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Skeletal muscle damage

Malcolm Maden
The spiny mouse, Acomys cahirinus, shows remarkable regenerative abilities after excisional skin wounding by regrowing hair, sebaceous glands, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and dermis without scarring. We have asked here whether this same regeneration can be seen after full thickness thermal burn injuries. Using a brass rod thermal injury model we show that in contrast to the lab mouse, Mus musculus, which forms a thick scar covered by a hairless epidermis, the spiny mouse regenerates all the tissues injured - skeletal muscle, dermis, hairs, sebaceous glands such that the skin is externally indistinguishable from its original appearance...
June 11, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Kevin A Murach, Davis A Englund, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson
Satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion is thought to be required for skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, and even drive hypertrophy by preceding growth. Recent studies in humans and rodents provide evidence that challenge this axiom. Specifically, Type 2 muscle fibers reliably demonstrate a substantial capacity to hypertrophy in the absence of myonuclear accretion, challenging the notion of a tightly regulated myonuclear domain (i.e., area that each myonucleus transcriptionally governs). In fact, a "myonuclear domain ceiling", or upper limit of transcriptional output per nucleus to support hypertrophy, has yet to be identified...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ann Rancourt, Sébastien S Dufresne, Guillaume St-Pierre, Julie-Christine Lévesque, Haruka Nakamura, Yodai Kikuchi, Masahiko S Satoh, Jérôme Frenette, Sachiko Sato
The muscle membrane, sarcolemma, must be firmly attached to the basal lamina. The failure of proper attachment results in muscle injury, which is the underlying cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), in which mutations in the dystrophin gene disrupts the firm adhesion. In patients with DMD, even moderate contraction causes damage, leading to progressive muscle degeneration. The damaged muscles are repaired through myogenesis. Consequently, myogenesis is highly active in patients with DMD, and the repeated activation of myogenesis leads to the exhaustion of the myogenic stem cells...
June 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Daisuke Tatebayashi, Koichi Himori, Ryotaro Yamada, Yuki Ashida, Mitsunori Miyazaki, Takashi Yamada
Eccentric (ECC) contractions are used to maintain skeletal muscle mass and strength in healthy subjects and patients. Here we investigated the effects of ECC training induced by electrical stimulation (ES) on muscle wasting in colon 26 (C-26) tumor-bearing mice. Mice were divided into four groups: control (CNT), CNT + ECC, C-26, and C-26 + ECC. Cancer cachexia was induced by a subcutaneous injection of C-26 cells and developed for four weeks. In experiment 1, muscle protein synthesis rate and mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 signaling were investigated six hours after one bout of ECC-ES (2 s contraction given every 6 s, 20°/s, 4 sets of 5 contractions)...
2018: PloS One
Malcolm Maden, Jason Orr Brant, Andres Rubiano, Aaron Gabriel W Sandoval, Chelsey Simmons, Robert Mitchell, Henry Collin-Hooper, Jason Jacobson, Saleh Omairi, Ketan Patel
The spiny mouse, Acomys cahirinus, is an adult mammal capable of remarkable feats of scar-free tissue regeneration after damage to several organs including the skin and the heart. Here we investigate the regenerative properties of the skeletal muscle of A. cahirinus tibialis anterior in comparison to the lab mouse, Mus musculus. The A. cahirinus TA showed a similar distribution of myosin heavy chain fibre types and a reduced proportion of oxidative fibres compared to M. musculus. There were differences in the matrix components of the TA with regard to collagen VI and the biomechanical properties...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Morium Begam, Alyssa F Collier, Amber L Mueller, Renuka Roche, Sujay S Galen, Joseph A Roche
B6.A-Dysfprmd /GeneJ (BLAJ) mice model human limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B), which is linked to mutations in the dysferlin (DYSF) gene. We tested the hypothesis that, the calcium ion (Ca2+ ) channel blocker diltiazem (DTZ), reduces contraction-induced skeletal muscle damage, in BLAJ mice. We randomly assigned mice (N = 12; 3-4 month old males) to one of two groups - DTZ (N = 6) or vehicle (VEH, distilled water, N = 6). We conditioned mice with either DTZ or VEH for 1 week, after which, their tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were tested for contractile torque and susceptibility to injury from forced eccentric contractions...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Erin F Barreto, Andrew D Rule, Stacy A Voils, Sandra L Kane-Gill
Over the last decade, the discovery and research into the application of novel renal biomarkers to improve medication efficacy and safety has expanded considerably. Pharmacists are uniquely positioned to leverage this new technology for renal assessment to improve medication dosing and monitoring. Serum cystatin C is a relatively new, inexpensive, functional renal biomarker that responds more quickly to changing renal function than creatinine and is not meaningfully affected by age, sex, skeletal muscle mass, dietary intake, or deconditioning...
