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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786470/direct-cortical-stimulation-of-inferior-frontal-cortex-disrupts-both-speech-and-music-production-in-highly-trained-musicians
#1
Matthew K Leonard, Maansi Desai, Dylan Hungate, Ruofan Cai, Nilika S Singhal, Robert C Knowlton, Edward F Chang
Music and speech are human-specific behaviours that share numerous properties, including the fine motor skills required to produce them. Given these similarities, previous work has suggested that music and speech may at least partially share neural substrates. To date, much of this work has focused on perception, and has not investigated the neural basis of production, particularly in trained musicians. Here, we report two rare cases of musicians undergoing neurosurgical procedures, where it was possible to directly stimulate the left hemisphere cortex during speech and piano/guitar music production tasks...
May 22, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782958/changes-in-behavioural-parameters-oxidative-stress-and-neurotrophins-in-the-brain-of-adult-offspring-induced-to-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-the-effects-of-fa-deficient-or-fa-supplemented-diet-during-the-neurodevelopmental-phase
#2
L Canever, T G Freire, G A Mastella, L Damázio, S Gomes, I Fachim, C Michels, G Carvalho, A K Godói, B R Peterle, F F Gava, S Valvassori Sda, J Budni, J Quevedo, A I Zugno
A deficiency of maternal folic acid (FA) can compromise the function and development of the brain, and may produce a susceptibility to diseases such as schizophrenia (SZ) in the later life of offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both FA deficient and FA supplemented diets during gestation and lactation on behavioural parameters, the markers of oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors in adult offspring which had been subjected to an animal model of SZ. Female mother rats (Dam's) were separated into experimental maternal groups, which began receiving a special diet (food) consisting of the AIN-93 diet, a control diet, or an FA deficient diet during the periods of pregnancy and lactation...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779801/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Renata Ramalho, Ana Colaço Pereira, Filipa Vicente, Paula Pereira
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered the most common behavioural disorder in school-age children. ADHD is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterised by a variety of symptoms, including concentration problems, excessive motor activity and impulsivity which interferes with execution of simple school tasks. Diagnosis has been essentially subjective, since no specific laboratory tests are available. However, ADHD remains overdiagnosed, probably due to social pressures for children to be successful in school from an early age, which leads parents to seek medical support...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778441/hypoxic-postconditioning-enhances-functional-recovery-following-endothelin-1-induced-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-conscious-rats
#4
Hong L Nguyen, Alexander M Ruhoff, Thomas Fath, Nicole M Jones
Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major contributor to neurological disability in adults. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved treatment. However, due to its narrow therapeutic window, <5% of patients receive treatment. Recently, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) was shown to reduce stroke induced-injury in mice, but the mechanisms and functional outcomes are still unknown. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to endothelin-1 induced stroke. HPC (8% O2 , 1 h/d for 5d) or normoxia treatments were started 24 h after stroke...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777505/a-fingertip-force-prediction-model-for-grasp-patterns-characterised-from-the-chaotic-behaviour-of-eeg
#5
Rinku Roy, Debdeep Sikdar, Manjunatha Mahadevappa, C S Kumar
A stable grasp is attained through appropriate hand preshaping and precise fingertip forces. Here, we have proposed a method to decode grasp patterns from motor imagery and subsequent fingertip force estimation model with a slippage avoidance strategy. We have developed a feature-based classification of electroencephalography (EEG) associated with imagination of the grasping postures. Chaotic behaviour of EEG for different grasping patterns has been utilised to capture the dynamics of associated motor activities...
May 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774765/-staying-safe-a-narrative-review-of-falls-prevention-in-people-with-parkinson-s-pdsafe
#6
Sophia Hulbert, Lynn Rochester, Alice Nieuwboer, Vicki Goodwin, Carolyn Fitton, Kim Chivers-Seymour, Ann Ashburn
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease demonstrates a spectrum of motor and non-motor symptoms. Falling is common and disabling. Current medical management shows minimal impact to reduce falls or fall-related risk factors, such as deficits in gait, strength, and postural instability. Despite evidence supporting rehabilitation in reducing fall risk factors, the most appropriate intervention to reduce overall fall rate remains inconclusive. This article aims to 1) synthesise current evidence and conceptual models of falls rehabilitation in Parkinson's in a narrative review; and based on this evidence, 2) introduce the treatment protocol used in the falls prevention and multi-centre clinical trial "PDSAFE"...
