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Skeletal muscle damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822807/spontaneous-activation-of-a-mavs-dependent-antiviral-signaling-pathway-determines-high-basal-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-cardiac-myocytes
#1
Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Nicole DeAngelis, Barbara Sherry
Viral myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden death in young adults as the limited turnover of cardiac myocytes renders the heart particularly vulnerable to viral damage. Viruses induce an antiviral type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response in essentially all cell types, providing an immediate innate protection. Cardiac myocytes express high basal levels of IFN-β to help pre-arm them against viral infections, however the mechanism underlying this expression remains unclear. Using primary cultures of murine cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, we demonstrate here that the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway is spontaneously activated in unstimulated cardiac myocytes but not cardiac fibroblasts or skeletal muscle cells...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822763/activating-transcription-factor-3-regulates-chemokine-expression-in-contracting-c2c12-myotubes-and-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-after-eccentric-exercise
#2
R Fernández-Verdejo, A M Vanwynsberghe, T Hai, L Deldicque, M Francaux
Activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 regulates chemokine expression in various cell types and tissues. Herein, we studied this regulation in contracting muscle cells in vitro, and in skeletal muscle after muscle-damaging exercise in vivo. C2C12 myotubes with normal or low ATF3 levels (atf3_siRNA) were electrically stimulated (EPS). Also, ATF3-knockout (ATF3-KO) and control mice ran downhill until exhaustion, and muscles were analyzed post-exercise. EPS increased ATF3 levels in myotubes (P < 0.01). Chemokine C-C motif ligand (ccl) 2 mRNA increased post-EPS, but atf3_siRNA attenuated the response (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#3
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810980/risk-factors-for-rhabdomyolysis-in-the-u-s-army
#4
Owen T Hill, Dennis E Scofield, Jenna Usedom, Lakmini Bulathsinhala, Craig McKinnon, Paul Kwon, Timothy Haley, Robert Carter
The standardized mortality rate of rhabdomyolysis (RM) in Active Duty U.S. Army Soldiers is considerably higher than in the civilian population. RM occurs when large amounts of intracellular contents from damaged skeletal muscle escape into circulation, leading to serious sequelae (e.g., acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, compartment syndrome). Extended physical exertion, especially in hot environments, and trauma can precipitate RM. The aim of this study was to identify RM risk factors among U.S. Active Duty Army (ADA) Soldiers...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802226/taraxerol-a-pentacyclic-triterpenoid-from-abroma-augusta-leaf-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#5
Ritu Khanra, Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Jatin Kalita, Prasenjit Manna, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycaemia coupled with inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of taraxerol isolated from the methanol extract of Abroma augusta leaf against DN using rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was experimentally induced by high fat diet and a single low-single dose of streptozotocin (35mg/kg, i.p.). Accumulation of serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid, activation of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinin kinase, and release of urinary albumin represented the glomerular damage and the progression of nephropathy in T2D rats...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798690/risk-of-myopathy-in-patients-in-therapy-with-statins-identification-of-biological-markers-in-a-pilot-study
#6
Giulia M Camerino, Olimpia Musumeci, Elena Conte, Kejla Musaraj, Adriano Fonzino, Emanuele Barca, Marco Marino, Carmelo Rodolico, Domenico Tricarico, Claudia Camerino, Maria R Carratù, Jean-François Desaphy, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Toscano, Sabata Pierno
Statin therapy may induce skeletal muscle damage ranging from myalgia to severe rhabdomyolysis. Our previous preclinical studies showed that statin treatment in rats involves the reduction of skeletal muscle ClC-1 chloride channel expression and related chloride conductance (gCl). An increase of the activity of protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) isoform, able to inactivate ClC-1, may contribute to destabilize sarcolemma excitability. These effects can be detrimental for muscle function leading to drug-induced myopathy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797108/natural-disease-history-of-mouse-models-for-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-types-2d-and-2f
#7
S Pasteuning-Vuhman, K Putker, C L Tanganyika-de Winter, J W Boertje-van der Meulen, L van Vliet, M Overzier, J J Plomp, A Aartsma-Rus, M van Putten
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F (LGMD 2D and 2F) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the alpha- and delta sarcoglycan genes, respectively, leading to severe muscle weakness and degeneration. The cause of the disease has been well characterized and a number of animal models are available for pre-clinical studies to test potential therapeutic interventions. To facilitate transition from drug discovery to clinical trials, standardized procedures and natural disease history data were collected for these mouse models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796154/the-ability-of-exercise-associated-oxidative-stress-to-trigger-redox-sensitive-signalling-responses
#8
REVIEW
Richard Webb, Michael G Hughes, Andrew W Thomas, Keith Morris
In this review, we discuss exercise as an oxidative stressor, and elucidate the mechanisms and downstream consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the mitochondria of contracting skeletal myocytes; also, their diffusion across the myocyte membrane allows their transport to neighbouring muscle tissue and to other regions of the body. Although very intense exercise can induce oxidative damage within myocytes, the magnitudes of moderate-intensity exercise-associated increases in ROS are quite modest (~two-fold increases in intracellular and extracellular ROS concentrations during exercise), and so the effects of such increases are likely to involve redox-sensitive signalling effects rather than oxidative damage...
