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Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807457/identification-of-pseudobulbar-affect-symptoms-in-the-nursing-home-setting-development-and-assessment-of-a-screening-tool
#1
Carrie Allen, Barbara Zarowitz, Terrence O'Shea, Edward Peterson, Charles Yonan, Fanta Waterman
Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA) is a neurologic condition characterized by involuntary outbursts of crying and/or laughing disproportionate to patient mood or social context. Although an estimated 9% of nursing home residents have symptoms suggestive of PBA, they are not routinely screened. Our goal was to develop an electronic screening tool based upon characteristics common to nursing home residents with PBA identified through medical record data. Nursing home residents with PBA treated with dextromethorphan hydrobromide/quinidine sulfate (n = 140) were compared to age-, gender-, and dementia-diagnosis-matched controls without PBA or treatment (n = 140)...
August 11, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805504/neural-basis-of-altered-earlier-attention-and-higher-order-biological-motion-processing-in-schizophrenia
#2
Yukiko Matsumoto, Hideyuki Takahashi, Jun Miyata, Genichi Sugihara, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Schizophrenia patients have impairments of biological motion (BM) perception, which provides critical information about social cognition. Because social cognition is underpinned by attention, the impairments of BM perception in schizophrenia could be partially attributable to altered attention. To elucidate the impairments in attention and social perception in schizophrenia, we investigated the neural basis of impaired BM processing using MRI in respect to attention deficits by eye tracker. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to evaluate the relationship between BM perception and gray matter (GM) volume...
August 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795310/association-between-nos1-gene-polymorphisms-and-schizophrenia-in-asian-and-caucasian-populations-a-meta-analysis
#3
Shiek S S J Ahmed, R S Akram Husain, Suresh Kumar, V Ramakrishnan
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by memory impairments with delusions and hallucinations. Several investigations have focused on determining the association between NOS1 (nitric oxide synthase-1) polymorphisms and risk of schizophrenia (SZ). However, the association of rs2682826, rs3782206, rs499776, rs3782219, rs41279104, rs3782221, rs1879417, rs4767540, rs561712, and rs6490121 polymorphisms with schizophrenia remains inconclusive. We performed a systematic meta-analysis for each polymorphism to determine its association with SZ by calculating their pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals...
August 9, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782490/unmet-needs-in-schizophrenia
#4
Maurizio Pompili, Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780430/hippocampal-activation-and-memory-in-schizophrenia-depend-on-spatial-strategy-use-in-a-virtual-maze
#5
Leanne K Wilkins, Todd A Girard, Katherine A Herdman, Bruce K Christensen, Jelena King, Michael Kiang, Veronique D Bohbot
Different strategies may be spontaneously adopted to solve most navigation tasks. These strategies are associated with dissociable brain systems. Here, we use brain-imaging and cognitive tasks to test the hypothesis that individuals living with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) have selective impairment using a hippocampal-dependent spatial navigation strategy. Brain activation and memory performance were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the 4-on-8 virtual maze (4/8VM) task, a human analog of the rodent radial-arm maze that is amenable to both response-based (egocentric or landmark-based) and spatial (allocentric, cognitive mapping) strategies to remember and navigate to target objects...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777866/-association-of-val66met-polymorphism-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-with-cognitive-impairment-and-clinical-symptoms-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#6
Chengcheng Zhang, Xiaochu Gu, Qiang Wang, Mingli Li, Wei Deng, Wanjun Guo, Liansheng Zhao, Xiaohong Ma, Tao Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of cognitive impairment and clinical symptoms in first-episode schizophrenia with the Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. METHODS: For 87 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 76 healthy controls, the Val66Met polymorphism was determined with a Taqman Assay-on-Demand method. Wechsler intelligence test was carried out for all participants. Correlation of cognitive impairment with clinical severity was also analyzed...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768598/mismatch-negativity-in-preclinical-models-of-schizophrenia
#7
Robert E Featherstone, Olya Melnychenko, Steven J Siegel
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with profoundly disruptive positive and negative symptomology that result in difficulties building close relationships with others, performing daily tasks and sustaining independent living, resulting in poor social, vocational and occupational attainment (functional outcome). Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is a change in the sensory event-related potential that occurs in response to deviation from an established pattern of stimulation. Patients with schizophrenia show a reduction in MMN that is positively associated with impaired cognition and poor functional outcome...
