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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350124/a-dimensional-approach-to-assessing-psychiatric-risk-in-adults-born-very-preterm
#1
Jasmin Kroll, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Philip J Brittain, Chieh-En J Tseng, Vyacheslav Karolis, Robin M Murray, Chiara Nosarti
BACKGROUND: Individuals who were born very preterm have higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses compared with term-born controls; however, it remains unclear whether they also display increased sub-clinical psychiatric symptomatology. Hence, our objective was to utilize a dimensional approach to assess psychiatric symptomatology in adult life following very preterm birth. METHODS: We studied 152 adults who were born very preterm (before 33 weeks' gestation; gestational range 24-32 weeks) and 96 term-born controls...
January 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349505/embracing-your-emotions-affective-state-impacts-lateralisation-of-human-embraces
#2
Julian Packheiser, Noemi Rook, Zeynep Dursun, Janne Mesenhöller, Alrescha Wenglorz, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Humans are highly social animals that show a wide variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviours to communicate social intent. One of the most frequently used non-verbal social behaviours is embracing, commonly used as an expression of love and affection. However, it can also occur in a large variety of social situations entailing negative (fear or sadness) or neutral emotionality (formal greetings). Embracing is also experienced from birth onwards in mother-infant interactions and is thus accompanying human social interaction across the whole lifespan...
January 18, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348485/motor-signatures-of-emotional-reactivity-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#3
Charles R Marshall, Chris J D Hardy, Lucy L Russell, Camilla N Clark, Rebecca L Bond, Katrina M Dick, Emilie V Brotherhood, Cath J Mummery, Jonathan M Schott, Jonathan D Rohrer, James M Kilner, Jason D Warren
Automatic motor mimicry is essential to the normal processing of perceived emotion, and disrupted automatic imitation might underpin socio-emotional deficits in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly the frontotemporal dementias. However, the pathophysiology of emotional reactivity in these diseases has not been elucidated. We studied facial electromyographic responses during emotion identification on viewing videos of dynamic facial expressions in 37 patients representing canonical frontotemporal dementia syndromes versus 21 healthy older individuals...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342146/a-theory-of-how-active-behavior-stabilises-neural-activity-neural-gain-modulation-by-closed-loop-environmental-feedback
#4
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342142/midbrain-circuits-that-set-locomotor-speed-and-gait-selection
#5
V Caggiano, R Leiras, H Goñi-Erro, D Masini, C Bellardita, J Bouvier, V Caldeira, G Fisone, O Kiehn
Locomotion is a fundamental motor function common to the animal kingdom. It is implemented episodically and adapted to behavioural needs, including exploration, which requires slow locomotion, and escape behaviour, which necessitates faster speeds. The control of these functions originates in brainstem structures, although the neuronal substrate(s) that support them have not yet been elucidated. Here we show in mice that speed and gait selection are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons (GlutNs) segregated in two distinct midbrain nuclei: the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339319/treatment-with-the-noradrenaline-re-uptake-inhibitor-atomoxetine-alone-and-in-combination-with-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist-idazoxan-attenuates-loss-of-dopamine-and-associated-motor-deficits-in-the-lps-inflammatory-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Justin D Yssel, Eoin O'Neill, Yvonne M Nolan, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
The impact of treatment with the noradrenaline (NA) re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine and the α2-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonist idazoxan in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed. Concurrent systemic treatment with atomoxetine and idazoxan, a combination which serves to enhance the extra-synaptic availability of NA, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects following delivery of an inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the substantia nigra. Lesion-induced deficits in motor function (akinesia, forelimb-use asymmetry) and striatal dopamine (DA) loss were rescued to varying degrees depending on the treatment...