August 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795394/mitophagy-in-maintaining-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-proteostasis-and-metabolic-health-with-aging
#9
Joshua C Drake, Zhen Yan
Skeletal muscle is important for overall functionality and health. Aging is associated with an accumulation of damage to mitochondria DNA and proteins. In particular, damage to mitochondrial proteins in skeletal muscle, which is a loss of mitochondrial proteostasis, contributes to tissue dysfunction and negatively impacts systemic health. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of mitochondrial proteostasis and how those mechanisms change with age is important for the development of interventions to promote healthy aging...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792061/role-of-nerve-muscle-interactions-and-ros-in-regulation-of-muscle-proteostasis-with-aging
#10
Aphrodite Vasilaki, Arlan Richardson, Holly Van Remmen, Susan V Brooks, Lisa Larkin, Anne McArdle, Malcolm J Jackson
Skeletal muscle aging is characterised by atrophy, a deficit in specific force generation, increased susceptibility to injury, and incomplete recovery after severe damage. The hypothesis that increased generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in vivo plays a key role in the aging process has been extensively studied, but remains controversial. Skeletal muscle generates ROS at rest and during exercise. ROS can cause oxidative damage particularly to proteins. Indeed, products of oxidative damage accumulate in skeletal muscle during aging and the ability of muscle cells to respond to increased ROS becomes defective...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791501/skeletal-muscle-mass-to-visceral-fat-area-ratio-is-an-important-determinant-affecting-hepatic-conditions-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Takashi Shida, Kentaro Akiyama, Sechang Oh, Akemi Sawai, Tomonori Isobe, Yoshikazu Okamoto, Kazunori Ishige, Yuji Mizokami, Kenji Yamagata, Kojiro Onizawa, Hironori Tanaka, Hiroko Iijima, Junichi Shoda
BACKGROUND: Not only obesity but also sarcopenia is associated with NAFLD. The influence of altered body composition on the pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine whether skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio) affects NAFLD pathophysiology. METHODS: A total of 472 subjects were enrolled. The association between SV ratio and NAFLD pathophysiological factors was assessed in a cross-sectional nature by stratification analysis...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769615/non-destructive-morphological-observations-of-the-fleshy-brittle-star-asteronyx-loveni-using-micro-computed-tomography-echinodermata-ophiuroidea-euryalida
#12
Masanori Okanishi, Toshihiko Fujita, Yu Maekawa, Takenori Sasaki
The first morphological observation of a euryalid brittle star, Asteronyx loveni, using non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) was performed. The body of euryalids is covered by thick skin, and it is very difficult to observe the ossicles without dissolving the skin. Computed tomography with micrometer resolution (approximately 4.5-15.4 µm) was used to construct 3D images of skeletal ossicles and soft tissues in the ophiuroid's body. Shape and positional arrangement of taxonomically important ossicles were clearly observed without any damage to the body...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767482/high-intensity-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-and-skeletal-muscle-damage-in-post-pubertal-boys-and-girls-a-comparative-study
#13
Sangita Pal, Biswajit Chaki, Sreya Chattopadhyay, Amit Bandyopadhyay
The purpose of this study was to examine the gender variation in high intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary post-pubertal boys and girls through estimation of post exercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminio transferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotranferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of Lipid Peroxidation (TBARS) and Catalase (CAT) activity. Muscle damage markers like CK, LDH, ALT and AST were measured before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours after high intensity incremental treadmill running...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745821/comparative-pathogenesis-of-piscirickettsiosis-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolt-experimentally-challenged-with-lf-89-like-and-em-90-like-piscirickettsia-salmonis-isolates
#14
M Rozas-Serri, R Ildefonso, A Peña, R Enríquez, S Barrientos, L Maldonado
Piscirickettsiosis (SRS) is the most prevalent bacterial disease in Chilean salmon aquaculture and is responsible for high economic losses. The aim of this study was to comparatively characterize the pathogenesis of SRS in post-smolt Atlantic salmon during the early and late stages of infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89-like (PS-LF-89) and EM-90-like (PS-EM-90) using a cohabitation challenge. The pathogenesis of cohabitant fish infected with the two isolates was relatively different due to cohabitant fish infected with PS-EM-90 showing higher cumulative mortality and shorter time until death compared with PS-LF-89 fish...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744984/redox-homeostasis-and-age-related-deficits-in-neuromuscular-integrity-and-function
