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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914352/searching-for-novel-modes-of-toxic-actions-of-oil-spill-using-e-%C3%A2-coli-live-cell-array-reporter-system-a-hebei-spirit-oil-spill-study
#1
Dawoon Jung, Miao Guan, Sangwoo Lee, Cheolmin Kim, Hyesoo Shin, Seongjin Hong, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, John P Giesy, Jong Seong Khim, Xiaowei Zhang, Kyungho Choi
Oil is a complex mixture of numerous compounds. Therefore, oil spills near shore can cause various adverse effects on coastal ecosystems. However, most toxicological assessments conducted on oil spill sites have focused on limited modes of toxic actions. In the present study, we utilized the Escherichia coli (E. coli) live cell array system (LCA) to identify novel modes of toxicities of the oil spill-affected sediments. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from an area heavily polluted by Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) incident of 2007...
November 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914341/single-crystalline-titanium-dioxide-hollow-tetragonal-nanocones-with-large-exposed-101-facets-for-excellent-photocatalysis
#2
Zhengcui Wu, Yejing Xue, Zexian Zou, Xia Wang, Feng Gao
Crystal facet engineering and surface modification of semiconductor have become important strategies to improve photocatalytic activity by optimizing surface charge carrier separation/transfer and extending solar spectrum utilization. In this work, we report anatase single-crystalline TiO2 hollow tetragonal nanocones with large exposed (101) facets by a facile liquid-phase interfacial synthetic strategy, using the hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate with adscititious water in the organic solvent of cyclohexane and a capping agent of 1, 6-hexanediamine...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914306/a-contactless-ultrasonic-surface-wave-approach-to-characterize-distributed-cracking-damage-in-concrete
#3
Suyun Ham, Homin Song, Michael L Oelze, John S Popovics
We describe an approach that utilizes ultrasonic surface wave backscatter measurements to characterize the volume content of relatively small distributed defects (microcrack networks) in concrete. A simplified weak scattering model is used to demonstrate that the scattered wave field projected in the direction of the surface wave propagation is relatively insensitive to scatterers that are smaller than the propagating wavelength, while the scattered field projected in the opposite direction is more sensitive to sub-wavelength scatterers...
November 9, 2016: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914264/pattern-based-sensing-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-with-dual-ligand-cofunctionalized-gold-nanoclusters
#4
Yu Tao, Mingqiang Li, Debra T Auguste
Early detection of breast cancer is a critical component in patient prognosis and establishing effective therapy regimens. Here, we developed an easily accessible yet potentially powerful sensor to detect cancer cell targets by utilizing seven dual-ligand cofunctionalized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) as both effective cell recognition elements and signal transducers. On the basis of this AuNC multichannel sensor, we have successfully distinguished healthy, cancerous and metastatic human breast cells with excellent reproducibility and high sensitivity...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914259/city-scale-analysis-of-water-related-energy-identifies-more-cost-effective-solutions
#5
Ka Leung Lam, Steven J Kenway, Paul A Lant
Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia...
November 26, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914246/tract-based-analysis-of-white-matter-integrity-in-psychotic-and-nonpsychotic-bipolar-disorder
#6
Andrew Ji, Douglass Godwin, Jerrel Rutlin, Sridhar Kandala, Joshua S Shimony, Daniel Mamah
BACKGROUND: At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) present with psychosis during their lifetime. Psychotic symptoms have sometimes been linked to specific genetic and phenotypic markers. This study aims to explore potential differences between bipolar disorder subtypes by measuring white matter integrity of the brain and relationships with clinical measures. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging and clinical measures were acquired from 102 participants, grouped as psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) (n=48), non-psychotic bipolar disorder (NBD) (n=24), and healthy controls (n=30)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914227/removal-of-supernumerary-teeth-utilizing-a-computer-aided-design-computer-aided-manufacturing-surgical-guide
#7
Chanwoo Jo, Doohwan Bae, Byungho Choi, Jihun Kim
Supernumerary teeth need to be removed because they can cause various complications. Caution is needed because their removal can cause damage to permanent teeth or tooth germs in the local vicinity. Surgical guides have recently been used in maxillofacial surgery. Because surgical guides are designed through preoperative analysis by computer-aided design software and fabricated using a 3-dimensional printer applying computer-aided manufacturing technology, they increase the accuracy and predictability of surgery...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914211/micrornas-in-cardiovascular-disease-clinical-application
#8
Christian Schulte, Mahir Karakas, Tanja Zeller
microRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known, powerful regulators of gene expression, and their potential to serve as circulating biomarkers is widely accepted. In cardiovascular disease (CVD), numerous studies have suggested miRNAs as strong circulating biomarkers with high diagnostic as well as prognostic power. In coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), miRNAs have been suggested as reliable biomarkers matching up to established protein-based such as cardiac troponins (cT) or natriuretic peptides. Also, in other CVD entities, miRNAs were identified as surprisingly specific biomarkers - with great potential for clinical applicability, especially in those entities that lack specific protein-based biomarkers such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute pulmonary embolism (APE)...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914205/mitochondrial-genotype-and-phenotypic-plasticity-of-gene-expression-in-response-to-cold-acclimation-in-killifish