June 8, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Luigi Formicola, Alice Pannérec, Rosa Maria Correra, Barbara Gayraud-Morel, David Ollitrault, Vanessa Besson, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Jennifer Lachey, Jasbir S Seehra, Giovanna Marazzi, David A Sassoon
Degenerative myopathies typically display a decline in satellite cells coupled with a replacement of muscle fibers by fat and fibrosis. During this pathological remodeling, satellite cells are present at lower numbers and do not display a proper regenerative function. Whether a decline in satellite cells directly contributes to disease progression or is a secondary result is unknown. In order to dissect these processes, we used a genetic model to reduce the satellite cell population by ~70-80% which leads to a nearly complete loss of regenerative potential...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Anna Capaldo, Flaminia Gay, Marilena Lepretti, Gaetana Paolella, Stefania Martucciello, Lillà Lionetti, Ivana Caputo, Vincenza Laforgia
The presence of illicit drugs in the aquatic environment represents a new potential risk for aquatic organisms, due to their constant exposure to substances with strong pharmacological activity. Currently, little is known about the ecological effects of illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental concentrations of cocaine, an illicit drug widespread in surface waters, on the skeletal muscle of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). The skeletal muscle of silver eels exposed to 20 ng L-1 of cocaine for 50 days were compared to control, vehicle control and two post-exposure recovery groups (3 and 10 days after interruption of cocaine)...
June 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Beat Knechtle, Mirko Stjepanovic, Celina Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Caio V Sousa, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
Knechtle, B, Stjepanovic, M, Knechtle, C, Rosemann, T, Sousa, CV, and Nikolaidis, PT. Physiological responses to swimming repetitive "Ice Miles." J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-"Ice Mile" swimming (i.e., 1,608 m in water of below 5° C) is becoming increasingly popular. Since the foundation of the International Ice Swimming Association (IISA) in 2009, official races are held as World Cup Races and World Championships. Ice swimming was a demonstration sport at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Toru Tamaki, Ken Muramatsu, Masako Ikutomo, Naomi Oshiro, Hisae Hayashi, Masatoshi Niwa
Skeletal muscle fiber subtypes are differentially sensitive to diabetes-related pathology; For example, fast-twitch muscles exhibit severe decreases in contraction force while slow-twitch muscles demonstrate prolonged half-relaxation time. However, such alterations have only been examined after a relatively short period following diabetes onset, with no information available regarding muscle damage caused by longer disease periods (>20 weeks). This study examined alterations in the contractile properties of the medial gastrocnemius (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles, as well as morphological changes in their motor neurons 12 and 22 weeks after diabetes onset...
June 6, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Weiya Zhang, Yueyuan Xu, Lu Zhang, Sheng Wang, Binxu Yin, Shuhong Zhao, Xinyun Li
Satellite cells play a key role in the aging, generation, and damage repair of skeletal muscle. The molecular mechanism of satellite cells in these processes remains largely unknown. This study systematically investigated for the first time the characteristics of mouse satellite cells at ten different ages. Results indicated that the number and differentiation capacity of satellite cells decreased with age during skeletal muscle development. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 2,907 genes were differentially expressed at six time points at postnatal stage...
