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Skeletal muscle damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028830/er-stress-and-subsequent-activated-calpain-play-a-pivotal-role-in-skeletal-muscle-wasting-after-severe-burn-injury
#1
Li Ma, Wanli Chu, Jiake Chai, Chuanan Shen, Dawei Li, Xiaoteng Wang
Severe burns are typically followed by hypermetabolism characterized by significant muscle wasting, which causes considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle damage/wasting post-burn. Rats were randomized to the sham, sham+4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, a pharmacological chaperone promoting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) folding/trafficking, commonly considered as an inhibitor of ER), burn (30% total body surface area), and burn+4-PBA groups; and sacrificed at 1, 4, 7, 14 days after the burn injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026190/growth-hormone-secretagogues-hexarelin-and-jmv2894-protect-skeletal-muscle-from-mitochondrial-damages-in-a-rat-model-of-cisplatin-induced-cachexia
#2
Giuseppe Sirago, Elena Conte, Flavio Fracasso, Antonella Cormio, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Clara Musicco, Giulia Maria Camerino, Adriano Fonzino, Laura Rizzi, Antonio Torsello, Angela Maria Serena Lezza, Antonella Liantonio, Palmiro Cantatore, Vito Pesce
Chemotherapy can cause cachexia, which consists of weight loss associated with muscle atrophy. The exact mechanisms underlying this skeletal muscle toxicity are largely unknown and co-therapies to attenuate chemotherapy-induced side effects are lacking. By using a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia, we here characterized the mitochondrial homeostasis in tibialis anterior cachectic muscle and evaluated the potential beneficial effects of the growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) hexarelin and JMV2894 in this setting...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025253/pathology-of-mitochondria-in-melas-syndrome-an-ultrastructural-study
#3
Paulina Felczak, Eliza Lewandowska, Iwona Stępniak, Monika Ołdak, Agnieszka Pollak, Urszula Lechowicz, Elżbieta Pasennik, Tomasz Stępień, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
Ultrastructural changes in skeletal muscle biopsy in a 24-year-old female patient with clinically suspected mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome are presented. We observed proliferation and/or pleomorphism of mitochondria in skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells of arterioles, as well as in pericytes of capillaries. Paracrystalline inclusions were found only in damaged mitochondria of skeletal muscle. Genetic testing revealed a point mutation in A3243G tRNALeu(UUR) typical for MELAS syndrome...
2017: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018242/nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-activation-increases-exercise-endurance-capacity-via-redox-modulation-in-skeletal-muscles
#4
Sechang Oh, Shoichi Komine, Eiji Warabi, Kentaro Akiyama, Akiko Ishii, Kazunori Ishige, Yuji Mizokami, Keisuke Kuga, Masaki Horie, Yoshihiro Miwa, Takao Iwawaki, Masayuki Yamamoto, Junichi Shoda
Sulforaphane (SFN) plays an important role in preventing oxidative stress by activating the nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway. SFN may improve exercise endurance capacity by counteracting oxidative stress-induced damage during exercise. We assessed running ability based on an exhaustive treadmill test (progressive-continuous all-out) and examined the expression of markers for oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twelve- to 13-week-old Male wild-type mice (Nrf2 (+/+)) and Nrf2-null mice (Nrf2 (-/-)) on C57BL/6J background were intraperitoneally injected with SFN or vehicle prior to the test...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993426/effect-of-diabetes-status-and-hyperglycemia-on-global-dna-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation
#5
Jairo Arturo Pinzón-Cortés, Angelina Perna-Chaux, Nicolás Steven Rojas-Villamizar, Angelica Diaz-Basabe, Diana Carolina Polania-Villanueva, María Fernanda Jacome, Carlos Olimpo Mendivil, Helena Groot, Valeriano López-Segura
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by oxidative stress that could lead to chronic micro- and macro-vascular complications. We hypothesized that some of the target organ damage is mediated by oxidative alterations in epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation (5mC) and DNA hydroxymethylation (5hmC). We analyzed global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in peripheral blood cells in well-controlled and poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared them to healthy controls...
