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Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646791/disorganised-schizotypy-is-selectively-associated-with-poorer-semantic-processing-in-non-clinical-individuals
#1
Eric Josiah Tan, Susan Lee Rossell
The nature and severity of semantic memory (SM) impairments in schizophrenia has been related to symptoms, mainly formal thought disorder (FTD), and other clinical factors like length of illness. Symptom-related studies in schizophrenia are often confounded by clinical factors, for example medication and hospitalisations. We completed a schizotypy analogue study to examine the relationship between SM processing and FTD using an analogue schizotypy score referred to as cognitive disorganisation. Sixty individuals without a history of mental illness (M=22...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646350/abnormal-rich-club-organization-associated-with-compromised-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-unaffected-parents
#2
Xin Zhao, Lin Tian, Jun Yan, Weihua Yue, Hao Yan, Dai Zhang
Schizophrenia is considered to be a disorder of brain connectivity, which might result from a disproportionally impaired rich-club organization. The rich-club is composed of highly interconnected hub regions that play crucial roles in integrating information between different brain regions. Few studies have yet investigated whether the structural rich-club organization is impaired in patients and their first-degree relatives. In this study, we established a weighted network model of white matter connections using diffusion tensor imaging of 19 patients and 39 unaffected parents, 22 young healthy controls for the patients, and 25 old healthy controls for the parents...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645229/cognitive-function-in-early-psychosis-patients-from-a-lower-middle-income-country
#3
Muhammed Omair Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Rachel Thomasson, Tayyeba Kiran, Paul Bassett, Muhammad I Husain, Farooq Naeem, Nusrat Husain
OBJECTIVES: To establish evidence of cognitive changes in early psychosis (EP) patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in Pakistan. METHODS: Fifty-one participants with EP were recruited from psychiatric units in Karachi and Rawalpindi, Pakistan and matched with 51 HC. Neurocognitive domains were assessed using standardised neuropsychological tests [the Stroop test, block design, Matrix Reasoning, picture completion, object assembly, oral fluency, memory for design, Coughlan learning task (verbal and visual)]...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645078/facial-affect-recognition-and-social-functioning-among-individuals-with-varying-degrees-of-schizotypy
#4
Marta Statucka, Deborah J Walder
Facial affect recognition (FAR) accuracy is impaired in schizophrenia and, to a lesser extent, in individuals at-risk for psychosis. Reduced reaction time and negative bias on FAR tasks are also evident in schizophrenia, though few studies have examined these measures in at-risk samples. Social dysfunction is associated with FAR deficits in schizophrenia and at-risk individuals. We aimed to elucidate the nature of FAR and social functioning among individuals from a non-clinical population reporting a range of schizotypal traits (i...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#5
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640119/relationships-between-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-metabolic-change-and-cognitive-impairment-in-first-episode-neuroleptic-naive-schizophrenia-patients
#6
Man-Li Huang, Thong-Teck Khoh, Shao-Jia Lu, Fen Pan, Jin-Kai Chen, Jian-Bo Hu, Shao-Hua Hu, Wei-Juan Xu, Wei-Hua Zhou, Ning Wei, Hong-Li Qi, De-Sheng Shang, Yi Xu
The present study aimed to explore the possible associations between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) metabolites and the cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia (FES).This study included 58 patients with FES (29 males and 29 females; mean age, 22.66 ± 7.64 years) recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and 43 locally recruited healthy controls (16 males and 27 females; mean age, 23.07 ± 7.49 years). The single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA); complex of glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (Glx); choline-containing compounds; and myo-inositol in the DLPFC...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636694/placebo-response-and-practice-effects-in-schizophrenia-cognition-trials
#7
Richard S E Keefe, Vicki G Davis, Philip D Harvey, Alexandra S Atkins, George M Haig, Owen Hagino, Stephen Marder, Dana C Hilt, Daniel Umbricht
Importance: Patients' previous experience with performance-based cognitive tests in clinical trials for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia can create practice-related improvements. Placebo-controlled trials for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia are at risk for these practice effects, which can be difficult to distinguish from placebo effects. Objectives: To conduct a systematic evaluation of the magnitude of practice effects on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia and to examine which demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics were associated with improvement in placebo conditions...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634088/duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-neurocognition-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Emre Bora, Berna Yalincetin, Berna Binnur Akdede, Koksal Alptekin