July 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768312/association-of-white-matter-with-core-cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Peter Kochunov, Thomas R Coyle, Laura M Rowland, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Sinead Kelly, Xiaoming Du, Hemalatha Sampath, Heather Bruce, Joshua Chiappelli, Meghann Ryan, Feven Fisseha, Anya Savransky, Bhim Adhikari, Shuo Chen, Sara A Paciga, Christopher D Whelan, Zhiyong Xie, Craig L Hyde, Xing Chen, Christian R Schubert, Patricio O'Donnell, L Elliot Hong
Importance: Efforts to remediate the multiple cognitive function impairments in schizophrenia should consider white matter as one of the underlying neural mechanisms. Objective: To determine whether altered structural brain connectivity is responsible for 2 of the core cognitive deficits in schizophrenia- reduced information processing speed and impaired working memory. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study design took place in outpatient clinics from August 1, 2004, to August 31, 2015...
August 2, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763062/pathogen-mediated-nmda-receptor-autoimmunity-and-cellular-barrier-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#9
G Kannan, K L Gressitt, S Yang, C R Stallings, E Katsafanas, L A Schweinfurth, C L G Savage, M B Adamos, K M Sweeney, A E Origoni, S Khushalani, S Bahn, F M Leweke, F B Dickerson, R H Yolken, M V Pletnikov, E G Severance
Autoantibodies that bind the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may underlie glutamate receptor hypofunction and related cognitive impairment found in schizophrenia. Exposure to neurotropic pathogens can foster an autoimmune-prone environment and drive systemic inflammation leading to endothelial barrier defects. In mouse model cohorts, we demonstrate that infection with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, caused sustained elevations of IgG class antibodies to the NMDAR in conjunction with compromised blood-gut and blood-brain barriers...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760538/schizotypy-is-associated-with-reduced-mnemonic-precision-in-visual-working-memory
#10
Weizhen Xie, Marcus Cappiello, Hyung-Bum Park, Patricia Deldin, Raymond C K Chan, Weiwei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) maintains a limited amount of information over a short period of time at the service of other ongoing mental activities. Deficits in this function are often observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The present study examined whether self-report schizotypy was associated with the qualitative, quantitative, or both aspects of visual WM and whether these impairments could be accounted for by sensory memory deficits and/or depressed mood in a group of non-clinical, medication-naïve participants...
July 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758583/new-trends-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#11
Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756468/the-impact-of-cognitive-insight-self-stigma-and-medication-compliance-on-the-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Yin-Ju Lien, Hsin-An Chang, Yu-Chen Kao, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Chien-Wen Lu, Ching-Hui Loh
Impaired quality of life (QoL) is a common and clinically relevant feature of schizophrenia. In the present study, we attempted to formulate a model of QoL in the chronic stage of schizophrenia by including key variables-namely cognitive insight, self-stigma, insight into treatment, and medication compliance-that were proposed as its significant predictors in previous studies. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to simultaneously test the associations between these variables. A total of 170 community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia participated in this study...
July 29, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756110/a-comparative-meta-analysis-of-neurocognition-in-first-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#13
E Bora
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is a familial and heritable aspect of major psychoses and might be a shared vulnerability marker for schizophrenia and BP. However, it is not clear whether some aspects of cognitive deficits are uniquely associated with risk for specific diagnoses. METHODS: A novel meta-analysis of cognitive functions in first-degree relatives of probands with bipolar disorder (BP-Rel) and schizophrenia (Sch-Rel) was conducted. Current meta-analysis included 20 studies and compared cognitive functions of 1341 Sch-Rel, 939 BP-Rel and 1427 healthy controls...
July 5, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754595/mapping-the-consequences-of-impaired-synaptic-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-through-development-an-integrative-model-for-diverse-clinical-features
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer K Forsyth, David A Lewis
Schizophrenia is associated with alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions that emerge before psychosis onset; identifying pathogenic processes that can account for this multi-faceted phenotype remains a challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia. Given the role of synaptic plasticity in learning, memory, and neural circuit maturation, impaired plasticity may underlie many features of the schizophrenia syndrome. Here, we summarize the neurobiology of synaptic plasticity, review evidence that plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia, and explore a framework in which impaired synaptic plasticity interacts with brain maturation to yield the emergence of sensory, motor, cognitive, and psychotic features at different times during development in schizophrenia...
