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Skeletal muscle damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649515/higher-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mcardle-disease-patients
#1
Jan J Kaczor, Holly A Robertshaw, Mark A Tarnopolsky
McArdle disease (MCD) is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency. The resultant block in glycogenolysis leads to an increased flux through the xanthine oxidase pathway (myogenic hyperuricemia) and could lead to an increase in oxidative stress. We examined markers of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane and protein carbonyls), NAD(P)H-oxidase, xanthine oxidase and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activity in skeletal muscle of MCD patients (N = 12) and controls (N = 12)...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649426/conserved-and-species-specific-molecular-denominators-in-mammalian-skeletal-muscle-aging
#2
Evi M Mercken, Miriam Capri, Bethany A Carboneau, Maria Conte, Juliana Heidler, Aurelia Santoro, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Husam Khraiwesh, José A González-Reyes, Ruin Moaddel, Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, José M Villalba, Julie A Mattison, Ilka Wittig, Claudio Franceschi, Rafael de Cabo
Aging is a complex phenomenon involving functional decline in multiple physiological systems. We undertook a comparative analysis of skeletal muscle from four different species, i.e. mice, rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans, at three different representative stages during their lifespan (young, middle, and old) to identify pathways that modulate function and healthspan. Gene expression profiling and computational analysis revealed that pathway complexity increases from mice to humans, and as mammals age, there is predominantly an upregulation of pathways in all species...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646096/heat-stress-causes-dysfunctional-autophagy-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#3
Alexandra J Brownstein, Shanthi Ganesan, Corey M Summers, Sarah Pearce, Benjamin J Hale, Jason W Ross, Nicholas Gabler, Jacob T Seibert, Robert P Rhoads, Lance H Baumgard, Joshua T Selsby
We have previously established that 24 h of environmental hyperthermia causes oxidative stress and have implicated mitochondria as likely contributors to this process. Given this, we hypothesized that heat stress would lead to increased autophagy/mitophagy and a reduction in mitochondrial content. To address this hypothesis pigs were housed in thermoneutral (TN; 20°C) or heat stress (35°C) conditions for 1- (HS1) or 3- (HS3) days and the red and white portions of the semitendinosus collected. We did not detect differences in glycolytic muscle...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637492/expression-patterns-of-fshd-causing-dux4-and-myogenic-transcription-factors-pax3-and-pax7-are-spatially-distinct-in-differentiating-human-stem-cell-cultures
#4
Premi Haynes, Kelly Kernan, Suk-Lin Zhou, Daniel G Miller
BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is most commonly inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and caused by the abnormal expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. The DUX4 transcription factor has DNA binding domains similar to several paired class homeotic transcription factors, but only myogenic factors PAX3 and PAX7 rescue cell viability when co-expressed with DUX4 in mouse myoblasts. This observation suggests competition for DNA binding sites in satellite cells might limit muscle repair and may be one aspect of DUX4-associated myotoxicity...
June 21, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631758/bioengineered-constructs-combined-with-exercise-enhance-stem-cell-mediated-treatment-of-volumetric-muscle-loss
#5
Marco Quarta, Melinda Cromie, Robert Chacon, Justin Blonigan, Victor Garcia, Igor Akimenko, Mark Hamer, Patrick Paine, Merel Stok, Joseph B Shrager, Thomas A Rando
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is associated with loss of skeletal muscle function, and current treatments show limited efficacy. Here we show that bioconstructs suffused with genetically-labelled muscle stem cells (MuSCs) and other muscle resident cells (MRCs) are effective to treat VML injuries in mice. Imaging of bioconstructs implanted in damaged muscles indicates MuSCs survival and growth, and ex vivo analyses show force restoration of treated muscles. Histological analysis highlights myofibre formation, neovascularisation, but insufficient innervation...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623559/ifn-%C3%AE-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-damage-contribute-to-muscle-impairment-and-inflammation-maintenance-in-dermatomyositis
#6
Alain Meyer, Gilles Laverny, Yves Allenbach, Elise Grelet, Vanessa Ueberschlag, Andoni Echaniz-Laguna, Béatrice Lannes, Ghada Alsaleh, Anne Laure Charles, François Singh, Joffrey Zoll, Evelyne Lonsdorfer, François Maurier, Olivier Boyer, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Anne Sophie Nicot, Jocelyn Laporte, Olivier Benveniste, Daniel Metzger, Jean Sibilia, Bernard Geny
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disease associated with enhanced type I interferon (IFN) signalling in skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms underlying muscle dysfunction and inflammation perpetuation remain unknown. Transcriptomic analysis of early untreated DM muscles revealed that the main cluster of down-regulated genes was mitochondria-related. Histochemical, electron microscopy, and in situ oxygraphy analysis showed mitochondrial abnormalities, including increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased respiration, which was correlated with low exercise capacities and a type I IFN signature...
