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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642209/acceptability-and-feasibility-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-oral-naltrexone-vs-placebo-for-women-living-with-hiv-infection-study-design-challenges-and-pilot-study-results
#1
Robert L Cook, Kathleen M Weber, Dao Mai, Kathleen Thoma, Xingdi Hu, Babette Brumback, Manju Karki, Kendall Bryant, Mobeen Rathore, Mary Young, Mardge Cohen
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV/AIDS who drink alcohol are at increased risk for adverse health outcomes, but there is little evidence on best methods for reducing alcohol consumption in this population. We conducted a pilot study to determine the acceptability and feasibility of conducting a larger randomized clinical trial of naltrexone vs. placebo to reduce alcohol consumption in women living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: We designed the trial with input from community and scientific review...
June 19, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641535/hiv-1-transcription-inhibitors-increase-the-synthesis-of-viral-non-coding-rna-that-contribute-to-latency
#2
Yao A Akpamagbo, Catherine DeMarino, Michelle L Pleet, Angela Schwab, Myosotys Rodriguez, Robert A Barclay, Gavin Sampey, Sergey Iordanskiy, Nazira El-Hage, Fatah Kashanchi
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 can be preserved in long-lived resting CD4+ T- and myeloid cells, forming a viral reservoir in tissues of the infected individuals. Infected patients primarily receive cART, which, to date, is the most efficient treatment against HIV/AIDS. However, the major problem in the eradication of HIV-1 from patients is the lack of therapeutic approaches to recognize the latent HIV-1 provirus and to eliminate latently infected cells. RESULTS: In the current review, we describe the effect of HIV-1 transcriptional inhibitors CR8#13 and F07#13 using a series of in vitro and in vivo assays...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640065/effectiveness-of-an-integrated-approach-to-hiv-and-hypertension-care-in-rural-south-africa-controlled-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#3
Soter Ameh, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Eustasius Musenge, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé
BACKGROUND: South Africa faces a dual burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases. In 2011, a pilot Integrated Chronic Disease Management (ICDM) model was introduced by the National Health Department into selected primary health care (PHC) facilities. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the ICDM model in controlling patients' CD4 counts (>350 cells/mm) and blood pressure [BP (<140/90 mm Hg)] in PHC facilities in the Bushbuckridge municipality, South Africa...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639993/peripheral-monocytes-macrophages-phenotypes-associated-to-the-evolution-of-cognitive-performance-in-hiv-infected-patients
#4
Massimiliano Fabbiani, Antonio Muscatello, Paolo Perseghin, Marco Bani, Arianna Incontri, Nicola Squillace, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
BACKGROUND: The contribution of monocyte activation in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders is not completely understood. This study aimed to explore the predictive value of peripheral monocyte/macrophage (M/M) phenotypes on the evolution of cognitive performance in a population of virologically-suppressed HIV-infected patients. SETTING: Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. METHODS: HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL for >12 months underwent neuropsychological examination at baseline and after one year...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639989/use-of-expenditure-analysis-to-enhance-returns-on-investments-in-hiv-services
#5
Brian Honermann, Richael O'Hagan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Globally, the response to the HIV epidemic is at a crisis point. International investments in the HIV response have been essentially flat for 8 years and domestic budgets in low and middle-income countries - still recovering from the global recession - have not been able to fill the resource gap to drive a full-fledged HIV response. Still, efficiencies and prioritization of evidence-based interventions enable a significant scale-up of treatment, but millions more people remain without treatment...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639499/hiv-and-aids-related-stigma-and-discrimination-in-two-referral-hospitals-in-ethiopia
#6
Befekadu S Wodajo, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Oluwaseyi A Akpor
The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) and its associated factors in healthcare settings. Primary data were collected from June to September 2014 from two referral hospitals located in north-west Ethiopia. The study used pre-test/post-test design with a non-equivalent control group using a quantitative approach. Healthcare professionals were divided into strata and then, using the stratified random sampling technique, the study participants were selected from each stratum...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639475/ecological-correlates-of-multiple-sexual-partnerships-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-urban-cape-town-a-cumulative-risk-factor-approach
#7
Evans Muchiri, Clifford Odimegwu, Pamela Banda, Lorreta Ntoimo, Sunday Adedini
