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Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331153/is-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-antipsychotic-dose-and-anticholinergic-equivalent-loads-in-first-episode-psychosis
#1
Alejandro Ballesteros, Ana M Sánchez-Torres, Jose M López-Ilundain, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana M González-Pinto, Covadonga Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Elena de la Serna, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Fernando Contreras, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Gisela Mezquida, Miguel Bernardo, Manuel J Cuesta
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317216/multisensory-temporal-binding-window-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Han-Yu Zhou, Xin-Lu Cai, Michael Weigl, Peter Bang, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Multisensory temporal integration could be compromised in both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and may play an important role in perceptual and cognitive impairment in these two disorders. This review aimed to quantitatively compare the sensory temporal acuity between healthy controls and the two clinical groups (ASD and SSD). Impairment of sensory temporal integration was robust and comparable in both patients with SSD (Hedges' g=0.91, 95%CI[0.62-1.19]; Z=6.21, p<...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289597/hippocampal-gabaa-antagonism-reverses-the-novel-object-recognition-deficit-in-sub-chronic-phencyclidine-treated-rats
#3
Nichole M Neugebauer, Masanori Miyauchi, Tatsuya Sato, Jun Tadano, Hanife Akal, Hossein Ardehali, Herbert Y Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in prefrontal cortical and hippocampal GABAergic function are postulated to be major causes of the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). There are conflicting views on whether diminished or enhanced GABAergic activity contributes to the deficit in short-term novel object recognition (NOR) in the sub-chronic phencyclidine (scPCP) rodent model of CIAS. This study assessed the role of GABAA signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC) in NOR in saline (scSAL)- and scPCP-treated rats...
December 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275855/premorbid-iq-subgroups-in-first-episode-non-affective-psychosis-patients-long-term-sex-differences-in-function-and-neurocognition
#4
Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Esther Setién-Suero, Karl David Neergaard, Àuria Albacete Belzunces, Fernando Contreras, Neeltje E M van Haren, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). METHODS: The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain...
December 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275841/the-mediodorsal-thalamus-an-essential-partner-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-for-cognition
#5
REVIEW
Sébastien Parnaudeau, Scott S Bolkan, Christoph Kellendonk
Deficits in cognition are a core feature of many psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, where the severity of such deficits is a strong predictor of long-term outcome. Impairment in cognitive domains such as working memory and behavioral flexibility has typically been associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. However, there is increasing evidence that the PFC cannot be dissociated from its main thalamic counterpart, the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Since the causal relationships between MD-PFC abnormalities and cognitive impairment, as well as the neuronal mechanisms underlying them, are difficult to address in humans, animal models have been employed for mechanistic insight...
November 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261656/nicotinic-alpha-7-receptor-agonists-evp-6124-and-bms-933043-attenuate-scopolamine-induced-deficits-in-visuo-spatial-paired-associates-learning
#6
Michael R Weed, Joseph Polino, Laura Signor, Mark Bookbinder, Deborah Keavy, Yulia Benitex, Daniel G Morgan, Dalton King, John E Macor, Robert Zaczek, Richard Olson, Linda J Bristow
Agonists at the nicotinic acetylcholine alpha 7 receptor (nAChR α7) subtype have the potential to treat cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or schizophrenia. Visuo-spatial paired associates learning (vsPAL) is a task that has been shown to reliably predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to AD in humans and can also be performed by nonhuman primates. Reversal of scopolamine-induced impairment of vsPAL performance may represent a translational approach for the development of nAChR α7 agonists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243529/avolition-apathy-and-white-matter-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-reduced-fractional-anisotropy-between-amygdala-and-insular-cortex
#7
Antonella Amodio, Mario Quarantelli, Armida Mucci, Anna Prinster, Andrea Soricelli, Annarita Vignapiano, Giulia Maria Giordano, Eleonora Merlotti, Alessia Nicita, Silvana Galderisi
The avolition/apathy domain of negative symptoms includes motivation- and pleasure-related impairments. In people with schizophrenia, structural and functional abnormalities were reported in key regions within the motivational reward system, including ventral-tegmental area (VTA), striatum (especially at the level of the nucleus accumbens, NAcc), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as amygdala (Amy) and insular cortex (IC). However, the association of the reported abnormalities with avoliton-apathy is still controversial...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230507/evidence-for-regional-hippocampal-damage-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Sadhana Singh, Subash Khushu, Pawan Kumar, Satnam Goyal, Triptish Bhatia, Smita N Deshpande
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) procedures. METHODS: 1H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system...
