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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475201/association-of-antibiotic-utilization-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-extremely-low-gestational-age-neonates-without-proven-sepsis-or-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#1
Joseph Y Ting, Anne Synnes, Ashley Roberts, Akhil C Deshpandey, Kimberly Dow, Junmin Yang, Kyong-Soon Lee, Shoo K Lee, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVE:  The objective is to evaluate the association between antibiotic utilization and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 21 months' corrected age among extremely low gestational age neonates without culture-proven sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). STUDY DESIGN:  We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants born between April 2009 and September 2011 at <29 weeks' gestation and admitted to the neonatal intensive care units contributing data to the Canadian Neonatal Network...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475194/scope-and-limitations-of-carbohydrate-hydrolysis-for-de-novo-glycan-sequencing-using-a-hydrogen-peroxide-metallopeptide-based-glycosidase-mimetic
#2
Tianyuan Peng, Zachary Wooke, Nicola L B Pohl
Acidic hydrolysis is commonly used as a first step to break down oligo- and polysaccharides into monosaccharide units for structural analysis. While easy to set up and amenable to mass spectrometry detection, acid hydrolysis is not without its drawbacks. For example, ring-destruction side reactions and degradation products, along with difficulties in optimizing conditions from analyte to analyte, greatly limits its broad utility. Herein we report studies on a hydrogen peroxide/CuGGH metallopeptide-based glycosidase mimetic design for a more efficient and controllable carbohydrate hydrolysis...
February 3, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475147/halophilic-starch-degrading-bacteria-isolated-from-sambhar-lake-india-as-potential-anode-catalyst-in-microbial-fuel-cell-a-promising-process-for-saline-water-treatment
#3
Ankisha Vijay, Shivam Arora, Sandeep Gupta, Meenu Chhabra
In this study, Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) capable of treating saline starch water was developed. Sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 500 mM to 3000 mM were tested at the anode. Nitrate was used as an electron acceptor at the biocathode. The halophilic bacteria were isolated from Sambhar Lake, India. Results indicated successful removal of starch (1.83 kg/m3 -d) and nitrate (0.13 kg/m3 -d NO3 - -N) with concomitant power output of 207.05 mW/m2 at 1000 mM NaCl concentration. An increase in power density from 71...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475145/spatial-variation-of-electrode-position-in-bioelectrochemical-treatment-system-design-consideration-for-azo-dye-remediation
#4
Dileep Kumar Yeruva, J Shanthi Sravan, Sai Kishore Butti, J Annie Modestra, S Venkata Mohan
In the present study, three bio-electrochemical treatment systems (BET) were designed with variations in cathode electrode placement [air exposed (BET1), partially submerged (BET2) and fully submerged (BET3)] to evaluate azo-dye based wastewater treatment at three dye loading concentrations (50, 250 and 500 mg L-1 ). Highest dye decolorization (94.5 ± 0.4%) and COD removal (62.2 ± 0.8%) efficiencies were observed in BET3 (fully submerged electrodes) followed by BET1 and BET2, while bioelectrogenic activity was highest in BET1 followed by BET2 and BET3...
February 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475118/kockdown-of-oip5-as1-expression-inhibits-proliferation-metastasis-and-emt-progress-in-hepatoblastoma-cells-through-up-regulating-mir-186a-5p-and-down-regulating-zeb1
#5
Ze Zhang, Feng Liu, Fan Yang, Yahui Liu
Long non-coding RNA OIP5-AS1 has been studied in human diseases, including several kinds of cancers. It was not studied or reported in hepatoblastoma, so we chose it to do our research in hepatoblastoma. We thought OIP5-AS1 was oncogenic in hepatoblastoma for the high expression of it in hepatoblastoma tissues and cells. OIP5-AS1 knockdown was carried out in cancer cells. Unsurprisingly, this action was verified to be able to inhibit cell proliferation, metastasis and EMT progress in hepatoblastoma. We then measured the low expression level of miR-186a-5p and the high expression level of ZEB1 in hepatoblastoma tissues and cells...