October 9, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988579/alcohol-misuse-and-kidney-injury-epidemiological-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#6
Zoltan V Varga, Csaba Matyas, Janos Paloczi, Pal Pacher
Chronic alcohol consumption is a well-known risk factor for tissue injury. The link between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and kidney injury is intriguing but controversial, and the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol may damage the kidneys are poorly understood. Epidemiological studies attempting to link AUD and kidney disease are, to date, inconclusive, and there is little experimental evidence directly linking alcohol consumption to kidney injury. However, studies conducted primarily in other organs and tissues suggest several possible mechanisms by which alcohol may promote kidney dysfunction...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986697/targeting-mitochondrial-function-and-proteostasis-to-mitigate-dynapenia
#7
REVIEW
Robert V Musci, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
Traditionally, interventions to treat skeletal muscle aging have largely targeted sarcopenia-the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. Dynapenia refers to the age-related loss in skeletal muscle function due to factors outside of muscle mass, which helps to inform treatment strategies for aging skeletal muscle. There is evidence that mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis and proteostasis, deteriorate with age. One key mechanism to maintain proteostasis is protein turnover, which is an energetically costly process...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982599/muscle-derived-extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-inhibits-endothelial-activation-and-protects-against-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-in-mice
#8
Jarrod A Call, Jean Donet, Kyle S Martin, Ashish K Sharma, Xiaobin Chen, Jiuzhi Zhang, Jie Cai, Carolina A Galarreta, Mitsuharu Okutsu, Zhongmin Du, Vitor A Lira, Mei Zhang, Borna Mehrad, Brian H Annex, Alexander L Klibanov, Russell P Bowler, Victor E Laubach, Shayn M Peirce, Zhen Yan
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a detrimental clinical complication in critically ill patients with high mortality. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative stress and endothelial activation (induced expression of adhesion molecules) of vital organ vasculatures are key, early steps in the pathogenesis. We aimed to ascertain the role and mechanism(s) of enhanced extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) expression in skeletal muscle in protection against MODS induced by endotoxemia. We showed that EcSOD overexpressed in skeletal muscle-specific transgenic mice (TG) redistributes to other peripheral organs through the circulation and enriches at the endothelium of the vasculatures...
October 2, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981145/rapid-versus-slow-ascending-vasodilatation-intercellular-conduction-versus-flow-mediated-signalling-with-tetanic-versus-rhythmic-muscle-contractions
#9
Shenghua Y Sinkler, Steven S Segal
In response to exercise, vasodilatation initiated within the microcirculation of skeletal muscle ascends the resistance network into upstream feed arteries (FAs) located external to the tissue. Ascending vasodilatation (AVD) is essential to reducing FA resistance that otherwise restricts blood flow into the microcirculation. We tested the hypothesis that signalling events underlying AVD vary with the intensity and duration of muscle contraction. In the gluteus maximus muscle of anaesthetized male C57BL/6 mice (age, 3-4 months), brief tetanic contraction (100 Hz, 500 ms) evoked rapid onset vasodilatation (ROV) in FAs that peaked within 4 s...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971270/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-iv-camkiv-mediates-acute-skeletal-muscle-inflammatory-response
#10
DanDan Shi, RuiCai Gu, YaFeng Song, MaoChao Ding, Tao Huang, MengXia Guo, JiangWei Xiao, WenHua Huang, Hua Liao
The objective of this study is to investigate the role of Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) in Cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced mice muscle inflammation. CTX injection i.m. was performed to induce B6 mice acute tibialis anterior (TA) muscle injury. The mice were then injected i.p. with the recombinant CaMKIV protein or its antagonist KN-93. Immunoblotting was used to assess Calmodulin (CaM) and CaMKIV levels. Immunofluorescence was used to detect intramuscular infiltration or major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I expression in damaged muscle...