May 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772343/brain-stimulation-differentially-modulates-nociception-and-inflammation-in-aversive-and-non-aversive-behavioral-conditions
#7
G S Bassi, A Kanashiro, G J Rodrigues, F Q Cunha, N C Coimbra, L Ulloa
Inflammation and pain are major clinical burdens contributing to multiple disorders and limiting the quality of life of patients. We previously reported that brain electrical stimulation can attenuate joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. Here, we report that non-aversive electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC), the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) or the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG) decreases thermal pain sensitivity, knee inflammation and synovial neutrophilic infiltration in rats with intra-articular zymosan...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770439/increase-of-frontal-neuronal-activity-in-chronic-neglect-after-training-in-virtual-reality
#8
U Ekman, H Fordell, J Eriksson, N Lenfeldt, A Wåhlin, A Eklund, J Malm
OBJECTIVES: A third of patients with stroke acquire spatial neglect associated with poor rehabilitation outcome. New effective rehabilitation interventions are needed. Scanning training combined with multisensory stimulation to enhance the rehabilitation effect is suggested. In accordance, we have designed a virtual-reality based scanning training that combines visual, audio and sensori-motor stimulation called RehAtt® . Effects were shown in behavioural tests and activity of daily living...
May 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766510/ineffectiveness-of-saxagliptin-as-a-neuroprotective-drug-in-6-ohda-lesioned-rats
#9
Joelle de Melo Turnes, Taysa Bervian Bassani, Leonardo C Souza, Maria A B F Vital
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the drug saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor which is utilized for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus, has neuroprotective effects in the animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (weighing 280-300 g) received a bilateral infusion of 6-OHDA in the substantia nigra. Twenty-four hours later, they were treated with saxagliptin (1 mg/kg, p.o) once daily, for 21 days...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759134/behavioural-alterations-and-morphological-changes-are-attenuated-by-the-lack-of-trpa1-receptors-in-the-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-model-in-mice
#10
Kata Bölcskei, Gábor Kriszta, Éva Sághy, Maja Payrits, Éva Sipos, Anett Vranesics, Zoltán Berente, Hajnalka Ábrahám, Péter Ács, Sámuel Komoly, Erika Pintér
We have recently reported that the Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptor deficiency significantly attenuated cuprizone-induced demyelination by reducing the apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes. The aim of the present study was to gather additional data on the role of TRPA1 by investigating the time course of behavioural alterations and morphological changes in cuprizone-treated TRPA1 receptor gene-deficient mice. Demyelination was induced by feeding male wild-type (WT) and TRPA1 gene-deleted (TRPA1 KO) mice with 0...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754012/clinical-spectrum-of-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-children-an-observational-study
#11
Priyanka Madaan, Sheffali Gulati, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Savita Sapra, Rajesh Sagar, Akbar Mohammad, R M Pandey, Manjari Tripathi
PURPOSE: The current study was designed to analyze the clinical spectrum of Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) in children. METHODS: Children aged 6-16years with clinically suspected PNES, confirmed by short-term VEEG (STVEEG{video electroencephalogram}) and induction were classified as per Seneviratne classification. Stressors, associated co morbidities, Verbal IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and behavioral abnormalities were assessed using HTP(House tree person) test, DSM IV (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders) TR criteria, MISIC (Malin intelligence scale for Indian children) and CBCL (Child behaviour checklist)...
April 27, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751054/%C3%AE-elemene-enhances-gap-43-expression-and-neurite-outgrowth-by-inhibiting-rhoa-kinase-activation-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Jingyu Wang, Heyangzi Li, Ying Yao, Yucheng Ren, Jiangtao Lin, Jue Hu, Mingzhi Zheng, Xinghui Song, Tengfei Zhao, Ying-Ying Chen, Yueliang Shen, Yong-Jian Zhu, Lin-Lin Wang
RhoA signalling pathway inhibitors such as Y27632 (a ROCK inhibitor) have recently been applied as treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) because they promote neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration in neurons. β-elemene, a compound that is extracted from a natural plant (Curcuma zedoary), influences the expression level of RhoA protein. Whether it can promote neurite outgrowth in motor neurons or enhance locomotor recovery in SCI remains unclear. Here, we initially demonstrated that β-elemene promotes neurite outgrowth of ventral spinal cord 4...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748110/interoceptive-processing-deficit-a-behavioral-marker-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Gabriella Santangelo, Carmine Vitale, Chiara Baiano, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Katia Longo, Paolo Barone, Marianna Amboni, Massimiliano Conson
BACKGROUND: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as cognitive, emotional, autonomic and somatosensory alterations, are not ubiquitous but vary between the tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes of the syndrome. Non-motor phenomena (e.g., anxiety, depression and apathy) have been related to representation of autonomic and somatosensory sensations (interoception), and recent findings suggest interoceptive deficits in PD. OBJECTIVES: To test whether interoceptive processing is differently affected in TD and PIGD phenotypes, by assessing both interoceptive accuracy and sensibility in PD patients with TD and PIGD subtypes, and in healthy controls...