#15
REVIEW
Giorgos K Sakellariou, Adam P Lightfoot, Kate E Earl, Martin Stofanko, Brian McDonagh
Skeletal muscle is a major site of metabolic activity and is the most abundant tissue in the human body. Age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia) and weakness, characterized by progressive loss of lean muscle mass and function, is a major contributor to morbidity and has a profound effect on the quality of life of older people. With a continuously growing older population (estimated 2 billion of people aged >60 by 2050), demand for medical and social care due to functional deficits, associated with neuromuscular ageing, will inevitably increase...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744328/ultrasonographic-imaging-and-anti-inflammatory-therapy-of-muscle-and-tendon-injuries-using-polymer-nanoparticles
#16
Gi-Wook Kim, Changsun Kang, Young-Bin Oh, Myoung-Hwan Ko, Jeong-Hwan Seo, Dongwon Lee
Ultrasonography is a reliable diagnostic modality for muscle and tendon injuries, but it has been challenging to find right diagnosis of minor musculoskeletal injuries by conventional ultrasonographic imaging. A large amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated during tissue damages such as mechanical injury and therefore H2O2 holds great potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker for mechanical injuries in the musculoskeletal system. We previously developed poly(vanillyl alcohol-co-oxalate) (PVAX), which rapidly scavenges H2O2 and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in H2O2-associated diseases...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742227/melatonin-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-and-death-in-differentiated-skeletal-muscle-cells
#17
Sara Salucci, Michela Battistelli, Valentina Baldassarri, Debora Burini, Elisabetta Falcieri, Sabrina Burattini
Oxidative stress increase induces cellular damage and apoptosis activation, a mechanism believed to represent a final common pathway correlated to sarcopenia and many skeletal muscle disorders. The goal of this study is to evaluate if melatonin, a ROS scavenger molecule, is able to counteract or modulate myotube death. Here, differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells have been treated with melatonin before chemicals known to induce apoptotic death and oxidative stress, and its effect has been investigated by means of morpho-functional analyses...
July 25, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740219/role-of-p66shc-in-skeletal-muscle-function
#18
Veronica Granatiero, Gaia Gherardi, Matteo Vianello, Elsa Salerno, Erika Zecchini, Luana Toniolo, Giorgia Pallafacchina, Marta Murgia, Bert Blaauw, Rosario Rizzuto, Cristina Mammucari
p66shc is a growth factor adaptor protein that contributes to mitochondrial ROS production. p66shc is involved in insulin signaling and its deletion exerts a protective effect against diet-induced obesity. In light of the role of skeletal muscle activity in the control of systemic metabolism and obesity, we investigated which is the contribution of p66shc in regulating muscle structure and function. Here, we show that p66shc(-/-) muscles are undistinguishable from controls in terms of size, resistance to denervation-induced atrophy, and force...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739532/denervated-muscle-fibers-induce-mitochondrial-peroxide-generation-in-neighboring-innervated-fibers-role-in-muscle-aging
#19
Natalie Pollock, Caroline A Staunton, Aphrodite Vasilaki, Anne McArdle, Malcolm J Jackson
Disruption of neuromuscular junctions and denervation of some muscle fibers occurs in ageing skeletal muscle and contribute to loss of muscle mass and function. Aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of redox homeostasis potentially occurs through increased mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). No specific link between increased mitochondrial ROS generation and denervation has been defined in muscle ageing. To address this, we have examined the effect of experimental denervation of all fibers, or only a proportion of the fibers, in the mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscle on muscle mitochondrial peroxide generation...
July 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735850/enhanced-energetic-state-and-protection-from-oxidative-stress-in-human-myoblasts-overexpressing-bmi1
#20
Silvia Dibenedetto, Maria Niklison-Chirou, Claudia P Cabrera, Matthew Ellis, Lesley G Robson, Paul Knopp, Francesco Saverio Tedesco, Martina Ragazzi, Valentina Di Foggia, Michael R Barnes, Aleksandar Radunovic, Silvia Marino
The Polycomb group gene BMI1 is essential for efficient muscle regeneration in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and its enhanced expression in adult skeletal muscle satellite cells ameliorates the muscle strength in this model. Here, we show that the impact of mild BMI1 overexpression observed in mouse models is translatable to human cells. In human myoblasts, BMI1 overexpression increases mitochondrial activity, leading to an enhanced energetic state with increased ATP production and concomitant protection against DNA damage both in vitro and upon xenografting in a severe dystrophic mouse model...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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