October 2, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970581/levels-of-s100b-protein-drive-the-reparative-process-in-acute-muscle-injury-and-muscular-dystrophy
#11
Francesca Riuzzi, Sara Beccafico, Roberta Sagheddu, Sara Chiappalupi, Ileana Giambanco, Oxana Bereshchenko, Carlo Riccardi, Guglielmo Sorci, Rosario Donato
Regeneration of injured skeletal muscles relies on a tightly controlled chain of cellular and molecular events. We show that appropriate levels of S100B protein are required for timely muscle regeneration after acute injury. S100B released from damaged myofibers and infiltrating macrophages expands the myoblast population, attracts macrophages and promotes their polarization into M2 (pro-regenerative) phenotype, and modulates collagen deposition, by interacting with RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) or FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) depending on the muscle repair phase and local conditions...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966053/proteome-analysis-in-dystrophic-mdx-mouse-muscle-reveals-a-drastic-alteration-of-key-metabolic-and-contractile-proteins-after-chronic-exercise-and-the-potential-modulation-by-anti-oxidant-compounds
#12
Tania Gamberi, Tania Fiaschi, Elisa Valocchia, Alessandra Modesti, Paola Mantuano, Jean-Francois Rolland, Francesca Sanarica, Annamaria De Luca, Francesca Magherini
Weakness and fatigability are typical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and are aggravated in dystrophic mdx mice by chronic treadmill exercise. In the present study, we describe, the pattern of differentially abundant spots that is associated to the worsening of dystrophy phenotype induced by chronic exercise. Our proteomic analysis pointed out 34 protein spots with different abundance between sedentary and exercised mdx mice. These proteins belong mostly to glucose metabolism, energy production and sarcomere structure categories...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965608/-67-ga-as-a-biosensor-of-iron-needs-in-different-organs-study-performed-on-male-and-female-rats-subjected-to-iron-deficiency-and-exercise
#13
Patricia Vieyra-Reyes, Rigoberto Oros-Pantoja, Eugenio Torres-García, Agustín Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Jonathan Pérez-Honorato
The aim of the present study was to determine the iron needs in different organs and tissues using (67)Ga as a biosensor in males and females rats subjected to iron deficiency (ID) and voluntary exercise (EX). (67)Ga citrate was injected i.p. to female and male Wistar rats (n=5/sex/group). Groups: Control (sedentary conditions), Control+EX, ID and ID+EX. To determine the (67)Ga uptake, samples from the following regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted 12h post-injection: blood, liver, gonads, bone marrow, heart, adrenal glands, skeletal muscle, stomach, kidney, eyeball, sciatic nerve, small intestine and peritoneum...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965341/dynamic-expression-and-the-role-of-bdnf-in-exercise-induced-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#14
Tao Yu, Yun Chang, Xiao Lin Gao, Han Li, Peng Zhao
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a myokine. However, its role in skeletal muscle has not been well elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate its expression profile in skeletal muscle following downhill running and to explore its functions. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to sedentary and downhill running groups. Tail vein blood, total mRNA and protein from soleus muscle was obtained from rats at different time points post-exercise (1d, 3d, 5d, 7d and 14d). We found a significant elevation of BDNF mRNA level 5d and 7d post-exercise (p<0...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962182/gypenosides-induce-cell-death-and-alter-gene-expression-in-human-oral-cancer-hsc-3-cells
#15
Kung-Wen Lu, Yi-Shih Ma, Fu-Shun Yu, Yi-Ping Huang, Yung-Lin Chu, Rick Sai-Chuen Wu, Ching-Lung Liao, Fu-Shin Chueh, Jing-Gung Chung
Gypenosides (Gyp), the primary components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, have long been used as a Chinese herbal medicine. In the present study, the effects of Gyp on cell viability, the cell cycle, cell apoptosis, DNA damage and chromatin condensation were investigated in vitro using human oral cancer HSC-3 cells. The results of the present study indicated that Gyp induces cell death, G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in HSC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also demonstrated that Gyp decreased the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential in a time-dependent manner...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961497/irisin-protects-against-neuronal-injury-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-part-depends-on-the-inhibition-of-ros-nlrp3-inflammatory-signaling-pathway
