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motor behaviour

Moritz E Wigand, Fabian U Lang, Annabel S Müller-Stierlin, Lea Reichhardt, Silvana Trif, Thomas G Schulze, Werner Strik, Thomas Becker, Markus Jäger
BACKGROUND: A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. SAMPLING AND METHODS: We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months...
March 14, 2018: Psychopathology
S Liyanagedera, R P Williams
The International League Against Epilepsy Classification of the Epilepsies, first presented in 1981, has been widely adopted across the globe. In 2017 it was revised to allow for more robust, specific, flexible and logical classification of seizures. A number of new seizure types are recognised. Classification should be timely as it plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of patients with epilepsy. Accurate classification also underpins epilepsy research from pathophysiology to public health. Here we review the basic and extended forms of the classification...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Kevin C Kemp, Kelly Hares, Juliana Redondo, Amelia J Cook, Harry R Haynes, Bronwen R Burton, Mark A Pook, Claire M Rice, Neil J Scolding, Alastair Wilkins
OBJECTIVES: Friedreich's ataxia is an incurable inherited neurological disease caused by frataxin deficiency. Here we report the neuro-reparative effects of myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a humanised murine model of the disease. METHODS: Mice received a transplant of fluorescently-tagged sex mis-matched bone marrow cells expressing wild-type frataxin and were assessed at monthly intervals using a range of behavioural motor performance tests...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Tanya Orlov, Scott N Macdonald, Eugene P Duff, David Henderson Slater, Christian F Beckmann, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images...
March 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lizanne Schweren, Pieter Hoekstra, Marloes van Lieshout, Jaap Oosterlaan, Nanda Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Catharina Hartman
BACKGROUND: Methodological and ethical constraints have hampered studies into long-term lasting outcomes of stimulant treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lasting effects may be beneficial (i.e. improved functioning even when treatment is temporarily ceased) or detrimental (i.e. worse functioning while off medication), but both hypotheses currently lack empirical support. Here we investigate whether stimulant treatment history predicts long-term development of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning or cognition, measured after medication wash-out...
March 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Amrutha Swaminathan, Marilou Bouffard, Meijiang Liao, Sarah Ryan, Janis Bennion Callister, Stuart M Pickering-Brown, Gary Alan Barclay Armstrong, Pierre Drapeau
Large expansions of hexanucleotide GGGGCC (G4C2) repeats (hundreds to thousands) in the first intron of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) locus are the strongest known genetic factor associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (ALS/FTLD). Different hypotheses exist about the underlying disease mechanism including loss-of-function by haploinsufficiency, toxicity arising as a result of RNA or dipeptide repeats (DPRs). Five different DPRs are produced by repeat-associated non-ATG-initiated (RAN) translation of the G4C2 repeats...
March 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Anne-Katrine F Bundgaard, Jette Asmussen, Nadia S Pedersen, Niels Bilenberg
This study investigated whether early signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in toddlers aged 2-3 years are associated with disturbed sleep and activity levels. Participants were recruited from the Odense Child Cohort, and children scoring above the 93rd percentile on the ADHD scale of the Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5 were categorised as cases and compared with age- and gender-matched normal-scoring controls. Daytime and nocturnal activity for 24 children with ADHD traits (cases) and 25 healthy controls was assessed through 7 days of actigraphy, and parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the ADHD Rating Scale IV Preschool Version (ADHD-RS)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Stefania Evangelisti, Claudia Testa, Lorenzo Ferri, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, David Neil Manners, Giovanni Rizzo, Daniel Remondini, Gastone Castellani, Ilaria Naldi, Francesca Bisulli, Caterina Tonon, Paolo Tinuper, Raffaele Lodi
Objectives: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) in patients with sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) compared to healthy controls. Methods: Resting state fMRI was performed in 13 patients with a clinical diagnosis of SHE (age = 38.3 ± 11.8 years, 6 M) and 13 matched healthy controls (age = 38.5 ± 10.8 years, 6 M).Data were first analysed using probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA), then a graph theoretical approach was applied to assess topological and organizational properties at the whole brain level...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Katlyn E Brown, Jason L Neva, Samantha J Feldman, W Richard Staines, Lara A Boyd
BACKGROUND: The integration of somatosensory information from the environment into the motor cortex to inform movement is essential for motor function. As motor deficits commonly persist into the chronic phase of stroke recovery, it is important to understand potential contributing factors to these deficits, as well as their relationship with motor function. To date the impact of chronic stroke on sensorimotor integration has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to comprehensively examine the influence of chronic stroke on sensorimotor integration, and determine whether sensorimotor integration can be modified with an intervention...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Lídia Cantacorps, Héctor González-Pardo, Jorge L Arias, Olga Valverde, Nélida M Conejo
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time...
March 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
P A Caro Aponte, C A Otálora, J C Guzmán, L F Turner, J P Alcázar, E L Mayorga
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by motor alterations, which are commonly treated with L-DOPA. However, long-term L-DOPA use may cause dyskinesia. Although the pathogenic mechanism of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is unclear, the condition has been associated with alterations in dopamine receptors, among which D2 receptors (D2R) have received little attention. This study aims to: (i)develop and standardise an experimental model of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rats with hemiparkinsonism; and (ii)evaluate the correlation between D2R expression and presence of abnormal involuntary movements (AIM)...