February 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475110/pathological-fracture-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-femoral-metastases-using-ct-based-finite-element-methods-a-retrospective-clinical-study
#6
Amir Sternheim, Ornit Giladi, Yair Gortzak, MIchael Drexler, Moshe Salai, Nir Trabelsi, Charles Milgrom, Zohar Yosibash
Physician recommendation for prophylactic surgical fixation of a femur with metastatic bone disease (MBD) is usually based on Mirels' criteria and clinical experience, both of which suffer from poor specificity. This may result in a significant number of these health compromised patients undergoing unnecessary surgery. CT-based finite element analyses (CTFEA) have been shown to accurately predict strength in femurs with metastatic tumors in an ex-vivo study. In order to assess the utility of CTFEA as a clinical tool to determine the need for fixation of patients with MBD of the femur, an ad hoc CTFEA was performed on a retrospective cohort of fifty patients...
February 20, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475108/intriguing-changes-in-molecular-size-and-composition-of-dissolved-organic-matter-induced-by-microbial-degradation-and-self-assembly
#7
Huacheng Xu, Laodong Guo
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous and plays an important role in regulating water quality, ecological function, and the fate and transport of trace elements and pollutants in aquatic environments. Both the colloidal precursors (i.e. <1 kDa) and bulk DOM collected from a freshwater estuary were incubated in the dark for 21 days to examine dynamic changes in molecular size and composition induced by microbial degradation and self-assembly. Results showed that the concentrations of total organic carbon, carbohydrates, and protein-like substances decreased by 11-30% during incubation, while those of humic- and fulvic-like substances remained relatively constant, indicating humic substances are more resistant to microbial utilization compared to carbohydrates and protein-like DOM...
February 7, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475093/nurse-practitioner-independence-health-care-utilization-and-health-outcomes
#8
Jeffrey Traczynski, Victoria Udalova
Many states allow nurse practitioners (NPs) to practice and prescribe drugs without physician oversight, increasing the number of autonomous primary care providers. We estimate the causal impact of NP independence on population health care utilization rates and health outcomes, exploiting variation in the timing of state law passage. We find that NP independence increases the frequency of routine checkups, improves care quality, and decreases emergency room use by patients with ambulatory care sensitive conditions...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475084/full-length-myocilin-protein-is-purified-from-mammalian-cells-as-a-dimer
#9
Parvaneh Katoli, Adarsh Godbole, Michael J Romanowski, Kirk Clark, Erik Meredith, Veronica Saenz-Vash, Y Karen Wang, Nancy Lewicki, Andrew A Nguyen, Jeffrey M Lynch
Myocilin (MYOC) is a secreted protein found in human aqueous humor (AH) and mutations in the MYOC gene are the most common mutation observed in glaucoma patients. Human AH analyzed under non-reducing conditions suggests that MYOC is not normally found in a monomeric form, but rather is predominantly dimeric. Although MYOC was first reported almost 20 years ago, a technical challenge still faced by researchers is an inability to isolate full-length MYOC protein for experimental purposes. Herein we describe two methods by which to isolate sufficient quantities of human full-length MYOC protein from mammalian cells...
February 20, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475061/a-fungal-metabolite-zearalenone-as-a-cftr-inhibitor-and-potential-therapy-of-secretory-diarrheas
#10
Paradorn Muangnil, Saravut Satitsri, Kwanruthai Tadpetch, Patchreenart Saparpakorn, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Supa Hannongbua, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Chatchai Muanprasat
Overstimulation of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of secretory diarrheas, which remain an important global health problem. This study aimed to identify inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion from a library of fungus-derived compounds and to evaluate their pharmacological properties and anti-diarrheal utility. We identified zearalenone, 7'-dehydrozearalenone and 8'-hydroxyzearalenone isolated from the seagrass-derived fungus Fusarium sp. PSU-ES123 as inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells...