July 25, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748485/early-onset-first-episode-psychosis-dimensional-structure-of-symptoms-clinical-subtypes-and-related-neurodevelopmental-markers
#15
Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli, Lucia Margari, Andrea Bosco, Francesco Craig, Roberto Palumbi, Francesco Margari
Despite the growing interest in a dimensional approach to the assessment of symptoms and clinically relevant phenomena in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, very few studies, to date, have examined the dimensional structure of symptoms in early onset first episode psychosis. In the present study, we assessed a sample of 60 children and adolescents of both sexes with first episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was performed and the factors obtained were used to carry out a cluster analysis...
July 26, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746715/identification-of-genetic-loci-jointly-influencing-schizophrenia-risk-and-the-cognitive-traits-of-verbal-numerical-reasoning-reaction-time-and-general-cognitive-function
#16
Olav B Smeland, Oleksandr Frei, Karolina Kauppi, W David Hill, Wen Li, Yunpeng Wang, Florian Krull, Francesco Bettella, Jon A Eriksen, Aree Witoelar, Gail Davies, Chun C Fan, Wesley K Thompson, Max Lam, Todd Lencz, Chi-Hua Chen, Torill Ueland, Erik G Jönsson, Srdjan Djurovic, Ian J Deary, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen
Importance: Schizophrenia is associated with widespread cognitive impairments. Although cognitive deficits are one of the factors most strongly associated with functional outcome in schizophrenia, current treatment strategies largely fail to ameliorate these impairments. To develop more efficient treatment strategies in patients with schizophrenia, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these cognitive deficits is needed. Accumulating evidence indicates that genetic risk of schizophrenia may contribute to cognitive dysfunction...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743994/autistic-traits-and-positive-psychotic-experiences-modulate-the-association-of-psychopathic-tendencies-with-theory-of-mind-in-opposite-directions
#17
Steven M Gillespie, Ian J Mitchell, Ahmad M Abu-Akel
Various clinical disorders, including psychopathy, and autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, have been linked with impairments in Theory of Mind (ToM). However, although these conditions can co-occur in the same individual, the effect of their inter-play on ToM abilities has not been investigated. Here we assessed ToM abilities in 55 healthy adults while performing a naturalistic ToM task, requiring participants to watch a short film and judge the actors' mental states. The results reveal for the first time that autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences interact with psychopathic tendencies in opposite directions to predict ToM performance-the interaction of psychopathic tendencies with autism traits was associated with a decrement in performance, whereas the interaction of psychopathic tendencies and positive psychotic experiences was associated with improved performance...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743064/health-status-and-mobility-limitations-are-associated-with-residential-and-employment-status-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#18
M Strassnig, D Cornacchio, P D Harvey, R Kotov, L Fochtmann, E J Bromet
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are linked to multiple impairments in everyday functioning which share cognitive and symptom risk factors. Other risk factors for critical aspects of every day functioning (e.g., gainful employment; residential independence) such as physical health have not been evaluated, despite poor health in SCZ and BP. METHODS: We analyzed 20-year follow-up data from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort of consecutive first admissions with a psychotic disorder to 12 psychiatric facilities in Suffolk County, NY, between September 1989 and December 1995...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740829/no-association-between-symptom-severity-and-mmn-impairment-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analytic-approach
#19
Molly A Erickson, Matthew Albrecht, Abigail Ruffle, Leah Fleming, Philip Corlett, James Gold
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential that is consistently attenuated in people with schizophrenia. Within the predictive coding model of psychosis, MMN impairment is thought to reflect the same prediction failures that are also thought to underlie the development and crystallization of delusions and hallucinations. However, the true relationship between symptom severity and MMN impairment across studies has not yet been established. The present meta-analysis used meta-regressions to examine the relationship between MMN impairment (quantified as Hedges' g) and PANSS positive and negative symptom totals across 62 and 68 samples, respectively...
September 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740828/omega-3-fatty-acids-related-to-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Kazumi Satogami, Shun Takahashi, Shinichi Yamada, Satoshi Ukai, Kazuhiro Shinosaki
Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear. Involvement of omega-3 fatty acids in the cognitive function of healthy individuals and patients with neuropsychiatric disease has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The subjects included 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
September 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
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