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Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia

Mariachiara Buonocore, Margherita Bechi, Paola Uberti, Marco Spangaro, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Laura Bianchi, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Marta Bosia, Roberto Cavallaro
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reserve (CR), defined as individual differences in the ability to cope with brain damage, seem to be associated to the several psychopathological features in psychiatric patients, such as the functional outcome. This study aims to identify different profiles of CR by combining intelligence quotient (IQ) and premorbid functioning, two measures independently associated to CR in previous works, as well as to explore CR effect on both Theory of Mind (ToM) baseline performance and improvement after socio-cognitive trainings...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Mei-Hong Xiu, Dong Wang, Song Chen, Xiang-Dong Du, Da-Chun Chen, Nan Chen, Yue-Chan Wang, Guangzhong Yin, Yingyang Zhang, Yun-Long Tan, Raymond Y Cho, Jair C Soares, Xiang-Yang Zhang
Previous studies consistently showed that IL-3 signaling may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, investigations of associations between IL-3 and the neurocognitive impairments are lacking, including the study of how this may vary with stage of illness. We recruited 45 first-episode drug-naïve (FE-Sz), 35 chronic medicated schizophrenia (Ch-Sz) and 40 healthy controls (HC) and examined the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and serum IL-3. Altered serum IL-3 levels were found in both patient groups compared with HC group (both p < 0...
March 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Noa Tsujii, Wakako Mikawa, Toru Adachi, Tomoyuki Hirose, Osamu Shirakawa
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) share genetic risk factors and cognitive impairments, but these conditions may exhibit differences in cortical functioning associated with inhibitory control. We measured hemodynamic responses during a stop-signal task using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 20 patients with SZ, 21 patients with BD-I and 18 healthy controls (HCs). We used stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) to estimate behavioural inhibition. Compared with HCs, patients with either SZ or BD-I exhibited significantly reduced activation in the bilateral inferior, middle and superior frontal gyri...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Noriko Kudo, Hidenaga Yamamori, Tamaki Ishima, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Hirotsugu Azechi, Tomihisa Niitsu, Shusuke Numata, Manabu Ikeda, Masaomi Iyo, Tetsuro Ohmori, Masaki Fukunaga, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Kenji Hashimoto, Ryota Hashimoto
Background: An imbalance in the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) system, including soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Methods: We measured the plasma levels of sTNFR2 in 256 healthy controls and 250 patients with schizophrenia including antipsychotic drug-free patients and treatment-resistant patients. We also explored the possible association between plasma sTNFR2 levels and cognitive performance in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-Ⅲ), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ivan Koychev, John Francis William Deakin, Wael El-Deredy, Corinna Haenschel
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Electrophysiological studies suggest that impaired early visual processing may contribute to impaired WM in the visual domain. Abnormal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function has been implicated both in WM and in early visual processing deficits in schizophrenia. We investigated whether ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, would replicate in healthy volunteers the WM performance and early visual processing abnormalities we and others have reported in patients with schizophrenia...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Synthia Guimond, Shezal Padani, Olivia Lutz, Shaun Eack, Heidi Thermenos, Matcheri Keshavan
Schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit deficits in emotion regulation that affect their daily functioning. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in emotion regulation. However, it remains unclear how this brain region is involved in emotion regulation deficits in SZ, and how such deficits impact performance on cognitively demanding tasks. We examined how happy and fearful emotional distractors impact performance on working memory (WM) tasks of varying difficulty (0-back, 2-back), and brain activity using fMRI...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
A Özge Sungur, Lea Stemmler, Markus Wöhr, Marco B Rust
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and intellectual disability (ID) show a remarkable overlap in symptoms, including impairments in cognition, social behavior and communication. Human genetic studies revealed an enrichment of mutations in actin-related genes for these disorders, and some of the strongest candidate genes control actin dynamics. These findings led to the hypotheses: (i) that ASD, SCZ and ID share common disease mechanisms; and (ii) that, at least in a subgroup of affected individuals, defects in the actin cytoskeleton cause or contribute to their pathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Wan-Ju Cheng, Chun-Hsin Chen, Chih-Ken Chen, Ming-Chyi Huang, Robert H Pietrzak, John H Krystal, Ke Xu
BACKGROUND: Ketamine has been used to probe the biology of psychosis and cognitive dysfunction in humans. High levels of ketamine abuse are associated with persisting psychosis (KPP) in a minority of users. However, relatively little is known about cognitive function among KPP patients and whether the cognitive impairments associated with KPP resemble those of schizophrenia (SZ). METHODS: We recruited 149 treatment-seeking patients, including nonpsychotic ketamine users (KNP, n=51), KPP (n=23), and SZ (n=75) patients...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Sayaka Aikawa, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Takahiro Nemoto, Satoshi Matsuo, Yo Wada, Noriyuki Mamiya, Taiju Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Naohisa Tsujino, Masafumi Mizuno
Social anxiety is commonly reported as a comorbid condition among people with schizophrenia. The aims of this study were to elucidate the associations between demographic/clinical features and social anxiety. A total of 207 outpatients with schizophrenia underwent assessments for social anxiety, psychiatric symptoms, social cognition, cognitive function, social functioning, and quality of life (QOL). To confirm the prediction model for social anxiety, we conducted multiple linear regressions using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) score as an outcome variable and demographic/clinical variables as predictors...