March 7, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Benyu Su, Qiangdong Guan, Miaomiao Wang, Ning Liu, Xiaomin Wei, Shue Wang, Xiwei Yang, Wenchong Jiang, Mengmeng Xu, Sufang Yu
The aim of this study is to explore the potent neuroprotective effect of calpeptin (CP) on neuron damage induced by acrylamide (ACR) and its mechanism. Behavioural indicators such as hind limb splay, rota-rod performance, and gait analysis were assessed weekly to evaluate neurobehavioural changes after ACR and/or CP administration. The histopathological alterations and the changes of μ-calpain, m-calpain, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and α-tubulin and β-tubulin protein levels in spinal cord were determined...
March 7, 2018: Toxicology
Francesco Panico, Laura Sagliano, Carolina Nozzolillo, Luigi Trojano, Yves Rossetti
Several processes are devoted to error reduction in response to a visual displacement, such as the one induced by wedge prisms. Strategic calibration and spatial realignment contribute to the iteratively process that allows a progressive adjustment of motor commands to reduce the magnitude of errors. Isolating the specific contributions to motor behaviour coming from these distinct processes is not possible using traditional single-step Prism Adaptation (PA), where participants are directly exposed to full prismatic shift...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
R L Blakemore, M R Mac Askill, R Shoorangiz, T J Anderson
Recent animal studies have shown that stress can profoundly affect motor behaviour and worsen motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) by acting on the dopaminergic system, possibly due to stress-associated emotional changes. However, systematic investigation of the influence of acute emotional stressors on motor function in PD is scarce. Here we examined the effect of repeated exposure to negative emotional stimuli on grip-force control in PD. Eighteen patients with idiopathic PD (tested off-medication) and 18 healthy controls produced an isometric precision grip contraction at 15% of maximum force while viewing a series of unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral emotional images (blocked presentation; without visual feedback of force output)...
March 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Eero A Haapala, Niina Lintu, Aino-Maija Eloranta, Taisa Venäläinen, Anna-Maija Poikkeus, Timo Ahonen, Virpi Lindi, Timo A Lakka
We investigated the associations of cardiometabolic risk factors with academic achievement and whether motor performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, or sedentary behaviour mediated these associations. Altogether 175 children 6-8 years-of-age participated in the study. We assessed body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, leptin, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Christine Stubbendorff, Manuel Molano-Mazon, Andrew Mj Young, Todor V Gerdjikov
Rodent striatum is involved in sensory-motor transformations and reward-related learning. Lesion studies suggest dorsolateral striatum, dorsomedial striatum, and nucleus accumbens underlie stimulus-response transformations, goal-directed behaviour and reward expectation respectively. In addition, prefrontal inputs likely control these functions. Here we set out to study how reward-driven behaviour is mediated by the coordinated activity of these structures in the intact brain. We implemented a discrimination task requiring rats to either respond or suppress responding on a lever after the presentation of auditory cues in order to obtain rewards...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Adeline A Lau, Sarah J Tamang, Kim M Hemsley
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IIIA is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the SGSH gene. Consequently, N-sulphoglucosamine sulphohydrolase enzyme activity is reduced resulting in impaired catabolism of heparan sulphate. After an asymptomatic period, patients typically show a progressive loss of cognitive and motor skills, with death often during the second decade of life. The diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include impaired communication and social interactions, as well as displays of repetitive behaviours and fixed interests...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
John Prince, Siddharth Arora, Maarten De Vos
To better understand the longitudinal characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) through the analysis of finger tapping and memory tests collected remotely using smartphones. 
 Approach: Using a large cohort (312 PD subjects and 236 controls) of participants in the mPower study, we extract clinically validated features from a finger tapping and memory test to monitor the longitudinal behaviour of study participants. We investigate any discrepancy in learning rates associated with motor and non-motor tasks between PD subjects and healthy controls...
March 8, 2018: Physiological Measurement
V L Ruggieri, C L Arberas
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental dysfunctions that are characterised by deficits in social integration and communication, associated with restricted interests and stereotypic behaviour. A high percentage are related to language disorders, sensory dysfunctions, attention deficit disorder, bipolarity, intellectual disability or epilepsy, among other comorbidities. It is estimated that around 30% of children with autism, with typical early development, may present regression in the first years of life, which was already reported by Kanner in one of his original cases...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Victor O Lasebikan, Olatunde Ayinde, Mayokun Odunleye
BACKGROUND: There are indications that drinking in outdoor bars, such as at motor-parks, by the roadsides or street corners have become popular in Nigeria. METHOD: Three sets of qualitative assessments were carried out from three outdoor bars, randomly selected from 22 of such in Ibadan, Nigeria. The main sources of data were by direct observation and focus group discussion (FGD), conducted by a non-probabilistic sample of outdoor bar drinkers, alcohol vendors and from community members...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
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