December 11, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227584/npas4-deficiency-and-prenatal-stress-interact-to-affect-social-recognition-in-mice
#9
Kelsey Heslin, Laurence Coutellier
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have an expansive array of reported genetic and environmental contributing factors. However, none of these factors alone can account for a substantial proportion of cases of either disorder. Instead, many gene-by-environment interactions are responsible for neurodevelopmental disturbances that lead to these disorders. The current experiment used heterozygous knock-out mice to examine a potential interaction between two factors commonly linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and cognitive deficit: imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the cortex and prenatal stress (PNS) exposure...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227583/single-point-mutation-on-the-gene-encoding-dysbindin-results-in-recognition-deficits
#10
Eric H Chang, Kayla Fernando, Lok Wan E Yeung, Kristina Barbari, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Anil K Malhotra
The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene is a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and has been associated with cognitive ability in both patient populations and healthy controls. DTNBP1 encodes dysbindin protein, which is localized to synaptic sites and is reduced in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia, indicating a potential role in schizophrenia etiology. Most studies of dysbindin function have focused on the sandy (sdy) mice that lack dysbindin protein and have a wide range of abnormalities...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212023/disc1-modulates-neuronal-stress-responses-by-gate-keeping-er-mitochondria-ca2-transfer-through-the-mam
#11
Sung Jin Park, Su Been Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Namgyu Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Cana Park, Youngsik Woo, Koko Ishizuka, Joung-Hun Kim, Per-Olof Berggren, Akira Sawa, Sang Ki Park
A wide range of Ca2+-mediated functions are enabled by the dynamic properties of Ca2+, all of which are dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a scaffold protein that is involved in the function of intracellular organelles and is linked to cognitive and emotional deficits. Here, we demonstrate that DISC1 localizes to the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). At the MAM, DISC1 interacts with IP3R1 and downregulates its ligand binding, modulating ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer through the MAM...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202656/clinical-and-cognitive-significance-of-auditory-sensory-processing-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#12
Holly K Hamilton, Terrance J Williams, Joseph Ventura, Leland J Jasperse, Emily M Owens, Gregory A Miller, Kenneth L Subotnik, Keith H Nuechterlein, Cindy M Yee
OBJECTIVE: Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired suppression of the P50 event-related brain potential in response to the second of two identical auditory stimuli during a paired-stimulus paradigm, uncertainty remains over whether this deficit in inhibitory gating of auditory sensory processes has relevance for patients' clinical symptoms or cognitive performance. The authors examined associations between P50 suppression deficits and several core features of schizophrenia to address this gap...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196183/nmda-receptor-antagonist-rodent-models-for-cognition-in-schizophrenia-and-identification-of-novel-drug-treatments-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Daniela Cadinu, Ben Grayson, Giovanni Podda, Michael K Harte, Nazanin Doostdar, Joanna C Neill
Negative and cognitive deficit symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Improved understanding of the neuro- and psychopathology of cognitive dysfunction in the illness is urgently required to enhance the development of new improved therapeutic strategies. Careful validation of animal models that mimic the behaviour and pathology of complex psychiatric disorders is an essential step towards this goal. Non-competitive NMDAR (N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor) antagonists e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and dizocilpine (MK-801) can effectively replicate certain aspects of negative and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia in animals...