June 16, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623422/effects-of-omega-3-on-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-myoblast-transplantation-and-satellite-cell-activation-in-dystrophin-deficient-muscle-fibers
#7
Samara Camaçari de Carvalho, Sajedah M Hindi, Ashok Kumar, Maria Julia Marques
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), lack of dystrophin leads to progressive muscle degeneration, with DMD patients suffering from cardiorespiratory failure. Cell therapy is an alternative to life-long corticoid therapy. Satellite cells, the stem cells of skeletal muscles, do not completely compensate for the muscle damage in dystrophic muscles. Elevated levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, such as metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), impair muscle regeneration, leading to extensive fibrosis and poor results with myoblast transplantation therapies...
June 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618761/the-effects-of-iloprost-and-alprostadil-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-preventing-inflammation-tissue-degeneration-and-apoptosis-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#8
Elif Güneysu, Atacan Emre Koçman, Orhan Özatik, Cengiz Ovali, Betül Can, İbrahim Özkan Alataş, Mustafa Behçet Sevin
BACKGROUND/AIM: The protective effects of prostaglandin (PG) analogs on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) have been well documented; however, comparative studies are lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine whether iloprost or alprostadil is more effective in preventing muscle I/R injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): sham, control, IL (I/R + iloprost), and AL (I/R + alprostadil). I/R was induced by a tourniquet in the hindlimb for 3 h/3 h...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609447/blood-biomarkers-in-male-and-female-participants-after-an-ironman-distance-triathlon
#9
Tom Danielsson, Jörg Carlsson, Hendrik Schreyer, Jonas Ahnesjö, Lasse Ten Siethoff, Thony Ragnarsson, Åsa Tugetam, Patrick Bergman
BACKGROUND: While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607093/prostaglandin-e2-is-essential-for-efficacious-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell-function-augmenting-regeneration-and-strength
#10
Andrew T V Ho, Adelaida R Palla, Matthew R Blake, Nora D Yucel, Yu Xin Wang, Klas E G Magnusson, Colin A Holbrook, Peggy E Kraft, Scott L Delp, Helen M Blau
Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the EP4 receptor, leading to MuSC expansion. An acute treatment with PGE2 suffices to robustly augment muscle regeneration by either endogenous or transplanted MuSCs...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600493/adiponectin-modulates-oxidative-stress-induced-mitophagy-and-protects-c2c12-myoblasts-against-apoptosis
#11
Yinghui Ren, Yan Li, Jun Yan, Mingkun Ma, Dongmei Zhou, Zhenyi Xue, Zimu Zhang, Hongkun Liu, Huipeng Yang, Long Jia, Lijuan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Shuqin Mu, Rongxin Zhang, Yurong Da
Adiponectin (APN), also known as apM1, Acrp30, GBP28 and adipoQ, is a circulating hormone that is predominantly produced by adipose tissue. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated that this protein possesses potent anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Although several studies have demonstrated the antioxidative activity of this protein, the regulatory mechanisms have not yet been defined in skeletal muscles. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytoprotective effects of APN against damage induced by oxidative stress in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600325/hira-deficiency-in-muscle-fibers-causes-hypertrophy-and-susceptibility-to-oxidative-stress
#12
Nicolas Valenzuela, Benjamin Soibam, Lerong Li, Jing Wang, Lauren A Byers, Yu Liu, Robert J Schwartz, M David Stewart
Nucleosome assembly proceeds through DNA replication-coupled or replication-independent mechanisms. For skeletal myocytes, whose nuclei have permanently exited the cell cycle, replication-independent assembly is the only mode available for chromatin remodeling. For this reason, any nucleosome composition alterations accompanying transcriptional responses to physiological signals must occur through a DNA replication-independent pathway. HIRA is the histone chaperone primarily responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599297/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#13
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597552/branched-chain-%C3%AE-ketoacid-dehydrogenase-kinase-111-130-a-t-cell-epitope-that-induces-both-autoimmune-myocarditis-and-hepatitis-in-a-j-mice
#14
Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Francisco A Uzal, Jennifer L Strande, Gustavo A Delhon, Jean-Jack Riethoven, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
INTRODUCTION: Organ-specific autoimmune diseases are believed to result from immune responses generated against self-antigens specific to each organ. However, when such responses target antigens expressed promiscuously in multiple tissues, then the immune-mediated damage may be wide spread. METHODS: In this report, we describe a mitochondrial protein, branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDk ) that can act as a target autoantigen in the development of autoimmune inflammatory reactions in both heart and liver...