#16
Juan Peng, Xian Deng, Wei Huang, Ji-Hua Yu, Jian-Xiong Wang, Jie-Ping Wang, Shi-Bin Yang, Xi Liu, Li Wang, Yun Zhang, Xiang-Yu Zhou, Hui Yang, Yan-Zheng He, Fang-Yuan Xu
Recent studies found that irisin, a newly discovered skeletal muscle-derived myokine during exercise, is also synthesized in various tissues of different species and protects against neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome play an important role in detecting cellular damage and mediating inflammatory responses to aseptic tissue injury during ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear whether irisin is involved in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation during ischemic stroke...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957804/mitochondrial-genome-encoded-proteins-expression-disorder-the-possible-mechanism-of-the-heart-disease-in-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Ningning Zheng, Dan Wei, Bo Dai, Lanyan Zheng, Mingyi Zhao, Na Xin, Zhihong Chi, Yiting Zhao, Tingxian Ma, Rabita Jahane, Luning Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The direct consequence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is the increased morbidity and mortality caused by the heart disease. We tried to explain why the heart is more severely damaged during MS from the point of mitochondria, the center of cellular metabolism. METHODS: 1. The classic diet induced MS rat model was used to observe the morphological changes of mitochondria by transmission electron microscope (TEM); 2. The expression of mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) encoded proteins was observed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot; 3...
September 29, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955716/muscle-damage-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#18
Hong-Xi Chen, Qin Zhang, Zhi-Yun Lian, Ju Liu, Zi-Yan Shi, Xiao-Hui Miao, Hui-Ru Feng, Qin Du, Jing-Lu Xie, Shao-Li Yao, Hong-Yu Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence has shown that skeletal muscle damage plays a role in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The objective of this study was to compare the serum creatine kinase (sCK) levels in NMOSD patients with different clinical statuses. METHODS: In the observational study, levels of sCK were measured during the acute and stable phases for patients with NMOSD and healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: We enrolled 168 patients with NMOSD (female:male ratio, 153:15; age: 43...
November 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951939/biological-and-pro-angiogenic-properties-of-genetically-modified-human-primary-myoblasts-overexpressing-placental-growth-factor-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#19
Agnieszka Zimna, Bartosz Wiernicki, Tomasz Kolanowski, Natalia Rozwadowska, Agnieszka Malcher, Wojciech Labedz, Tomasz Trzeciak, Katarzyna Chojnacka, Katarzyna Bednarek-Rajewska, Przemyslaw Majewski, Maciej Kurpisz
Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in developing countries; therefore, there is an ongoing intensive search for new approaches to treat these disorders. Currently, cellular therapies are focused on healing the damaged heart by implanting stem cells modified with pro-angiogenic factors. This approach ensures that the introduced cells are capable of fulfilling the complex requirements of the environment, including the replacement of the post-infarction scar with cells that are able to contract and promote the formation of new blood vessels that can supply the ischaemic region with nutrients and oxygen...
September 26, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951138/curcumin-attenuates-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-impairment-in-copd-rats-pgc-1%C3%AE-sirt3-pathway-involved
#20
Ming Zhang, Jingjing Tang, Yali Li, Yingying Xie, Hu Shan, Mingxia Chen, Jie Zhang, Xia Yang, Qiuhong Zhang, Xudong Yang
Curcumin has been widely used to treat numerous diseases due to its antioxidant property. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of curcumin on skeletal muscle mitochondria in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its underlying mechanism. The rat model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure combined with intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Airway inflammation and emphysema were notably ameliorated by the treatment with curcumin. Oral administration of curcumin significantly improved muscle fiber atrophy, myofibril disorganization, interstitial fibrosis and mitochondrial structure damage in the skeletal muscle of COPD rats...
September 23, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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