortical organisation was quantified by: map volume; center of gravity (CoG); number of peaks; and primary and secondary peak location...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718892/methoxetamine-affects-brain-processing-involved-in-emotional-response-in-rats
#7
M T Zanda, P Fadda, S Antinori, M di Chio, W Fratta, C Chiamulera, L Fattore
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Methoxetamine (MXE) is a novel psychoactive substance that is emerging on the Internet and induces dissociative effects and acute toxicity. Yet, its pharmacological effects are still poorly investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We examined a range of behavioural effects induced by acute intraperitoneal administration of MXE (0.5-5 mg/kg) in rats, and whether it causes rapid neuroadaptive molecular changes. KEY RESULTS: MXE (0...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718362/adaptive-behaviour-and-motor-skills-in-children-with-upper-limb-deficiency
#8
Hiroshi Mano, Sayaka Fujiwara, Nobuhiko Haga
BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of individuals with upper limb deficiencies affects their daily lives and social participation. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the adaptive behaviours and motor skills of children with upper limb deficiencies. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The subjects were 10 children ranging from 1 to 6 years of age with unilateral upper limb deficiencies at the level distal to the elbow who were using only cosmetic or passive prostheses or none at all...
July 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716466/chronic-low-back-pain-patients-walk-with-locally-altered-spinal-kinematics
#9
Guillaume Christe, François Kade, Brigitte M Jolles, Julien Favre
Various studies have reported alterations of spinal kinematics in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) during gait. However, while recent findings stressed the importance of multi-segment analysis, most of prior gait studies modelled the lumbar spine as one segment, when it was not the entire trunk that was considered as a single segment. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive multi-segment research that could improve our understanding of CLBP pathomechanism and thus possibly contribute to better care for CLBP...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713861/behavioural-clusters-and-predictors-of-performance-during-recovery-from-stroke
#10
L E Ramsey, J S Siegel, C E Lang, M Strube, G L Shulman, M Corbetta
We examined the patterns and variability of recovery post-stroke in multiple behavioral domains. A large cohort of first time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions was studied prospectively and longitudinally at 1-2 weeks, 3 months and one year post-injury with structural MRI to measure lesion anatomy and in-depth neuropsychological assessment. Impairment was described at all timepoints by a few clusters of correlated deficits. The time course and magnitude of recovery was similar across domains, with change scores largely proportional to the initial deficit and most recovery occurring within the first three months...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711816/unilateral-subthalamotomy-in-parkinson-s-disease-cognitive-psychiatric-and-neuroimaging-changes
#11
Ignacio Obeso, Enrique Casabona, Rafael Rodríguez-Rojas, Maria Luisa Bringas, Raúl Macías, Nancy Pavón, Jose A Obeso, Marjan Jahanshahi
Unilateral subthalamotomy is an effective treatment for the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, non-motor changes possibly associated with right or left subthalamotomy remain unknown. Our aim was to assess cognitive, psychiatric and neuroimaging changes after treatment with unilateral subthalamotomy. Fourteen medicated patients with PD were evaluated before and after (mean 6 months after operation) unilateral subthalamotomy (5 right, 9 left). In addition to motor assessments, cognitive (global cognition and executive functions), psychiatric (apathy, depression, anxiety, mania, hypo- and hyperdopaminergic behaviours, impulsivity), quality of life evaluations and volume of lesions were obtained...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710870/self-changing-behaviour-in-smoking-cessation-linked-to-trait-and-cognitive-impulsivity
#12
Jaume Celma-Merola, Francesc Abella-Pons, Fernanda Mata, Gerard Pedra-Pagés, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To compare impulsivity, measured using self-report and cognitive tasks in people who ceased smoking without treatment (self-changers) with each of the following groups: (i) smoking non-treatment seekers, (ii) people in smoking cessation treatment and currently abstinent, and (iii) people in smoking cessation treatment but non-abstinent. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: The smoking cessation unit of a public general hospital, Hospital de Santa Maria, in Lleida, Spain...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709999/tdcs-over-the-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-disrupts-control-of-interference-in-memory-a-retrieval-induced-forgetting-study
#13
Davide F Stramaccia, Barbara Penolazzi, Gianmarco Altoè, Giovanni Galfano
Retrieving information from episodic memory may result in later inaccessibility of related but task-irrelevant information. This phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting, is thought to represent a specific instance of broader cognitive control mechanisms, that would come into play during memory retrieval, whenever non-target competing memories interfere with recall of target items. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown an association between these mechanisms and the activity of the right Prefrontal Cortex...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709915/sex-differences-in-somatic-and-sensory-motor-development-after-neonatal-anoxia-in-wistar-rats
#14