#9
Timothy M Healy, Heather J Bryant, Patricia M Schulte
Adjustments of aerobic metabolic processes are critical components of organismal responses to environmental change that require tight co-ordination between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Intraspecific differences in mitochondrial genotype can affect gene transcription in both genomes. Thus, variation in mitochondrial genotype may be associated with differences in the plasticity of gene expression when organisms are faced with changes in environmental conditions. Cold acclimation is known to result in metabolic responses involving increases in mitochondrial amount and capacity, suggesting that low temperatures may pose a particular challenge when co-ordinating the functions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914073/competition-for-iron-between-host-and-pathogen-a-structural-case-study-on-helicobacter-pylori
#10
Wei Xia
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a highly successful bacterial pathogen, which colonizes the stomach of more than half of the world's population. To colonize and survive in such an acidic and inhospitable niche, H. pylori cells have evolved complex mechanisms to acquire nutrients from human hosts, including iron, an essential nutrient for both the pathogens and host cells. However, human cells also utilize diverse strategies in withholding of irons to prevent the bacterial outgrowth. The competition for iron is the central battlefield between pathogen and host...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914045/achievements-and-challenges-in-computational-protein-design
#11
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD), a yet evolving field, includes computer-aided engineering for partial or full de novo designs of proteins of interest. Designs are defined by a requested structure, function, or working environment. This chapter describes the birth and maturation of the field by presenting 101 CPD examples in a chronological order emphasizing achievements and pending challenges. Integrating these aspects presents the plethora of CPD approaches with the hope of providing a "CPD 101". These reflect on the broader structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics field and include: (1) integration of knowledge-based and energy-based methods, (2) hierarchical designated approach towards local, regional, and global motifs and the integration of high- and low-resolution design schemes that fit each such region, (3) systematic differential approaches towards different protein regions, (4) identification of key hot-spot residues and the relative effect of remote regions, (5) assessment of shape-complementarity, electrostatics and solvation effects, (6) integration of thermal plasticity and functional dynamics, (7) negative design, (8) systematic integration of experimental approaches, (9) objective cross-assessment of methods, and (10) successful ranking of potential designs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914043/a-revisit-to-quantitative-pet-with-18-f-fdopa-of-high-specific-activity-using-a-high-resolution-condition-in-view-of-application-to-regenerative-therapy
#12
Go Akamatsu, Akihito Ohnishi, Kazuki Aita, Hiroyuki Nishida, Yasuhiko Ikari, Masahiro Sasaki, Nobuo Kohara, Michio Senda
OBJECTIVE: With the advent of regenerative/cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), (18)F-FDOPA has drawn new attention as a biomarker of the therapeutic that cannot be evaluated with radiopharmaceuticals for dopamine transporter. Since most previous (18)F-FDOPA PET studies were carried out many years ago with a PET scanner of lower resolution and with (18)F-FDOPA of low specific activity synthesized from (18)F-F2, we used a newer PET/CT scanner with a high-resolution condition and (18)F-FDOPA synthesized from (18)F-F(-) to re-evaluate this technique on normal subjects and patients with PD, together with D2 receptor imaging with (11)C-raclopride (RAC)...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914018/encapsulation-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol-in-polyurethane-by-sol-gel-electrospinning
#13
Musarat Amina, Touseef Amna, Nawal Al-Musayeib, Sami A Zabin, M Shamshi Hassan, Myung-Seob Khil
Pristine β-sitosterol or in combination with other phytosterols is utilized in an array of enriched commercial foods. Considering the presence of β-sitosterol in different functional foods and its potential role in prevention and cure of neurodegenerative diseases, the aims of our investigation were to encapsulate β-sitosterol in nanofibers and to estimate influence of β-sitosterol on proliferation of fibroblasts. Electrospun nanofibers have widely been used as scaffolds to mimic natural extracellular matrix...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914001/subtilosin-prevents-biofilm-formation-by-inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing
#14
Ammar Algburi, Saskia Zehm, Victoria Netrebov, Anzhelica B Bren, Vladimir Chistyakov, Michael L Chikindas
Subtilosin, the cyclic lantibiotic protein produced by Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, targets the surface receptor and electrostatically binds to the bacterial cell membrane. In this study, subtilosin was purified using ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and purified via column chromatography. Subtilosin's antibacterial minimum and sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and sub-MIC) and anti-biofilm activity (biofilm prevention) were established. Subtilosin was evaluated as a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor in Gram-positive bacteria using Fe(III) reduction assay...