May 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747224/balance-of-go1%C3%AE-and-go2%C3%AE-expression-regulates-motor-function-via-the-striatal-dopaminergic-system
#14
J Baron, A Bilbao, H Hörtnagl, L Birnbaumer, S Leixner, R Spanagel, G Ahnert-Hilger, I Brunk
The heterotrimeric G-protein Go with its splice variants, Go1α and Go2α, seems to be involved in the regulation of motor function but isoform specific effects are still unclear. We found that Go1α-/- knockouts performed worse on the rota-rod than Go2α-/- and wild type (WT) mice. In Go1+2α-/- mice motor function was partially recovered. Furthermore, Go1+2α-/- mice showed an increased spontaneous motor activity. Compared to wild types or Go2α-/- mice, Go1+2α-/- mice developed increased behavioural sensitization following repetitive cocaine treatment, but failed to develop conditioned place preference...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741614/loss-of-cerebellar-glutamate-transporters-eaat4-and-glast-differentially-affects-the-spontaneous-firing-pattern-and-survival-of-purkinje-cells
#15
Emma M Perkins, Yvonne L Clarkson, Daumante Suminaite, Alastair R Lyndon, Kohichi Tanaka, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Paul Skehel, David J A Wyllie, Mandy Jackson
Loss of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) has been implicated in a number of human diseases including spinocerebellar ataxias, Alzhiemer's disease and motor neuron disease. EAAT4 and GLAST/EAAT1 are the two predominant EAATs responsible for maintaining low extracellular glutamate levels and preventing neurotoxicity in the cerebellum, the brain region essential for motor control. Here using genetically modified mice we identify new critical roles for EAAT4 and GLAST/EAAT1 as modulators of Purkinje cell (PC) spontaneous firing patterns...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738678/the-athletes-visuomotor-system-cortical-processes-contributing-to-faster-visuomotor-reactions
#16
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
Many sports require athletes to rapidly transform visual information into a targeted motor response, a process referred to as visuomotor reaction. On the behavioural level, athletes have long been established to achieve faster simple visuomotor reaction times when compared to non-athletes. However, although the superior performance in athletes has been attributed to the central nervous system, the underlying neural mechanisms remained poorly studied. More recently, a growing number of neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies systematically addressed the functional and structural modulations in the athletes' visual and motor systems as well as their contribution to visuomotor performance...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738554/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-can-cause-acute-neurologic-impairment-without-overt-structural-damage-in-juvenile-rats
#17
Alicia Meconi, Ryan C Wortman, David K Wright, Katie J Neale, Melissa Clarkson, Sandy R Shultz, Brian R Christie
Repeated concussion is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious public health concern around the world. Moreover, there is a greater awareness amongst health professionals of the potential for repeated pediatric concussions to detrimentally alter the structure and function of the developing brain. To better study this issue, we developed an awake closed head injury (ACHI) model that enabled repeated concussions to be performed reliably and reproducibly in juvenile rats. A neurological assessment protocol (NAP) score was generated immediately after each ACHI to help quantify the cumulative effects of repeated injury on level of consciousness, and basic motor and reflexive capacity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738269/psychological-and-behavioural-difficulties-following-severe-tbi-in-adolescence-a-comparison-with-a-sample-of-peers-with-brain-lesions-of-other-origin-and-with-a-control-group
#18
Valentina Pastore, Susanna Galbiati, Monica Recla, Katia Colombo, Elena Beretta, Sandra Strazzer
OBJECTIVE: To describe behavioural and adjustment problems in a group of 57 adolescents with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and compare them with a clinical group of peers with brain lesions of other origin (N = 33) and a control group of healthy adolescents (N = 48). METHODS: All subjects received an age-appropriate assessment, including the child behaviour checklist (CBCL) 4/18, the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) and the vineland adaptive behaviour scales (VABS)...
May 8, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735386/neurobehavioural-outcome-in-6-18-year-old-children-after-trauma-in-pregnancy-case-control-study
#19
B J van der Knoop, K J Oostrom, I A Zonnenberg, M M van Weissenbruch, R J Vermeulen, J I P de Vries
BACKGROUND: Maternal trauma complicates pregnancy in approximately 7%. Long-term development of children exposed to maternal trauma is unknown. AIM: To determine neurobehavioural outcome of children (6-18 years) born after maternal trauma in pregnancy compared to a matched control group. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study performed at a tertiary medical centre. SUBJECTS: All consecutive children born after maternal hospitalization for trauma during pregnancy between 1995 and 2005...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733882/basal-ganglia-and-beyond-the-interplay-between-motor-and-cognitive-aspects-in-parkinson-s-disease-rehabilitation
#20
REVIEW
Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Graziella Madeo, Nir Giladi, Giselle M Petzinger, Giuseppe Frazzitta
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunctions, affecting the motor behaviour. We summarize evidence that the interplay between motor and cognitive approaches is crucial in PD rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is complementary to pharmacological therapy and effective in reducing the PD disturbances, probably acting by inducing neuroplastic effects. The motor behaviour results from a complex integration between cortical and subcortical areas, underlying the motor, cognitive and motivational aspects of movement...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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