Studies in South Africa have reported unsafe levels of risky sexual behvaiours among adolescents and young adults, with the country reporting the highest burden of HIV/AIDS globally, as well as a high rate of teenage pregnancy. While determinants of risky sexual behaviours have been investigated for factors occurring at the individual and household levels, not fully explored in the literature is the effect of community level factors. Furthermore, it is unclear whether risk factors occurring within the ecology of adolescents and young adults act cumulatively to influence their sexual practices...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638377/a-novel-bromodomain-inhibitor-reverses-hiv-1-latency-through-specific-binding-with-brd4-to-promote-tat-and-p-tefb-association
#8
Huachao Huang, Shuai Liu, Maxime Jean, Sydney Simpson, He Huang, Mark Merkley, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Weili Kong, Irene Rodríguez-Sánchez, Xiaofeng Zhang, Hailemichael O Yosief, Hongyu Miao, Jianwen Que, James J Kobie, James Bradner, Netty G Santoso, Wei Zhang, Jian Zhu
While combinatory antiretroviral therapy (cART) can effectively reduce HIV-1 viremia, it cannot eliminate HIV-1 infection. In the presence of cART, viral reservoirs remain latent, impeding the cure of HIV-1/AIDS. Recently, latency-reversing agents (LRAs) have been developed with the intent of purging latent HIV-1, providing an intriguing strategy for the eradication of the residual viral reservoirs. Our earlier studies show that the first-generation, methyl-triazolo bromodomain, and extra-terminal domain inhibitor (BETi), JQ1, facilitates the reversal of HIV-1 latency...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634662/hiv-stigma-and-substance-use-among-hiv-positive-russians-with-risky-drinking
#9
E Jennifer Edelman, Karsten Lunze, Debbie M Cheng, Dmitry A Lioznov, Emily Quinn, Natalia Gnatienko, Carly Bridden, Christine E Chaisson, Alexander Y Walley, Evgeny M Krupitsky, Anita Raj, Jeffrey H Samet
The link between HIV stigma with substance use is understudied. We characterized individuals with high HIV stigma and examined whether HIV stigma contributes to substance use among HIV-positive Russians reporting risky alcohol use. We analyzed data from HERMITAGE, a randomized controlled trial of 700 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) with past 6-month risky sex and risky alcohol use in St. Petersburg, Russia (2007-2011). Participants who were female and reported depressive symptoms and lower social support were more likely to endorse high HIV stigma (all p's < 0...
June 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634358/hiv-1-gp41-targeting-fusion-inhibitory-peptides-enhance-the-gp120-targeting-protein-mediated-inactivation-of-hiv-1-virions
#10
Qianqian Qi, Qian Wang, Weizao Chen, Lanying Du, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
Protein- or peptide-based viral inactivators are being developed as novel antiviral drugs with improved efficacy, pharmacokinetics and toxicity profiles because they actively inactivate cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions before attachment to host cells. By contrast, most clinically used antiviral drugs must penetrate host cells to inhibit viral replication. In this study, we pre-treated HIV-1 particles with a gp120-targeting bispecific multivalent protein, 2Dm2m or 4Dm2m, in the presence or absence of the gp41-targeting HIV-1 fusion inhibitory peptides enfuvirtide (T20), T2635, or sifuvirtide (SFT)...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634155/perceptions-of-hiv-seriousness-risk-and-threat-among-online-samples-of-hiv-negative-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-seven-countries
#11
Anna N Chard, Nicholas Metheny, Rob Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Rates of new HIV infections continue to increase worldwide among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite effective prevention strategies such as condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), low usage of both methods in many parts of the world hinder prevention efforts. An individual's perceptions of the risk of acquiring HIV and the seriousness they afford to seroconversion are important drivers of behavioral risk-taking. Understanding the behavioral factors suppressing the uptake of HIV prevention services is a critical step in informing strategies to improve interventions to combat the ongoing HIV pandemic among MSM...
June 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634152/ensuring-inclusion-of-adolescent-key-populations-at-higher-risk-of-hiv-exposure-recommendations-for-conducting-biological-behavioral-surveillance-surveys
#12
Lisa Grazina Johnston, Justine Sass, Jeffry Acaba, Wing-Sie Cheng, Shirley Mark Prabhu
Ending acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) depends on greater efforts to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and prevent AIDS-related deaths among key populations at highest HIV risk, including males who have sex with males, sex workers, and people who inject drugs. Although adolescent key populations (AKP) are disproportionately affected by HIV, they have been largely ignored in HIV biological behavioral surveillance survey (BBSS) activities to date. This paper reviews current ethical and sampling challenges and provides suggestions to ensure AKP are included in surveillance activities, with the aim being to enhance evidence-informed, strategic, and targeted funding allocations and programs toward ending AIDS among AKP...