Neurocognitive impairment is a well-established feature of first-episode psychosis (FEP). Neurotoxicity hypothesis of psychosis suggests that untreated psychosis before the initiation of first effective treatment is associated with loss of acquired cognitive abilities. However, the outcome of the studies investigating the relationship between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and cognitive impairment in FEP remains inconclusive. No previous meta-analysis investigating the relationship between DUP and cognitive impairment in FEP has been published...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634087/treatment-with-levetiracetam-improves-cognition-in-a-ketamine-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#9
Ming Teng Koh, Yi Shao, Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson, Michela Gallagher
Imbalance in neural excitation and inhibition is associated with behavioral dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia and at risk for this illness. We examined whether targeting increased neural activity with the antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, would benefit memory performance in a preclinical model of schizophrenia that has been shown to exhibit hyperactivity in the hippocampus. Adult rats exposed to ketamine subchronically during late adolescence showed impaired hippocampal-dependent memory performance...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628794/neurological-soft-signs-but-not-theory-of-mind-and-emotion-recognition-deficit-distinguished-children-with-adhd-from-healthy-control
#10
Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Clementina Grelloni, Livia Casarelli, Elisa D'Agati, Simonetta Spiridigliozzi, Paolo Curatolo, Augusto Pasini
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with social cognition impairment, executive dysfunction and motor abnormalities, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition (ER) deficit of children with ADHD have been interpreted as a consequence of their executive dysfunction, particularly inhibitory control deficit. To our knowledge, there are not studies that evaluate the possible correlation between the ToM and ER deficit and NSS in the population with ADHD, while this association has been studied in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia...
June 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628790/associated-illness-severity-in-schizophrenia-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin I Perry, Dhanya Salimkumar, Daniel Green, Anne Meakin, Andrew Gibson, Deepali Mahajan, Tayyeb Tahir, Swaran P Singh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate whether schizophrenia and type II diabetes mellitus may present with associated illness severity, in light of accumulating evidence to suggest both conditions have important shared inflammatory components with many shared inflammatory genetic factors. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review employing PRISMA criteria, searching EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and Google Scholar to February 1st, 2017, for clinical studies assessing schizophrenia severity alongside dysglycaemia...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626392/sensing-the-worst-neurophenomenological-perspectives-on-neutral-stimuli-misperception-in-schizophrenia-spectrum
#12
Mariateresa Sestito, Josef Parnas, Carlo Maggini, Vittorio Gallese
While investigating social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, prominent evidence has been found that patients with schizophrenia show a tendency to misclassify neutral stimuli as negatively valenced. Within this population, patients presenting delusions are more prone to this phenomenon. In a previous study, Schizophrenia spectrum (SzSp) patients rated positive, negative and neutral stimuli that were multimodally presented, while assessed with a checklist exploring anomalous subjective experiences and evaluated for positive and negative symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625185/deterioration-of-visuospatial-associative-memory-following-a-first-psychotic-episode-a-long-term-follow-up-study
#13
C M J Wannan, C F Bartholomeusz, V L Cropley, T E Van Rheenen, A Panayiotou, W J Brewer, T M Proffitt, L Henry, M G Harris, D Velakoulis, P McGorry, C Pantelis, S J Wood
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, and impairments in most domains are thought to be stable over the course of the illness. However, cross-sectional evidence indicates that some areas of cognition, such as visuospatial associative memory, may be preserved in the early stages of psychosis, but become impaired in later established illness stages. This longitudinal study investigated change in visuospatial and verbal associative memory following psychosis onset...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618327/long-term-antipsychotic-and-benzodiazepine-use-and-brain-volume-changes-in-schizophrenia-the-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1966-study
#14
Sanna Huhtaniska, Erika Jääskeläinen, Tuomas Heikka, Jani S Moilanen, Heli Lehtiniemi, Jussi Tohka, José V Manjón, Pierrick Coupé, Lassi Björnholm, Hannu Koponen, Juha Veijola, Matti Isohanni, Vesa Kiviniemi, Graham K Murray, Jouko Miettunen
High doses of antipsychotics have been associated with loss in cortical and total gray matter in schizophrenia. However, previous imaging studies have not taken benzodiazepine use into account, in spite of evidence suggesting adverse effects such as cognitive impairment and increased mortality. In this Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study, 69 controls and 38 individuals with schizophrenia underwent brain MRI at the ages of 34 and 43 years. At baseline, the average illness duration was over 10 years. Brain structures were delineated using an automated volumetry system, volBrain, and medication data on cumulative antipsychotic and benzodiazepine doses were collected using medical records and interviews...