June 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596337/cardiac-regeneration-strategies-staying-young-at-heart
#15
REVIEW
Eldad Tzahor, Kenneth D Poss
The human heart is continually operating as a muscular pump, contracting, on average, 80 times per minute to propel 8000 liters of blood through body tissues each day. Whereas damaged skeletal muscle has a profound capacity to regenerate, heart muscle, at least in mammals, has poor regenerative potential. This deficiency is attributable to the lack of resident cardiac stem cells, combined with roadblocks that limit adult cardiomyocytes from entering the cell cycle and completing division. Insights for regeneration have recently emerged from studies of animals with an elevated innate capacity for regeneration, the innovation of stem cell and reprogramming technologies, and a clearer understanding of the cardiomyocyte genetic program and key extrinsic signals...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595536/neuroprotective-effects-of-drug-induced-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#16
Junwei Ma, Yibin Wang, Zhong Wang, Haiying Li, Zhimin Wang, Gang Chen
Cerebrovascular diseases often cause neurological deficits. Experimental studies have shown that drug-induced hypothermia alleviates brain damage and plays a neuroprotective role, thereby reducing mortality and ameliorating neurological deficits. Therefore, drug-induced hypothermia has an important research value and is further considered in the clinical setting. However, drug-induced hypothermia is also associated with side effects, such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, suppressed immune function, infection, electrolyte imbalance, glucose metabolism disorders, and skeletal muscle tremor...
June 6, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587976/mechanosensing-of-matrix-by-stem-cells-from-contractility-and-matrix-heterogeneity-to-cardiogenesis-and-muscle-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Lucas Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells are particularly 'plastic' cell types that are induced by various cues to become specialized, tissue-functional lineages by switching on the expression of specific gene programs. Matrix stiffness is among the cues that multiple stem cell types can sense and respond to. This seminar-style review focuses on mechanosensing of matrix elasticity in the differentiation or early maturation of a few illustrative stem cell types, with an intended audience of biologists and physical scientists. Contractile forces applied by a cell's acto-myosin cytoskeleton are often resisted by the extracellular matrix and transduced through adhesions and the cytoskeleton ultimately into the nucleus to modulate gene expression...
June 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576866/heat-induced-calcium-leakage-causes-mitochondrial-damage-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-body-wall-muscles
#18
Kenta Momma, Takashi Homma, Ruri Isaka, Surabhi Sudevan, Atsushi Higashitani
Acute onset of organ failure in heatstroke is triggered by rhabdomyolysis of skeletal muscle. To gain insight into heat-induced muscle breakdown, we investigated alterations of Ca(2+) homeostasis and mitochondrial morphology in vivo in body-wall muscles of Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to elevated temperature. Heat stress for 3h at 35°C increased the concentration of free cytosolic Ca(2+), and led to mitochondrial fragmentation and subsequent dysfunction in the muscle cells. A similar mitochondrial fragmentation phenotype is induced in the absence of heat stress by treatment with a calcium ionophore, ionomycin...
June 1, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575733/biomaterials-for-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#19
REVIEW
Brian J Kwee, David J Mooney
Although skeletal muscle can naturally regenerate in response to minor injuries, more severe damage and myopathies can cause irreversible loss of muscle mass and function. Cell therapies, while promising, have not yet demonstrated consistent benefit, likely due to poor survival of delivered cells. Biomaterials can improve muscle regeneration by presenting chemical and physical cues to muscle cells that mimic the natural cascade of regeneration. This brief review describes strategies for muscle repair utilizing biomaterials that can provide signals to either transplanted or host muscle cells...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568606/coupling-of-excitation-to-ca-2-release-is-modulated-by-dysferlin
#20
Valeriy Lukyanenko, Joaquin M Muriel, Robert J Bloch
Dysferlin concentrates in the transverse tubules of skeletal muscle and stabilizes Ca(2+) transients when muscle fibres are subjected to osmotic shock injury (OSI). We show here that voltage-induced Ca(2+) transients elicited in dysferlin-null A/J myofibers are smaller than control A/WySnJ fibres. Regional expression of Venus-dysferlin chimeras in A/J fibres restores the full amplitude of the Ca(2+) transients and protects against OSI. We also show that drugs that target ryanodine receptors (RyR1: dantrolene, tetracaine, S107) and L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC: nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem) prevent the decrease in Ca(2+) transients in A/J fibres following OSI...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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