January 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337234/electrophysiological-activity-prior-to-self-initiated-movements-is-related-to-impulsive-personality-traits
#7
A Rossi, F Giovannelli, G Gavazzi, S Righi, M Cincotta, M P Viggiano
Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest that our actions are initiated by unconscious mental processes long before awareness of intention to act. The time window between the awareness of the intention to move and the movement onset, which normally permits to exert a conscious "veto" on the impending action, is modulated by individual differences in trait impulsivity. In particular, trait impulsive people show a delayed awareness of the intention to act, probably exceeding the "point of no return", after which the action can no longer be inhibited...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334308/neuromuscular-degenerative-effects-of-ankaferd-blood-stopper%C3%A2-in-mouse-sciatic-nerve-model
#8
Ramazan Üstün, Elif Kaval Oğuz, Çağrı Delilbaşı, Ayşe Şeker, Filiz Taşpınar, Mehmet Reşit Öncü, Ahmet Regaip Oğuz
Purpose Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS), a licenced medicinal herbal extract, is commonly used as an effective topical haemostatic agent. This study is designed to investigate whether topical ABS application may cause peripheral nerve degeneration and neuromuscular dysfunction in a mouse sciatic nerve model. Methods Twenty mice were randomly divided into two groups; an ABS treated experimental group and a saline-treated control group. Left sciatic nerves were treated with 0.3 ml of ABS in the experimental group and 0...
January 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323426/vision-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Julie-Anne Little
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition with approximately 1-2 per cent prevalence in the population. The condition has lifelong effects for the individual and family, and early intervention and management helps maximise quality of life and outcomes. Many studies of vision in ASD have attempted to link the behavioural and sensory deficits in ASD with underlying visual processing. From this work, it is clear that individuals with ASD 'see' and process the world differently, but there remain gaps in our understanding...
January 11, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321033/environmental-enrichment-intervention-for-rett-syndrome-an-individually-randomised-stepped-wedge-trial
#10
Jenny Downs, Jenny Rodger, Chen Li, Xuesong Tan, Nan Hu, Kingsley Wong, Nicholas de Klerk, Helen Leonard
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome is caused by a pathogenic mutation in the MECP2 gene with major consequences for motor and cognitive development. One of the effects of impaired MECP2 function is reduced production of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a protein required for normal neuronal development. When housed in an enriched environment, MECP2 null mice improved motor abilities and increased levels of BDNF in the brain. We investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on gross motor skills and blood BDNF levels in girls with Rett syndrome...
January 10, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313176/effectiveness-of-a-multisystem-aquatic-therapy-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Giovanni Caputo, Giovanni Ippolito, Marina Mazzotta, Luigi Sentenza, Mara Rosaria Muzio, Sara Salzano, Massimiliano Conson
Aquatic therapy improves motor skills of persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but its usefulness for treating functional difficulties needs to be verified yet. We tested effectiveness of a multisystem aquatic therapy on behavioural, emotional, social and swimming skills of children with ASD. Multisystem aquatic therapy was divided in three phases (emotional adaptation, swimming adaptation and social integration) implemented in a 10-months-programme. At post-treatment, the aquatic therapy group showed significant improvements relative to controls on functional adaptation (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales), emotional response, adaptation to change and on activity level (Childhood Autism Rating Scale)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306521/what-can-autism-teach-us-about-the-role-of-sensorimotor-systems-in-higher-cognition-new-clues-from-studies-on-language-action-semantics-and-abstract-emotional-concept-processing
#12
REVIEW
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions...