Amrita Jha Kumar, Silvia Honda Takada, Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Vitor Yonamine Lee, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Maria Inês Nogueira
Currently, one of the important causes of brain injury in new-borns is the neonatal anoxia which impacts the perinatology services worldwide. Animal models of anoxia have been used to assess its effects at cellular and behavioural levels in all ages, but few studies focus on sex differences. This study aimed to investigate some physical parameters of development, sensorimotor alterations, early neurological reflexes as well as the density of cells in motor and sensorimotor cerebral cortex of adolescent rats submitted to neonatal anoxia...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708868/dynamics-of-tactical-behaviour-in-association-football-when-manipulating-players-space-of-interaction
#15
Angel Ric, Carlota Torrents, Bruno Gonçalves, Lorena Torres-Ronda, Jaime Sampaio, Robert Hristovski
The analysis of positional data in association football allows the spatial distribution of players during matches to be described in order to improve the understanding of tactical-related constraints on the behavioural dynamics of players. The aim of this study was to identify how players' spatial restrictions affected the exploratory tactical behaviour and constrained the perceptual-motor workspace of players in possession of the ball, as well as inter-player passing interactions. Nineteen professional outfield male players were divided into two teams of 10 and 9 players, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707506/perception-action-coupling-in-complex-game-play-exploring-the-quiet-eye-in-contested-basketball-jump-shots
#16
André Klostermann, Derek Panchuk, Damian Farrow
The duration of the final fixation before movement initiation - a gaze strategy labelled quiet eye - has been found to explain differences in motor expertise and performance in precision tasks. To date, research only addressed this phenomenon in situations without adversarial constraints. In the present study, we compared the quiet-eye behaviour of intermediately-skilled and highly-skilled basketball players in defended vs. undefended game situations. We predicted differences in quiet-eye duration as a function of skill and performance particularly resulting from late quiet-eye offsets...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707220/application-of-quasi-steady-state-methods-to-nonlinear-models-of-intracellular-transport-by-molecular-motors
#17
Cole Zmurchok, Tim Small, Michael J Ward, Leah Edelstein-Keshet
Molecular motors such as kinesin and dynein are responsible for transporting material along microtubule networks in cells. In many contexts, motor dynamics can be modelled by a system of reaction-advection-diffusion partial differential equations (PDEs). Recently, quasi-steady-state (QSS) methods have been applied to models with linear reactions to approximate the behaviour of the full PDE system. Here, we extend this QSS reduction methodology to certain nonlinear reaction models. The QSS method relies on the assumption that the nonlinear binding and unbinding interactions of the cellular motors occur on a faster timescale than the spatial diffusion and advection processes...
July 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702835/early-response-activation-in-repetition-priming-an-lrp-study
#18
Christian Valt, Birgit Stürmer, Werner Sommer, Stephan Boehm
According to recent interpretations of repetition priming, response codes are automatically bound to a stimulus and retrieved during successive presentations of the stimulus, hence, affecting its current processing. Despite a solid corpus of behavioural evidence in line with this interpretation, electrophysiological studies have reported contrasting results regarding the nature and the timing of response code retrieval. The present experiment aims to establish at which stage of information processing decision and action codes are retrieved in repetition priming...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701749/calcium-activated-sk-channels-control-firing-regularity-by-modulating-sodium-channel-availability-in-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#19
Rajeshwari Iyer, Mark A Ungless, Aldo A Faisal
Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area regulate behaviours such as reward-related learning, and motor control. Dysfunction of these neurons is implicated in Schizophrenia, addiction to drugs, and Parkinson's disease. While some dopamine neurons fire single spikes at regular intervals, others fire irregular single spikes interspersed with bursts. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels increases the variability in their firing pattern, sometimes also increasing the number of spikes fired in bursts, indicating that SK channels play an important role in maintaining dopamine neuron firing regularity and burst firing...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698326/miyoga-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-mindfulness-movement-programme-based-on-hatha-yoga-principles-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-study-protocol
#20
Catherine Mak, Koa Whittingham, Ross Cunnington, Roslyn N Boyd
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood physical disability, with life-long impacts for 1.77 in 1000 children. Although CP is primarily a physical disability, children with CP have an increased risk of experiencing cognitive difficulties, particularly attention and executive function deficits. Impairment in cognitive abilities can lead to subsequent impairment in independent functioning, education, employment and interpersonal relationships. This paper reports the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of a novel family-centred lifestyle intervention based on mindfulness and hatha yoga principles (MiYoga)...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
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