May 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605058/cardiovascular-pharmacogenomics-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Kristen M Ward, A Zarina Kraal, Stephanie A Flowers, Vicki L Ellingrod
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of multiple risk alleles for cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk on cognitive function, and to determine if these relationships varied by cognitive reserve (CR) or concomitant medication use in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ambulatory mental health centers. PATIENTS: A total of 122 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis who were maintained on a stable antipsychotic regimen for at least 6 months prior to study enrollment; patients were divided into three CR groups based on years of formal education: no high school completion or equivalent (low-education group [18 patients]); completion of high school or equivalent (moderate-education group [36 patients]; or any degree of post-high school education (high-education group [68 patients])...
June 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603875/impairments-of-spontaneous-and-deliberative-mentalizing-co-occur-yet-dissociate-in-schizophrenia
#16
Robyn Langdon, Michaela Flynn, Emily Connaughton, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Evidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others' mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing. METHODS: Forty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591067/bergamot-polyphenolic-fraction-supplementation-improves-cognitive-functioning-in-schizophrenia-data-from-an-8-week-open-label-pilot-study
#17
Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Manuela Crucitti, Clemente Cedro, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
BACKGROUND: Novel treatment strategies for cognitive dysfunctions may prevent long-term disability in patients with schizophrenia, and polyphenolic compounds might be a promising strategy. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia), a citrus fruit characterized by a high amount of flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, may represent a potential nutraceutical approach to cognitive dysfunction. The present study was aimed to explore the efficacy of bergamot polyphenolic fraction (BPF) supplementation on cognitive/executive functioning in a sample of patients with schizophrenia receiving second-generation antipsychotics...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590364/neurophysiological-effects-of-bitopertin-in-schizophrenia
#18
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Karen A Nolan, Michael L Epstein, Nayla Lehrfeld, Constance Shope, Eva Petkova, Daniel C Javitt
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Deficits in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function contribute to symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and are associated with impaired generation of event-related potential measures including auditory mismatch negativity. Parallel studies of the NMDAR agonist D-serine have suggested that sensitivity of these measures to glutamate-based interventions is related to symptomatic and cognitive response. Bitopertin is a selective inhibitor of glycine transport...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590362/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-oxytocin-or-galantamine-for-the-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-and-cognitive-impairments-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#19
Robert W Buchanan, Deanna L Kelly, Elaine Weiner, James M Gold, Gregory P Strauss, Maju M Koola, Robert P McMahon, William T Carpenter
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms and cognitive impairments tend to co-occur in people with schizophrenia. If their association with each other is due, in part, to shared pathophysiology, then this suggests that a single drug could potentially be effective for both domains. The current study was designed to examine this hypothesis. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Fifty-eight participants with either Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder entered into a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, randomized clinical trial of intranasal oxytocin and galantamine...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588507/neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-blood-brain-barrier-hyperpermeability-contribute-to-schizophrenia-neurobiology-a-theoretical-integration-of-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Souhel Najjar, Silky Pahlajani, Virginia De Sanctis, Joel N H Stern, Amanda Najjar, Derek Chong
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. It is a pathoetiologically heterogeneous disorder involving complex interrelated mechanisms that include oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurovascular endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability are established mechanisms in neurological disorders with comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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