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Skeletal muscle damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921261/attempting-to-compensate-for-reduced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-with-nitrate-supplementation-cannot-overcome-metabolic-dysfunction-but-rather-has-detrimental-effects-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-muscle
#1
Cara A Timpani, Adam J Trewin, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ainsley Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Kulmira Nurgali, Andrew C Betik, Nigel Stepto, Alan Hayes, Glenn K McConell, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from the loss of dystrophin and is characterized by calcium dysregulation, muscular atrophy, and metabolic dysfunction. The secondary reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma reduces NO production and bioavailability. As NO modulates glucose uptake, metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics, we investigated whether an 8-week nitrate supplementation regimen could overcome metabolic dysfunction in the mdx mouse. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate (85 mg/l) in drinking water...
December 5, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920043/a-historical-perspective-on-crush-syndrome-the-clinical-application-of-its-pathogenesis-established-by-the-study-of-wartime-crush-injuries
#2
REVIEW
Dilini Peiris
Crush syndrome is a fine example of how pathology can play a direct role in revealing the best treatment and management for diseases. It can occur when crush injuries are sustained. Skeletal muscle becomes damaged under the weight of a heavy object, and victims experience severe shock and renal failure. The discovery of the pathology of crush syndrome belongs to two individuals: Seigo Minami and Eric Bywaters. They separately helped to define the pathogenesis of crush syndrome during World Wars I and II. Seigo Minami is believed to have been the first to record the pathogenesis of crush syndrome...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913296/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-insulin-stimulated-signaling-through-the-mek-redd1-mtor-axis
#3
Cory M Dungan, David L Williamson
Recent findings in adipocytes suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-regulated signaling kinase (ERK) kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) signaling regulates regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) protein expression. Similarly, our previous work show that a lack of REDD1 protein expression, and associated hyperactive basal mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, limits skeletal muscle's response to insulin. Therefore, we sought to determine: 1) if MEK1/2 inhibition is sufficient to reduce REDD1 protein expression and subsequently insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation via negative feedback of hyperactive mTOR in REDD1 wild-type (WT) mice and 2) if rapamycin-mediated mTOR inhibition is sufficient to improve IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in REDD1 knockout (KO) mice...
November 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911668/association-of-5-hydroxymethylation-and-5-methylation-of-dna-cytosine-with-tissue-specific-gene-expression
#4
V K Chaithanya Ponnaluri, Kenneth C Ehrlich, Guoqiang Zhang, Michelle Lacey, Douglas Johnston, Sriharsa Pradhan, Melanie Ehrlich
Differentially methylated or hydroxymethylated regions (DMRs) in mammalian DNA are often associated with tissue-specific gene expression but the functional relationships are still being unraveled. To elucidate these relationships, we studied 16 human genes containing myogenic DMRs by analyzing profiles of their epigenetics and transcription and quantitatively assaying 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) and 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) at specific sites in these genes in skeletal muscle (SkM), myoblasts, heart, brain, and diverse other samples...
December 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907123/mice-hemizygous-for-a-pathogenic-mitofusin-2-allele-exhibit-hind-limb-foot-gait-deficits-and-phenotypic-perturbations-in-nerve-and-muscle
#5
Peter Bannerman, Travis Burns, Jie Xu, Laird Miers, David Pleasure
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A), the most common axonal form of hereditary sensory motor neuropathy, is caused by mutations of mitofusin-2 (MFN2). Mitofusin-2 is a GTPase required for fusion of mitochondrial outer membranes, repair of damaged mitochondria, efficient mitochondrial energetics, regulation of mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum calcium coupling and axonal transport of mitochondria. We knocked T105M MFN2 preceded by a loxP-flanked STOP sequence into the mouse Rosa26 locus to permit cell type-specific expression of this pathogenic allele...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907044/coenzyme-q10-status-as-a-determinant-of-muscular-strength-in-two-independent-cohorts
#6
Alexandra Fischer, Simone Onur, Petra Niklowitz, Thomas Menke, Matthias Laudes, Gerald Rimbach, Frank Döring
Aging is associated with sarcopenia, which is a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is involved in several important functions that are related to bioenergetics and protection against oxidative damage; however, the role of CoQ10 as a determinant of muscular strength is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of muscular strength by examining hand grip force in relation to CoQ10 status, gender, age and body mass index (BMI) in two independent cohorts (n = 334, n = 967)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906078/four-week-rapamycin-treatment-improves-muscular-dystrophy-in-a-fukutin-deficient-mouse-model-of-dystroglycanopathy
#7
Steven J Foltz, Junna Luan, Jarrod A Call, Ankit Patel, Kristen B Peissig, Marisa J Fortunato, Aaron M Beedle
BACKGROUND: Secondary dystroglycanopathies are a subset of muscular dystrophy caused by abnormal glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (αDG). Loss of αDG functional glycosylation prevents it from binding to laminin and other extracellular matrix receptors, causing muscular dystrophy. Mutations in a number of genes, including FKTN (fukutin), disrupt αDG glycosylation. METHODS: We analyzed conditional Fktn knockout (Fktn KO) muscle for levels of mTOR signaling pathway proteins by Western blot...