November 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188908/anticholinergic-burden-and-cognition-in-older-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Christopher Tsoutsoulas, Benoit H Mulsant, Sanjeev Kumar, Zaid Ghazala, Aristotle N Voineskos, Mahesh Menon, Bruce G Pollock, Tarek K Rajji
OBJECTIVE: Older individuals with schizophrenia are at risk of being treated with anticholinergic medications due to the prevalence of medical comorbidities and polypharmacy. High anticholinergic burden impairs cognition and is a risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. Thus, we assessed the impact of anticholinergic burden on Alzheimer's dementia-related and schizophrenia-related cognitive functions in older patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Anticholinergic burden was measured using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale (ACB) in 60 community-dwelling patients aged ≥ 50 years who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia between May 2007 and November 2011...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188628/-effect-of-mthfr-gene-on-the-schizophrenia-and-its-cognitive-function
#15
Weiping Wang, Weixing Fan, Bo Shi, Chunnan Tong, Xiaorong Wang, Jun Cai, Chen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of MTHFR gene on schizophrenia and its cognitive function. METHODS: We recruited 254 schizophrenia patients with stable condition, 339 healthy controls for genetic analysis and 72 healthy controls for cognitive evaluation. The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) was used for cognitive measurement. PCR-RFLP technique was carried out to genotype 677C/T polymorphism. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in genotypic or allelic frequencies of the 677C/T polymorphism between the case and control groups (P> 0...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187021/correction-to-alizadeh-et-al-association-of-transcription-factor-4-tcf4-gene-mrna-level-with-schizophrenia-its-psychopathology-intelligence-and-cognitive-impairments
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178686/memantine-as-an-augmentation-treatment-for-schizophrenia-limitations-of-meta-analysis-for-evidence-based-evaluation-of-research
#17
Chittaranjan Andrade
The action of memantine on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamatergic receptors and the other pharmacodynamic actions of this drug suggest that it may benefit patients with schizophrenia. Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have examined this possibility. These RCTs have been meta-analyzed by at least 2 groups of authors. In one meta-analysis (8 RCTs, pooled N = 448), memantine (20 mg/d for 6-12 weeks) augmentation of antipsychotic drug therapy was found to attenuate the severity of negative symptoms and improve cognitive functioning; in both regards, the effect was large...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178683/reducing-anticholinergic-medication-burden-in-patients-with-psychotic-or-bipolar-disorders
#18
Ana M Lupu, Kimberly Clinebell, Jessica M Gannon, Justin C Ellison, K N Roy Chengappa
OBJECTIVE: Anticholinergic medications are prescribed to treat extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) associated with antipsychotics. Anticholinergic medications cause several side effects and can often be withdrawn during the maintenance phase of antipsychotic treatment without EPS reemergence. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to reduce anticholinergic medication burden and improve quality of life in patients with severe mental illness. METHODS: Patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorders in an outpatient psychiatric clinic who were prescribed benztropine were identified, screened for anticholinergic side effects by the treating psychiatrist, and referred to an on-site clinical pharmacist for a comprehensive medication review...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175500/stress-hormones-and-verbal-memory-in-young-people-over-the-first-12-weeks-of-treatment-for-psychosis
#19
Kelly A Allott, Hok Pan Yuen, Cali F Bartholomeusz, Marta Rapado-Castro, Christina Phassouliotis, Felicity Butselaar, Stephen J Wood, Tina-Marie Proffitt, Greg Savage, Lisa J Phillips, Sarah Bendall, Connie Markulev, Renate L E P Reniers, Christos Pantelis, Lara Baldwin, Patrick D McGorry, Belinda Garner
AIMS: Memory impairment in psychosis may be mediated through detrimental effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. This study prospectively investigated the relationship between cortisol, sulphate dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA(S) and cortisol: DHEA(S) ratio and memory in 35 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients during the first 12 weeks of treatment and 23 healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Morning blood sampling and tests of attention, working memory and verbal memory occurred at baseline and 12-week follow-up...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153599/lps-induced-cortical-kynurenic-acid-and-neurogranin-nfat-signaling-is-associated-with-deficits-in-stimulus-processing-during-pavlovian-conditioning
#20
A Oliveros, K Wininger, J Sens, M K Larsson, X C Liu, S Choi, A Faka, L Schwieler, G Engberg, S Erhardt, D S Choi
The N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) and the post-synaptic calmodulin binding protein neurogranin (Nrgn) have been implicated in neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. This study indicates that systemic dual-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections increases KYNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is accompanied with increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa chain of activated B cells (NFκB) and activation of the nuclear factor of activated T- cells (NFAT)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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