December 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302321/developmental-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-malawi-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Meta van den Heuvel, Wieger Voskuijl, Kate Chidzalo, Marko Kerac, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Robert Bandsma, Melissa Gladstone
Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Particularly an important research gap exists in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is a high prevalence of SAM and a high rate of co-occurring HIV (human immune deficiency virus) infection...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298691/volition-adaptive-control-for-gait-training-using-wearable-exoskeleton-preliminary-tests-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-individuals
#14
Vijaykumar Rajasekaran, Eduardo López-Larraz, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Joan Aranda, Luis Montesano, Antonio J Del-Ama, Jose L Pons
BACKGROUND: Gait training for individuals with neurological disorders is challenging in providing the suitable assistance and more adaptive behaviour towards user needs. The user specific adaptation can be defined based on the user interaction with the orthosis and by monitoring the user intentions. In this paper, an adaptive control model, commanded by the user intention, is evaluated using a lower limb exoskeleton with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals (SCI). METHODS: A user intention based adaptive control model has been developed and evaluated with 4 incomplete SCI individuals across 3 sessions of training per individual...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298550/maximising-recovery-from-aphasia-with-central-and-peripheral-agraphia-the-benefit-of-sequential-treatments
#15
Pélagie M Beeson, Chelsea Bayley, Christine Shultz, Kindle Rising
Maximal recovery from acquired language impairment may require progression from one behavioural treatment protocol to the next in order to build upon residual and relearned cognitive-linguistic and sensory-motor processes. We present a five-stage treatment sequence that was initiated at one year post stroke in a woman with acquired impairments of spoken and written language. As is typical of individuals with left perisylvian damage, she demonstrated marked impairment of phonological retrieval and sublexical phonology, but she also faced additional challenges due to impaired letter shape knowledge and visual attention...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297931/mapping-the-distribution-of-language-related-genes-foxp1-foxp2-and-cntnap2-in-the-brains-of-vocal-learning-bat-species
#16
Pedro M Rodenas-Cuadrado, Janine Mengede, Laura Baas, Paolo Devanna, Tobias A Schmid, Michael Yartsev, Uwe Firzlaff, Sonja C Vernes
Genes including FOXP2, FOXP1 and CNTNAP2, have been implicated in human speech and language phenotypes, pointing to a role in the development of normal language-related circuitry in the brain. Although speech and language are unique human phenotypes, a comparative approach is possible by addressing language-relevant traits in animal model systems. One such trait, vocal learning, represents an essential component of human spoken language, and is shared by cetaceans, pinnipeds, elephants, some birds and bats...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291053/decision-landscapes-visualizing-mouse-tracking-data
#17
A Zgonnikov, A Aleni, P T Piiroinen, D O'Hora, M di Bernardo
Computerized paradigms have enabled gathering rich data on human behaviour, including information on motor execution of a decision, e.g. by tracking mouse cursor trajectories. These trajectories can reveal novel information about ongoing decision processes. As the number and complexity of mouse-tracking studies increase, more sophisticated methods are needed to analyse the decision trajectories. Here, we present a new computational approach to generating decision landscape visualizations based on mouse-tracking data...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289349/motor-units-in-vastus-lateralis-and-in-different-vastus-medialis-regions-show-different-firing-properties-during-low-level-isometric-knee-extension-contraction
#18
Leonardo Mendes Leal de Souza, Hélio Veiga Cabral, Liliam Fernandes de Oliveira, Taian Martins Vieira
Architectural differences along vastus medialis (VM) and between VM and vastus lateralis (VL) are considered functionally important for the patellar tracking, knee joint stability and knee joint extension. Whether these functional differences are associated with a differential activity of motor units between VM and VL is however unknown. In the present study, we, therefore, investigate neuroanatomical differences in the activity of motor units detected proximo-distally from VM and from the VL muscle. Nine healthy volunteers performed low-level isometric knee extension contractions (20% of their maximum voluntary contraction) following a trapezoidal trajectory...
December 28, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286148/dl%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-n%C3%A2-butylphthalide-reduces-microglial-activation-in-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-parkinson-s-disease-model-mice
#19
Yuhua Chen, Mujun Jiang, Li Li, Ming Ye, Meiling Yu, Lina Zhang, Bobo Ge, Wenfang Xu, Daoxiang Wei
As microglial activation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), drugs that target this process may help to prevent or delay the development of PD. The present study investigated the effects of dl‑3‑n‑butylphthalide (NBP) on microglia in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD mouse model. The mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, LPS control group and NBP + LPS treatment group. Mice in the treatment group were given an intragastric infusion of 120 mg/kg NBP daily for 30 days during the establishment of the PD mouse model...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285817/predicting-delinquency-by-self-reported-impulsivity-in-adolescents-in-ghana
#20
Samuel Adjorlolo, Edward Asamoah, Sarah Adu-Poku
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is one of several variables associated with delinquent and criminal acts, but its utility depends on the psychometric properties of the measure used. AIM: To investigate the latent structure of the abbreviated Barratt Impulsivity Scale (ABIS) and its convergent validity with measures of aggression and psychopathy in a Ghanaian sample. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, high school students were recruited from two randomly selected schools in Ghana and asked to respond to the ABIS and measures of delinquency, aggression and psychopathy...
December 28, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
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