June 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906076/pgc-1%C3%AE-modulates-necrosis-inflammatory-response-and-fibrotic-tissue-formation-in-injured-skeletal-muscle
#8
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Sabrina Di Fulvio, Arnaud Ferry, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle tissue has an enormous regenerative capacity that is instrumental for a successful defense against muscle injury and wasting. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) exerts therapeutic effects in several muscle pathologies, but its role in damage-induced muscle regeneration is unclear. METHODS: Using muscle-specific gain- and loss-of-function models for PGC-1α in combination with the myotoxic agent cardiotoxin (CTX), we explored the role of this transcriptional coactivator in muscle damage and inflammation...
November 8, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904757/brain-hemorrhage-after-electrical-burn-injury-case-report-and-probable-mechanism
#9
Gutierrez Aceves Guillermo Axayacalt, Ceja Espinosa Alejandro, Rios Alanis Marcos, Ruiz Flores Milton Inocencio, Herrera Gonzalez Jose Alfredo
BACKGROUND: High-voltage electric injury may induce lesion in different organs. In addition to the local tissue damage, electrical injuries may lead to neurological deficits, musculoskeletal damage, and cardiovascular injury. Severe vascular damage may occur making the blood vessels involved prone to thrombosis and spontaneous rupture. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we present the case of a 39-year-old male who suffered an electrical burn with high tension wire causing intracranial bleeding...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903048/resistance-exercise-induced-rhabdomyolysis-need-for-immediate-intervention-and-proper-counselling
#10
Maysaa A Khalil, Basem R Saab
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis results from damage to skeletal muscle. Improper resistance training may result in rhabdomyolysis, which can cause acute kidney injury, serious metabolic abnormalities, compartmental syndrome and even death. Proper counselling for athletes may prevent this condition. OBJECTIVE: We present two patients with unilateral swelling after resistance exercise. The workup revealed rhabdomyolysis. We highlight the importance of counselling to prevent rhabdomyolysis secondary to resistance exercise...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899787/mcardle-disease-misdiagnosed-as-meningitis
#11
Renata Siciliani Scalco, Sherryl Chatfield, Muhammad Hyder Junejo, Suzanne Booth, Jatin Pattni, Richard Godfrey, Ros Quinlivan
BACKGROUND McArdle disease is a glycogen storage disorder mainly characterized by exercise intolerance. Prolonged muscle contracture is also a feature of this condition and may lead to rhabdomyolysis (RM), which is a serious event characterized by acute skeletal muscle damage.  CASE REPORT A 44-year-old female patient presented with an acute contracture of the posterior neck muscles, causing severe nuchal rigidity. The contracture was induced during a dental extraction as she held her mouth open for a prolonged period, with her neck in a rigid position...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897115/cysteinet-dysregulation-in-muscular-dystrophies-a-pathogenic-network-susceptible-to-therapy
#12
Marcos Arturo Martínez-Banaclocha
BACKGROUND: Muscular dystrophies are inherited disorders characterized by progressive skeletal muscle degeneration without curative therapy. The specific defective protein in each type of muscular dystrophy has been associated with different deleterious factors that contribute to the progression of the disease. Among these factors, the impairment of calcium homeostasis, the ubiquitin-proteasome dysfunction, and the oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules seem to be of central importance...
