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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340201/a-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-of-physical-activity-and-health-status-in-adolescents
#1
Emily Granger, Francesco Di Nardo, Annie Harrison, Lesley Patterson, Raphael Holmes, Arpana Verma
Reduced physical activity is a known risk factor for many illnesses. Research in adolescent populations found increased physical activity levels improves objective health outcomes, but there is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between physical activity levels and self-reported health status. To synthesise current evidence on the association between physical activity and self-reported health status in adolescents. Secondary objectives are to assess whether the relationship is dose dependant, and the appropriateness of WHO recommendations on adolescents' physical activity...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337548/the-effects-of-anxiety-and-situation-specific-context-on-perceptual-motor-skill-a-multi-level-investigation
#2
Oliver R Runswick, André Roca, A Mark Williams, Neil E Bezodis, Jamie S North
We examined the effects of anxiety and situation-specific contextual information on attentional, interpretational, and behavioural processes underpinning perceptual-motor performance as proposed by Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans (Psychological Research 76:747-759; Nieuwenhuys, Oudejans, Psychological Research 76:747-759, 2012) using an in situ task. Twelve skilled cricket batsmen played against a skilled spin bowler under conditions manipulated to induce low and high levels of anxiety and the presence of low and high levels of situation-specific context...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337137/an-adaptive-neural-mechanism-for-acoustic-motion-perception-with-varying-sparsity
#3
Danish Shaikh, Poramate Manoonpong
Biological motion-sensitive neural circuits are quite adept in perceiving the relative motion of a relevant stimulus. Motion perception is a fundamental ability in neural sensory processing and crucial in target tracking tasks. Tracking a stimulus entails the ability to perceive its motion, i.e., extracting information about its direction and velocity. Here we focus on auditory motion perception of sound stimuli, which is poorly understood as compared to its visual counterpart. In earlier work we have developed a bio-inspired neural learning mechanism for acoustic motion perception...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336338/knockdown-of-appl-mimics-transgenic-a%C3%AE-induced-neurodegenerative-phenotypes-in-drosophila
#4
Sandeep Kumar Singh, Saurabh Srivastav, Amarish Kumar Yadav, Saripella Srikrishna
A variety of Drosophila mutant lines have been established as potential disease-models to study various disease mechanisms including human neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The evolutionary conservation of APP (Amyloid Precursor Protein) and APPL (Amyloid Precursor Protein-Like) and the comparable detrimental effects caused by their metabolic products strongly implies the conservation of their normal physiological functions. In view of this milieu, a comparative analysis on the pattern of neurodegenerative phenotypes between Drosophila APPL-RNAi line and transgenic Drosophila line expressing eye tissue specific human Aβ (Amyloid beta) was undertaken...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334424/frequency-and-function-in-the-basal-ganglia-the-origins-of-beta-and-gamma-band-activity
#5
Alexander Blenkinsop, Sean Anderson, Kevin Gurney
Neural oscillations in the basal ganglia are well studied yet remain poorly understood. Behavioural correlates of spectral activity are well described, yet a quantitative hypothesis linking time domain dynamics and spectral properties to basal ganglia function has been lacking. We show, for the first time, that a unified description is possible by interpreting previously ignored structure in data describing GPi responses to cortical stimulation. These data were used to expose a pair of distinctive neuronal responses to the stimulation...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331232/motor-compensation-and-its-effects-on-neural-reorganization-after-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Theresa A Jones
Stroke instigates a dynamic process of repair and remodelling of remaining neural circuits, and this process is shaped by behavioural experiences. The onset of motor disability simultaneously creates a powerful incentive to develop new, compensatory ways of performing daily activities. Compensatory movement strategies that are developed in response to motor impairments can be a dominant force in shaping post-stroke neural remodelling responses and can have mixed effects on functional outcome. The possibility of selectively harnessing the effects of compensatory behaviour on neural reorganization is still an insufficiently explored route for optimizing functional outcome after stroke...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331009/the-modulation-of-two-motor-behaviours-by-persistent-sodium-currents-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#7
Erik Svensson, Hugo Jeffreys, Wen-Chang Li
Persistent sodium currents (INaP) are common in neuronal circuitries and they have been implicated in several diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and epilepsy. However, the role of INaP in the regulation of specific behaviours is still poorly understood. Here we have characterized INaP and investigated its role in the swimming and struggling behaviour of Xenopus tadpoles. INaP was identified in three groups of neurons, namely sensory Rohon-Beard neurons (RB neurons), descending interneurons (dINs), and non-dINs (neurons rhythmically active in swimming)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329449/behavioural-and-neurochemical-effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-associated-with-omega-3-in-tardive-dyskinesia-induced-by-chronic-haloperidol-in-rats
#8
Dayane Pessoa Araújo, Thaisa Camboim, Ana Silva, Caio Fonseca, Rebeca Sousa, Mabson Barbosa, Lucidio Oliveira, José Cavalcanti, Eudes Lucena, Fausto Guzen
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements of the lower portion of the face being related to typical antipsychotic therapy. TD is associated with the oxidative imbalance in the basal ganglia. Lipoic acid (LA) and omega 3 (ω-3) are antioxidants acting as enzyme cofactors, regenerating antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of supplementation with of LA (100mg/Kg) and ω-3 (1g/Kg) in the treatment of TD-induced by chronic use haloperidol (HAL) (1mg/Kg) in rats...