June 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633458/causes-of-death-and-mortality-trends-of-all-individuals-reported-with-hiv-aids-in-israel-1985-2010
#13
Zohar Mor, Rivka Sheffer, Daniel Chemtob
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed life-expectancy and mortality trends among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) since 1996. This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the mortality epidemiology of PLWHA in Israel and analyze the causes of death. Methods: This cohort study included all adult Israeli-citizens PLWHA between 1985 and 2010 and crossed matched with the Civil Registry to identify those who died. Death certificates were classified into AIDS or non-AIDS deaths related-causes...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633097/results-of-the-first-international-hiv-1-coreceptor-proficiency-panel-test
#14
Eva Heger, Rolf Kaiser, Elena Knops, Maria Neumann-Fraune, Eugen Schuelter, Alejandro Pironti, Thomas Lengauer, Hauke Walter, Saleta Sierra
BACKGROUND: Quality Assurance (QA) programs are essential to evaluate performance in diagnostics laboratories. OBJECTIVES: We present the results from the first QA for HIV-1 genotypic tropism testing, organized and coordinated by the Institute of Virology at the University of Cologne. STUDY DESIGN: 12 cell culture-derived viral strains of different HIV-1 clades from the NIH AIDS Reagent Program were sent to the participants to be processed with their standard diagnostic methods Fasta files containing the V3 region sequence were centrally analyzed at the Institute of Virology, Cologne...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632794/migrants-healthy-worker-effect-and-mortality-trends-in-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries
#15
Karima Chaabna, Sohaila Cheema, Ravinder Mamtani
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Saudi Arabia, have experienced unique demographic changes. The major population growth contributor in these countries is young migrants, which has led to a shift in the population age pyramid. Migrants constitute the vast proportion of GCC countries' population reaching >80% in Qatar and UAE. Using Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015) and United Nations data, for the GCC countries, we assessed the association between age-standardized mortality and population size trends with linear and polynomial regressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632768/the-cost-of-demand-creation-activities-and-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-targeting-school-going-adolescents-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#16
Gavin George, Michael Strauss, Elias Asfaw
BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. However, there remains a limited body of economic analysis on the cost of VMMC programming, and the demand creation activities used to mobilize males, especially among adolescent boys in school. This study addresses this gap by presenting the costs of a VMMC program which adopted two demand creation strategies targeting school-going males in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632481/trends-in-cd4-cell-count-response-to-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-positive-patients-from-asia-2003-2013-treat-asia-hiv-observational-database-low-intensity-transfer
#17
Nicole L De La Mata, Penh S Ly, Oon T Ng, Kinh V Nguyen, Tuti P Merati, Thuy T Pham, Man P Lee, Jun Y Choi, Annette H Sohn, Matthew G Law, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy
Antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines have changed over the past decade, recommending earlier initiation and more tolerable regimens. The study objective was to examine the CD4 response to ART, depending on the year of ART initiation, in HIV-positive patients in the Asia-Pacific. We included HIV-positive adult patients who initiated ART between 2003 and 2013 in our regional cohort from eight urban referral centres in seven countries within Asia. We used mixed-effects linear regression models to evaluate differences in CD4 response by year of ART initiation during 36 months of follow-up, adjusted a priori for other covariates...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631983/-worse-than-hiv-the-logics-of-cancer-screening-avoidance-in-swaziland
#18
Nomthandazo Malambo, Susan Erikson
This article shows the consequences of competing global health agendas within differential clinical and social worlds. Specifically, it examines how HIV's prominence in local clinical programming in Swaziland influences cervical cancer screening rates. Drawing on 2014 ethnographic research conducted in a semi-urban town in Swaziland, the interview and participant observation data show the relative scarcity of cervical cancer care and the consequences of HIV/AIDS funding and programming dominance. 20 women and 7 health workers were interviewed in homes, clinics and small businesses...
June 20, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630651/improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-resource-limited-settings-at-scale-a-discussion-of-interventions-and-recommendations
#19
Jessica E Haberer, Lora Sabin, K Rivet Amico, Catherine Orrell, Omar Galárraga, Alexander C Tsai, Rachel C Vreeman, Ira Wilson, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Terrence F Blaschke, Bernard Vrijens, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Sheri D Weiser, Elizabeth Lowenthal, Michael J Stirratt, Papa Salif Sow, Bruce Thomas, Nathan Ford, Edward Mills, Richard Lester, Jean B Nachega, Bosco Mwebesa Bwana, Fred Ssewamala, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Paula Munderi, Elvin Geng, David R Bangsberg
Introduction: Successful population-level antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence will be necessary to realize both the clinical and prevention benefits of antiretroviral scale-up and, ultimately, the end of AIDS. Although many people living with HIV are adhering well, others struggle and most are likely to experience challenges in adherence that may threaten virologic suppression at some point during lifelong therapy. Despite the importance of ART adherence, supportive interventions have generally not been implemented at scale...
2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630076/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-is-affinity-maturation-a-self-defeating-process-for-eliciting-broad-protection
#20
Christopher T Stamper, Patrick C Wilson
Vaccinations are one of the greatest success stories of modern medicine, saving millions of lives since their widespread adoption. However, several diseases continue to elude highly effective vaccination strategies. Chief among these are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza (flu), both of which will require vaccines that can guide the creation of highly mutated, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). The generation of bnAbs is hindered by our inability to effectively drive the high levels of affinity maturation required to achieve them in a large number of cells...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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