November 29, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896815/how-and-why-are-calcium-currents-curtailed-in-the-skeletal-muscle-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#13
Bernhard E Flucher, Petronel Tuluc
Voltage-gated calcium channels represent the sole mechanism converting electrical signals of excitable cells into cellular functions such as contraction, secretion, and gene regulation. Specific voltage-sensing domains detect changes in membrane potentials and control channel gating. Calcium ions entering through the channel function as second messengers regulating cell functions; with the exception of skeletal muscle, where CaV 1.1 is essentially not functioning as channel but activates calcium release from intracellular stores...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895180/regulatory-t-cells-promote-myositis-and-muscle-damage-in-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#14
Richard M Jin, Sarah J Blair, Jordan Warunek, Reid R Heffner, Ira J Blader, Elizabeth A Wohlfert
The coordination of macrophage polarization is essential for the robust regenerative potential of skeletal muscle. Repair begins with a phase mediated by inflammatory monocytes (IM) and proinflammatory macrophages (M1), followed by polarization to a proregenerative macrophage (M2) phenotype. Recently, regulatory T cells (Tregs) were described as necessary for this M1 to M2 transition. We report that chronic infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes a nonresolving Th1 myositis with prolonged tissue damage associated with persistent M1 accumulation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884955/effect-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-on-vascular-function-and-skeletal-muscle-microvascular-deoxygenation
#15
Jacob T Caldwell, Garrett C Wardlow, Patrece A Branch, Macarena Ramos, Christopher D Black, Carl J Ade
This paper investigated the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on macro- and microvascular function. We tested the hypotheses that resting local and systemic endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and microvascular reactivity would decrease, V˙O2max would be altered, and that during ramp exercise, peripheral O2 extraction, evaluated via near-infrared-derived spectroscopy (NIRS) derived deoxygenated hemoglobin + myoglobin ([HHb]), would be distorted following EIMD In 13 participants, measurements were performed prior to (Pre) and 48 h after a bout of knee extensor eccentric exercise designed to elicit localized muscle damage (Post)...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878700/performance-of-native-and-contrast-enhanced-t1-mapping-to-detect-myocardial-damage-in-patients-with-suspected-myocarditis-a-head-to-head-comparison-of-different-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-techniques
#16
Jonathan Nadjiri, Hanna Nieberler, Eva Hendrich, Andreas Greiser, Albrecht Will, Stefan Martinoff, Martin Hadamitzky
Myocardial T1 mapping is a novel technique that has proven to be superior to standard imaging for differentiation between healthy individuals in acute myocarditis. Aim of this study was comparison of T1 mapping with a clinical biomarker. We retrospectively investigated 171 patients undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examination with suspected myocarditis by performing native and contrast enhanced T1-mapping. Additionally, T2w and T1w images and late gadolinium enhancement sequences (LGE) were utilized for myocardial evaluation; Lake Louise Criteria comprise T1w, T2w and LGE imaging in a score...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876986/prevalence-and-pathological-lesions-of-ovine-cysticercosis-in-slaughtered-sheep-in-western-iran
#17
Mohammad Hashemnia, Yasser Shahbazi, Ghasem Frajani Kish
Cysticercusovis, the intermediate stage of a canine tapeworm, Taenia ovis, produces cystic lesions in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of sheep which, if numerous, will result in the condemnation of an entire carcass. This study was carried out between March 2013 and March 2014 to estimate the prevalence of Taenia oviscysticercosis in sheep slaughtered at the Kermanshah municipal abattoir, in western Iran. Of 69,198 sheep examined, 833 (1.27 %) were infected with cysticerci of Taenia ovis. The prevalence of C...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875899/amelioration-of-energy-metabolism-by-melatonin-in-skeletal-muscle-of-rats-with-lps-induced-endotoxemia
#18
E Ozkok, H Yorulmaz, G Ates, A Aksu, N Balkis, Ö Şahin, S Tamer
In the literature, few studies have investigated the effects of melatonin on energy metabolism in skeletal muscle in endotoxemia. We investigated the effects of melatonin on tissue structure, energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, and antioxidant level of rats with endotoxemia. We divided rats into 4 groups, control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 mg/kg, i.p., single dose), melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p., three times), and melatonin + LPS. Melatonin was injected i.p. 30 min before and after the 2nd and 4th hours of LPS injection...
November 23, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872595/redox-mechanism-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-exercise
#19
REVIEW
Feng He, Juan Li, Zewen Liu, Chia-Chen Chuang, Wenge Yang, Li Zuo
It is well known that regular exercise can benefit health by enhancing antioxidant defenses in the body. However, unaccustomed and/or exhaustive exercise can generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress-related tissue damages and impaired muscle contractility. ROS are produced in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Mitochondria, NADPH oxidases and xanthine oxidases have all been identified as potential contributors to ROS production, yet the exact redox mechanisms underlying exercise-induced oxidative stress remain elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865007/anisotropic-materials-for-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#20
Soumen Jana, Sheeny K Lan Levengood, Miqin Zhang
Repair of damaged skeletal-muscle tissue is limited by the regenerative capacity of the native tissue. Current clinical approaches are not optimal for the treatment of large volumetric skeletal-muscle loss. As an alternative, tissue engineering represents a promising approach for the functional restoration of damaged muscle tissue. A typical tissue-engineering process involves the design and fabrication of a scaffold that closely mimics the native skeletal-muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), allowing organization of cells into a physiologically relevant 3D architecture...
November 16, 2016: Advanced Materials
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