March 22, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328201/double-fueled-janus-swimmers-with-magnetotactic-behaviour
#9
Philipp Sebastian Schattling, Miguel Alexandre Ramos-Docampo, Veronica Salgueiriño, Brigitte Städler
Self-propelled particles attract a great deal of attention due to the auspicious range of application nanobots can be used for. In a biomedical context, self-propelled swimmers hold promise to autonomously navigate to a desired location in an attempt to counteract cell/tissue defects either by releasing drugs or performing surgical tasks. The vast majority of prior reports deal with single engine assemblies, often utilizing fuel molecules which are considered as highly cytotoxic. Herein, we introduce two engines: 1) a motor which couples enzymes i...
March 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325900/pegylated-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-affords-protection-and-facilitates-recovery-of-lost-functions-post-focal-ischemia
#10
Kim Parker, Antonio Berretta, Stefanie Saenger, Manaswini Sivaramakrishnan, Simon A Shirley, Friedrich Metzger, Andrew N Clarkson
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is involved in the maturation and maintenance of neurons, and impaired IGF-I signaling has been shown to play a role in various neurological diseases including stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of an optimized IGF-I variant by adding a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to IGF-I to form PEG-IGF-I. We show that PEG-IGF-I has a slower clearance which allows for twice-weekly dosing to maintain steady-state serum levels in mice. Using a photothrombotic model of focal stroke, dosing from 3 hrs post-stroke dose-dependently (0...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324299/fatal-familial-insomnia-clinical-aspects-and-molecular-alterations
#11
REVIEW
Franc Llorens, Juan-José Zarranz, Andre Fischer, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatal familiar insomnia (FFI) is an autosomal dominant inherited prion disease caused by D178N mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP D178N) accompanied by the presence of a methionine at the codon 129 polymorphic site on the mutated allele. FFI is characterized by severe sleep disorder, dysautonomia, motor signs and abnormal behaviour together with primary atrophy of selected thalamic nuclei and inferior olives, and expansion to other brain regions with disease progression...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323028/early-behavioural-facilitation-by-temporal-expectations-in-complex-visual-motor-sequences
#12
Simone G Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
In daily life, temporal expectations may derive from incidental learning of recurring patterns of intervals. We investigated the incidental acquisition and utilisation of combined temporal-ordinal (spatial/effector) structure in complex visual-motor sequences using a modified version of a serial reaction time (SRT) task. In this task, not only the series of targets/responses, but also the series of intervals between subsequent targets was repeated across multiple presentations of the same sequence. Each participant completed three sessions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322905/bilingualism-delays-the-onset-of-behavioral-but-not-aphasic-forms-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#13
Suvarna Alladi, Thomas H Bak, Mekala Shailaja, Divyaraj Gollahalli, Amuya Rajan, Bapiraju Surampudi, Michael Hornberger, Vasanta Duggirala, Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri, Subhash Kaul
Bilingualism has been found to delay onset of dementia and this has been attributed to an advantage in executive control in bilinguals. However, the relationship between bilingualism and cognition is complex, with costs as well as benefits to language functions. To further explore the cognitive consequences of bilingualism, the study used Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes, to examine whether bilingualism modifies the age at onset of behavioral and language variants of Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) differently...