February 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475057/evaluation-of-cash-transfer-programs-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-methodological-review
#11
Ebenezer Owusu-Addo, Andre M N Renzaho, Ben J Smith
Cash transfer programs (CTs) have been rigorously evaluated since their inception in the 1990s. However, to date, there has been no study critically examining the utility of the methodological approaches used to evaluate CTs. This article reviews the approaches used to evaluate CTs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to provide recommendations for improving future CTs evaluations. We conducted searches for CTs evaluation studies in SSA in the peer-reviewed and grey literature using electronic databases, hand searching of selected journals, organisational websites, Google Scholar and Scirus Internet search engines...
February 14, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475037/lanthionine-ketimine-5-ethyl-ester-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-okadaic-acid-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Daniel Koehler, Zahoor A Shah, Kenneth Hensley, Frederick E Williams
Okadaic acid (OKA) is a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor that is used to induce neurodegeneration and study disease states such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lanthionine ketimine-5-ethyl ester (LKE) is a bioavailable derivative of the naturally occurring brain sulfur metabolite, lanthionine ketimine (LK). In previously conducted studies, LKE exhibited neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties in murine models but its mechanism of action remains to be clarified. In this study, a recently established zebrafish OKA-induced AD model was utilized to further elucidate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties of LKE in the context of an AD-like condition...
February 20, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475011/the-cranky-thermometers-visual-analogue-scales-measuring-irritability-in-youth
#13
Glenn A Melvin, Bruce J Tonge, Melissa Mulraney, Michael Gordon, John Taffe, Ester Klimkeit
This study assessed the psychometric properties of two visual analogue scales of irritability, known as the Cranky Thermometers (CT), in both an Australian community secondary-school sample (N = 164) and a sample of adolescents with a depressive disorder (N = 127). The first scale Cranky Now measures current irritability, and the second, Cranky Two Weeks, measures peak irritability within the last two weeks. CT scores were significantly higher in adolescents with major depressive disorder than in the school sample and showed improvement following treatment for depression...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475010/impact-of-a-mental-health-based-primary-care-program-on-emergency-department-visits-and-inpatient-stays
#14
Joshua Breslau, Emily Leckman-Westin, Bing Han, Riti Pritam, Diana Guarasi, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, Deborah M Scharf, Molly T Finnerty, Hao Yu
OBJECTIVE: Integrating primary care services into specialty mental health clinics has been proposed as a method for improving health care utilization for medical conditions by adults with serious mental illness. This paper examines the impact of a mental health based primary care program on emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. METHOD: The program was implemented in seven New York City outpatient mental health clinics in two waves. Medicaid claims were used to identify patients treated in intervention clinics and a control group of patients treated in otherwise similar clinics in New York City...
February 17, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475006/glutamine-up-regulates-pancreatic-sodium-dependent-neutral-aminoacid-transporter-2-and-mitigates-islets-apoptosis-in-diabetic-rats
#15
Zekrayat J H Medras, Norhan M El-Sayed, Sawsan A Zaitone, Eman A Toraih, Manal M Sami, Yasser M Moustafa
BACKGROUND: Glutamine aminoacid regulates insulin exocytosis from pancreatic β-cells. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that has fascinated function in inhibiting β-cell apoptosis and preserving pancreatic β-cell mass. The present study investigated the benefit of adding glutamine to a regimen of liraglutide in diabetic rats focusing on their role in increasing insulin production and upregulation of the expression of sodium-dependent neutral aminoacid transporter-2 (SNAT2)...