June 4, 2018: Aging Cell
Akaolisa S Eziokwu, Dana Angelini
A 24-year-old African-American man presented with malaise and low back pain and was found to have acute severe rhabdomyolysis followed by acute hemolysis. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was suspected by the presence of blister cells on peripheral smear and was confirmed by a low enzyme activity assay. Our patient reported playing football, along with upper respiratory infection symptoms, prior to presentation. Extensive infectious and toxicology workup was negative; however, several inflammatory proteins were markedly elevated...
March 28, 2018: Curēus
Elia Angelino, Simone Reano, Alessandro Bollo, Michele Ferrara, Marilisa De Feudis, Hana Sustova, Emanuela Agosti, Sara Clerici, Flavia Prodam, Catherine-Laure Tomasetto, Andrea Graziani, Nicoletta Filigheddu
PURPOSE: Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells (SCs), quiescent precursors that, in consequence of injury or pathological states such as muscular dystrophies, activate, proliferate, and differentiate to repair the damaged tissue. A subset of SCs undergoes self-renewal, thus preserving the SC pool and its regenerative potential. The peptides produced by the ghrelin gene, i.e., acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UnAG), and obestatin (Ob), affect skeletal muscle biology in several ways, not always with overlapping effects...
May 30, 2018: Endocrine
Bo Xu, Yizhou Wang, Xiujuan Li, Yanfei Mao, Xiaoming Deng
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are closely associated with the regulation of various biological processes and are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the role of lncRNAs in ventilator‑induced lung injury (VILI) has yet to be evaluated. In the present study, high‑throughput sequencing was applied to investigate differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs (fold change >2; false discovery rate <0.05). Bioinformatics analysis was employed to predict the functions of differentially expressed lncRNAs...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rui Duan, Ji Hoon Kim, Khurts Shilagardi, Eric S Schiffhauer, Donghoon M Lee, Sungmin Son, Shuo Li, Claire Thomas, Tianzhi Luo, Daniel A Fletcher, Douglas N Robinson, Elizabeth H Chen
Spectrin is a membrane skeletal protein best known for its structural role in maintaining cell shape and protecting cells from mechanical damage. Here, we report that α/βH -spectrin (βH is also called karst) dynamically accumulates and dissolves at the fusogenic synapse between fusing Drosophila muscle cells, where an attacking fusion partner invades its receiving partner with actin-propelled protrusions to promote cell fusion. Using genetics, cell biology, biophysics and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that spectrin exhibits a mechanosensitive accumulation in response to shear deformation, which is highly elevated at the fusogenic synapse...
June 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Masatoshi Ishizaki, Michio Kobayashi, Katsuhito Adachi, Tsuyoshi Matsumura, En Kimura
Skeletal muscle or cardiac symptoms are known to appear in a certain proportion of female patients carrying the dystrophin gene mutation. There is limited high-quality evidence to guide the treatment of female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). The available evidence is mainly based on expert opinions and clinical experience. To improve this situation, we reviewed 1002 reports published from 1967 to 2017 to assess the following themes: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, cardiomyopathy, burdens on parents or caregivers, pregnancy or delivery, and prognosis...
May 2, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Angelika Schmitt, Anne-Lena Haug, Franziska Schlegel, Annunziata Fragasso, Barbara Munz
Physical exercise can induce various adaptation reactions in skeletal muscle tissue, such as sarcomere remodeling. The latter involves degradation of damaged sarcomere components, as well as de novo protein synthesis and sarcomere assembly. These processes are controlled by specific protease systems in parallel with molecular chaperones that assist in folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains and their incorporation into sarcomeres. Since acute exercise induces oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to activation of the transcription factor NFκB (nuclear factor kappa B), we speculated that this transcription factor might also play a role in the regulation of long-term adaptation to regular exercise...
May 24, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Agus Suryawan, Teresa A Davis
Background: Feeding stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates and this response is regulated through activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The identity of signaling components that regulate mTORC1 activation in neonatal muscle has not been fully elucidated. Objective: We investigated the independent effects of the rise in amino acids (AAs) and insulin after a meal on the abundance and activation of potential regulators of mTORC1 in muscle and whether the responses are modified by development...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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