March 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322858/a-neuroendocrine-account-of-facial-mimicry-and-its-dynamic-modulation
#14
REVIEW
Eline J Kraaijenvanger, Dennis Hofman, Peter A Bos
Facial expressions are considered central in conveying information about one's emotional state. During social encounters, facial expressions of another individual are often automatically imitated by the observer, a process referred to as 'facial mimicry'. This process is assumed to facilitate prosocial behaviour and is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system, known for its involvement in both observation and execution of motor actions. However, recent studies have revealed mimicry to be a more dynamic process than previously conceptualized, leaving mere perception-action coupling insufficient to explain its behavioural flexibility...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321287/keeping-safe-intra-individual-consistency-in-obstacle-avoidance-behaviour-across-grasping-and-locomotion-tasks
#15
Karina Kangur, Jutta Billino, Constanze Hesse
Successful obstacle avoidance requires a close coordination of the visual and the motor systems. Visual information is essential for adjusting movements in order to avoid unwanted collisions. Yet, established obstacle avoidance paradigms have typically either focused on gaze strategies or on motor adjustments. Here we were interested in whether humans show similar visuomotor sensitivity to obstacles when gaze and motor behaviour are measured across different obstacle avoidance tasks. To this end, we measured participants' hand movement paths when grasping targets in the presence of obstacles as well as their gaze behaviour when walking through a cluttered hallway...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320799/from-first-symptoms-to-diagnosis-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-perspectives-of-an-irish-informal-caregiver-cohort-a-thematic-analysis
#16
Miriam Galvin, Rebecca Gaffney, Bernie Corr, Iain Mays, Orla Hardiman
OBJECTIVES: Informal caregivers play an integral part in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The objective of this study was to explore the journey from first problem symptoms to diagnosis from the perspective of informal caregivers providing care to people with ALS. DESIGN: As part of a semistructured interview, information was collected on a range of caregiver demographic details, and from an open-ended question their experiences of the time of symptom onset to diagnosis...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318734/effects-of-acetone-cyanohydrin-a-derivative-of-cassava-on-motor-activity-and-kidney-and-liver-function-in-wistar-rats
#17
E Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, C J Rosas-Jarquín, A Vázquez-Luna, R Díaz-Sobac, J F Rodríguez-Landa
INTRODUCTION: Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) is a toxic substance present in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) which results from enzymatic hydrolysis of linamarin. Long-term consumption is associated with 2 neurological disorders: konzo and tropical ataxic neuropathy. Previous studies have evaluated behavioural alterations linked to ACH consumption, but the toxic effects of this substance on physiological processes remain unknown. METHOD: 32 male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=8 per group): a vehicle group (0...
March 16, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318125/understanding-the-relationship-between-behavioural-and-motor-impairments-in-extremely-low-birthweight-preterm-children
#18
EDITORIAL
Alicia Spittle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315845/icarus-study-prevalence-and-clinical-features-of-impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Angelo Antonini, Paolo Barone, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Karin Annoni, Mahnaz Asgharnejad, Paolo Stanzione
BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders/other compulsive behaviours ('ICD behaviours') occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but prospective studies are scarce, and prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients are insufficiently defined. OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence of ICD behaviours over a 2-year period, and evaluate patients' clinical characteristics. METHODS: A prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study (ICARUS (Impulse Control disorders And the association of neuRopsychiatric symptoms, cognition and qUality of life in ParkinSon disease); SP0990) in treated Italian PD outpatients...
April 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315065/do-actions-speak-louder-than-words-examining-children-s-ability-to-follow-instructions
#20
Amanda H Waterman, Amy L Atkinson, Sadia S Aslam, Joni Holmes, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Richard J Allen
The ability to encode, retain, and implement instructions within working memory is central to many behaviours, including classroom activities which underpin learning. The three experiments presented here explored how action-planned, enacted, and observed-impacted 6- to 10-year-old's ability to follow instructions. Experiment 1 (N = 81) found enacted recall was superior to verbal recall, but self-enactment at encoding had a negative effect on enacted recall and verbal recall. In contrast, observation of other-enactment (demonstration) at encoding facilitated both types of recall (Experiment 2a: N = 81)...
March 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
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