February 20, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Patrik Roser, Eva-Maria Pichler, Benedikt Habermeyer, Wolfram Kawohl, Georg Juckel
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) generation is a characteristic finding in SCZ patients and cannabis users. This study therefore examined the effects of CUD on MMN generation in SCZ patients. METHODS: Twenty SCZ - CUD patients, 21 SCZ+CUD patients, and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. MMN to frequency and duration deviants was elicited within an auditory oddball paradigm and recorded by 32 channel EEG...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Deepak Cyril D'Souza, Richard E Carson, Naomi Driesen, Jason Johannesen, Mohini Ranganathan, John H Krystal
BACKGROUND: Glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitors may ameliorate cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia. The dose-related occupancy and target engagement of the GlyT1 inhibitor PF-03463275 were studied to inform optimal dose selection for a clinical trial for cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia. METHODS: In substudy 1, the effects of PF-03463275 (10, 20, and 40 mg twice a day) on occupancy of GlyT1 were tested using positron emission tomography and18 F-MK-6577, and visual long-term potentiation (LTP) in schizophrenia patients (SZs) and healthy control subjects...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Lone Baandrup, Julie A E Christensen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Poul Jennum
Neurocognitive impairment is a trait marker of schizophrenia, but no effective treatment has yet been identified. Sleep spindle deficits have been associated with diminished sleep-dependent memory learning. We examined whether this link could be extended into various cognitive domains by investigating the association of a neurocognitive test battery (the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) with sleep spindle activity and morphology. We examined 37 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia and medicated with both antipsychotics and benzodiazepines...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Marwa Daghsni, Saida Lahbib, Mohamed Fradj, Marwa Sayeb, Wided Kelmemi, Lilia Kraoua, Mariem Kchaou, Faouzi Maazoul, Slim Echebbi, Nadia Ben Ali, Sonia Abdelhak, Ridha M'rad
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is characterized by seizures, severe cognitive abnormalities, and behavior impairments. These features could evolve over time and get worse, especially when the encephalopathy is pharmacoresistant. Thus, genetic studies should provide a better understanding of infantile epilepsy syndromes. Herein, we investigate the genetics of JME in a consanguineous family analyzing the copy number variations detected using over 700 K SNP arrays. We identified a 254-kb deletion in the 22q11...
February 28, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Karolina Kozak, Maryam Sharif-Razi, Marya Morozova, Erin V Gaudette, Mera S Barr, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: High rates of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation failure in schizophrenia may be related to prefrontal cortical dysfunction. Novel treatment options for tobacco use disorder are needed given the limited efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. Preliminary evidence suggests high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may suppress tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to determine effects of rTMS for tobacco craving and cognition using a short-term (3-day) human laboratory paradigm...
February 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Nicole R DeTore, Kim T Mueser, Susan R McGurk
The Managing Emotions branch of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-ME) was included within the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) as the measure of social cognition, although limited research has examined its associations with psychosocial functioning in people with schizophrenia or other severe mental illnesses. This secondary analysis with 107 participants examined what the MSCEIT-ME contributes to our understanding of functioning in this population, and whether it uniquely predicts psychosocial functioning after controlling for performance on the other MCCB tests and negative symptoms...
February 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Lijuan Man, Xiaoli Lv, Xiang-Dong Du, Guangzhong Yin, Xiaomin Zhu, Yingyang Zhang, Jair C Soares, Xu-Na Yang, Xingshi Chen, Xiang Yang Zhang
Evidence shows that BDNF may regulate activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. Previous studies reported low BDNF levels and cognitive impairment in the early stage of schizophrenia. Our current study aimed to explore the association between serum BDNF and cognitive functions in first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with schizophrenia, which has been under-investigated. We recruited 80 FEDN patients and 80 healthy controls and examined the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and serum BDNF in both groups...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Arndis Simonsen, Riccardo Fusaroli, Joshua Charles Skewes, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn, Ole Mors, Vibeke Bliksted
Imitation plays a key role in social learning and in facilitating social interactions and likely constitutes a basic building block of social cognition that supports higher-level social abilities. Recent findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have imitation impairments that could contribute to the social impairments associated with the disorder. However, extant studies have specifically assessed voluntary imitation or automatic imitation of emotional stimuli without controlling for potential confounders...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
M Strassnig, R Kotov, L Fochtmann, M Kalin, E J Bromet, P D Harvey
BACKGROUND: Since the Iowa 500 study, residential and occupational status have been frequently used as indicators of everyday achievements in research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The relationships of residential and occupational status with impairment in multiple domains including physical health indicators across these two diagnoses, however, have rarely been studied. We examined these relationships at the 20-year follow-up assessment of a first-admission sample. METHODS: We included 146 participants with schizophrenia and 87 with bipolar disorder with psychosis who participated in the 20-year follow-up of the Suffolk County Mental Health Project...
February 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Dibyadeep Datta, Amy F T Arnsten
Schizophrenia is associated with core deficits in cognitive abilities and impaired functioning of the newly evolved prefrontal association cortex (PFC). In particular, neuropathological studies of schizophrenia have found selective atrophy of the pyramidal cell microcircuits in deep layer III of the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), and compensatory weakening of related GABAergic interneurons. Studies in monkeys have shown that recurrent excitation in these layer III microcircuits generates the precisely patterned, persistent firing needed for working memory and abstract thought...
February 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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