October 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474997/footwear-generated-dynamic-biomechanical-manipulation-and-perturbation-training-for-chronic-nonspecific-low-back-pain
#16
Se Won Lee, Ratnakar Veeramachaneni, Ibrahim Abou Saleh, Karen Morice, Timothy Tiu, Yungtai Lo, Kevin Frison, Matthew Bartels
BACKGROUND: Home-based therapy optimizing biomechanics and neuromuscular control is increasingly recognized as a treatment option for chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNSLBP). However, its impact on pain, function and gait is limited among patients in a metropolitan area. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the change of pain, function and gait parameters with home-based therapy using footwear generated biomechanical manipulation and perturbation training (FGBMPT) in a population with CNSLBP in a metropolitan area...
February 20, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474995/evaluation-of-performance-based-outcome-measures-for-the-upper-limb-a-comprehensive-narrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Sophie Wang, Janice Hsu, Lauren Trent, Tiffany Ryan, Nathan Kearns, Eugene Civillico, Kimberly Kontson
Objective performance-based outcome measures (OMs) have the potential to provide unbiased and reproducible assessments of limb function. However, very few of these performance-based OMs have been validated for upper limb (UL) prosthesis users. OMs validated in other clinical populations (e.g. neurological or musculoskeletal conditions) could be used to fill gaps in existing performance-based OMs for UL amputees. Additionally, a joint review might reveal consistent gaps across multiple clinical populations. Therefore, the objective of this review was to systematically characterize prominent measures utilized in both sets of clinical populations with regard to (1) location of task performance around the body, (2) possible grips employed, (3) bilateral vs...
February 20, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474977/activated-production-of-silent-metabolites-from-marine-derived-fungus-penicillium-citrinum
#18
Yuqin Gu, Peiyu Ding, Zhipeng Liang, Yan Song, Yonghong Liu, Guangtong Chen, Jian Lin Li
As an attempt to utilize of rare earth elements as a novel method to activate the silent genes in fungus, the marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum was cultured under ordinary laboratory fermentation conditions in the presence of scandium chloride (ScCl3 , 50 μM), and chemical investigation led to the isolation and characterization of three new peptide derivatives (1-3), along with four known pyrrolidine alkaloids (4-7). Those structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, as well as chemical reactions...
February 20, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474933/an-optimised-multi-arm-multi-stage-clinical-trial-design-for-unknown-variance
#19
Michael J Grayling, James M S Wason, Adrian P Mander
Multi-arm multi-stage trial designs can bring notable gains in efficiency to the drug development process. However, for normally distributed endpoints, the determination of a design typically depends on the assumption that the patient variance in response is known. In practice, this will not usually be the case. To allow for unknown variance, previous research explored the performance of t-test statistics, coupled with a quantile substitution procedure for modifying the stopping boundaries, at controlling the familywise error-rate to the nominal level...
February 20, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474911/identifying-medical-diagnoses-and-treatable-diseases-by-image-based-deep-learning
#20
Daniel S Kermany, Michael Goldbaum, Wenjia Cai, Carolina C S Valentim, Huiying Liang, Sally L Baxter, Alex McKeown, Ge Yang, Xiaokang Wu, Fangbing Yan, Justin Dong, Made K Prasadha, Jacqueline Pei, Magdalena Ting, Jie Zhu, Christina Li, Sierra Hewett, Jason Dong, Ian Ziyar, Alexander Shi, Runze Zhang, Lianghong Zheng, Rui Hou, William Shi, Xin Fu, Yaou Duan, Viet A N Huu, Cindy Wen, Edward D Zhang, Charlotte L Zhang, Oulan Li, Xiaobo Wang, Michael A Singer, Xiaodong Sun, Jie Xu, Ali Tafreshi, M Anthony Lewis, Huimin Xia, Kang Zhang
The implementation of clinical-decision support algorithms for medical imaging faces challenges with reliability and interpretability. Here, we establish a diagnostic tool based on a deep-learning framework for the screening of patients with common treatable blinding retinal diseases. Our framework utilizes transfer learning, which trains a neural network with a fraction of the data of conventional approaches. Applying this approach to a dataset of optical coherence tomography images, we demonstrate performance comparable to that of human experts in classifying age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema...
February 22, 2018: Cell
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