December 2, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913975/clinical-impact-of-an-antibiotic-stewardship-program-at-a-children-s-hospital
#15
Brian R Lee, Jennifer L Goldman, Diana Yu, Angela L Myers, Leslie M Stach, Erin Hedican, Mary Anne Jackson, Jason G Newland
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) improve appropriate antibiotic use. Data are limited on the clinical benefit of ASPs in children's hospitals. This study's objective was to determine the impact of an ASP on length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate among patients admitted to children's hospitals. METHODS: Data from a prospective-audit-with-feedback ASP were used to examine the ASP review characteristics, including antibiotic(s) prescribed, clinical indication, recommendations made by the ASP, and agreement with recommendations...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913926/maxillary-length-in-euploid-and-aneuploid-fetuses
#16
Markus Hoopmann, Jiri Sonek, Dominik Goldschmid, Philipp Wagner, Harald Abele, Karl Oliver Kagan
PURPOSE: To examine the maxillary length of euploid and aneuploid fetuses in the second and third trimester. METHODS: Retrospective study utilizing stored 2D images of second and third trimester fetal profiles obtained at the University of Tuebingen, Germany. The length of the maxilla was measured as a straight line between the anterior ventral and posterior ventral edges of the maxilla. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 347 euploid fetuses and 122, 36, 5, 8, and 4 fetuses with trisomy 21, 18, and 13, Turner syndrome, and triploidy...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913907/development-of-a-culturally-informed-child-safety-curriculum-for-american-indian-families
#17
Ryan M Berns, Emily J Tomayko, Kate A Cronin, Ronald J Prince, Tassy Parker, Alexandra K Adams
American Indian (AI) children are disproportionately affected by unintentional injuries, with injury mortality rates approximately 2.3 times higher than the combined rates for all children in the United States. Although multiple risk factors are known to contribute to these increased rates, a comprehensive, culturally informed curriculum that emphasizes child safety is lacking for this population. In response to this need, academic and tribal researchers, tribal community members, tribal wellness staff, and national child safety experts collaborated to develop a novel child safety curriculum...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913831/high-transport-efficiency-of-nanoparticles-through-a-total-consumption-sample-introduction-system-and-its-beneficial-application-for-particle-size-evaluation-in-single-particle-icp-ms
#18
Shin-Ichi Miyashita, Hiroaki Mitsuhashi, Shin-Ichiro Fujii, Akiko Takatsu, Kazumi Inagaki, Toshiyuki Fujimoto
In order to facilitate reliable and efficient determination of both the particle number concentration (PNC) and the size of nanoparticles (NPs) by single-particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) without the need to correct for the particle transport efficiency (TE, a possible source of bias in the results), a total-consumption sample introduction system consisting of a large-bore, high-performance concentric nebulizer and a small-volume on-axis cylinder chamber was utilized. Such a system potentially permits a particle TE of 100 %, meaning that there is no need to include a particle TE correction when calculating the PNC and the NP size...
December 2, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913830/genome-scale-modeling-of-thermophilic-microorganisms
#19
Sanjeev Dahal, Suresh Poudel, R Adam Thompson
Thermophilic microorganisms are of increasing interest for many industries as their enzymes and metabolisms are highly efficient at elevated temperatures. However, their metabolic processes are often largely different from their mesophilic counterparts. These differences can lead to metabolic engineering strategies that are doomed to fail. Genome-scale metabolic modeling is an effective and highly utilized way to investigate cellular phenotypes and to test metabolic engineering strategies. In this review we chronicle a number of thermophilic organisms that have recently been studied with genome-scale models...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913829/glutamate-fermentation-2-mechanism-of-l-glutamate-overproduction-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#20
Takashi Hirasawa, Masaaki Wachi
The nonpathogenic coryneform bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was isolated as an L-glutamate-overproducing microorganism by Japanese researchers and is currently utilized in various amino acid fermentation processes. L-Glutamate production by C. glutamicum is induced by limitation of biotin and addition of fatty acid ester surfactants and β-lactam antibiotics. These treatments affect the cell surface structures of C. glutamicum. After the discovery of C. glutamicum, many researchers have investigated the underlying mechanism of L-glutamate overproduction with respect to the cell surface structures of this organism...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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