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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319472/infective-endocarditis-in-children-an-update
#1
Garth Dixon, Georgi Christov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infective endocarditis in children remains a clinical challenge. Here, we review the impact of the updated 2015 American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology guidelines on management as well as the significance of the new predisposing factors, diagnostic and treatment options, and the impact of the 2007-2008 change in prophylaxis recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: The new 2015 infective endocarditis guidelines introduced the endocarditis team, added the new imaging modalities of computer tomography and PET-computer tomography into the diagnostic criteria and endorsed the concept of safety of relatively early surgical treatment...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318981/idiopathic-intradural-dorsal-thoracic-arachnoid-cysts-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Heath French, Arjuna Somasundaram, Michael Biggs, Jonathon Parkinson, Rodney Allan, Jonathon Ball, Nicholas Little
BACKGROUND: Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts (SIAC) are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled sacs formed by arachnoid membranes and may be either idiopathic or acquired. Idiopathic cysts represent a separate entity and their aetiology remains uncertain. By far the most difficult differential diagnosis is distinguishing between idiopathic anterior spinal cord herniation (IASCH) and dorsal thoracic intradural arachnoid cysts (TIAC), due to their similarity in radiological appearance. Cine-mode (SSFP) is emerging as a novel technique in the diagnosis and operative planning of SIAC...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317528/surgical-therapies-for-vitiligo
#3
REVIEW
Tasneem F Mohammad, Iltefat H Hamzavi
Surgical management is a safe and effective treatment modality for select patients with vitiligo. Many techniques of vitiligo surgery exist, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. Preoperative screening for appropriate candidates, selection of surgical technique, and postoperative management are all key elements in enabling patients to achieve maximal repigmentation.
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317403/intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-current-management-and-emerging-therapies
#4
Amir A Rahnemai-Azar, Allison B Weisbrod, Mary Dillhoff, Carl Schmidt, Timothy M Pawlik
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a malignancy with an increasing incidence and a high-case fatality. While surgery offers the best hope at long-term survival, only one-third of tumors are amenable to surgical resection at the time of the diagnosis. Unfortunately, conventional chemotherapy offers limited survival benefit in the management of unresectable or metastatic disease. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of iCCA and the use of next-generation sequencing techniques have provided a chance to identify "target-able" molecular aberrations...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317394/an-update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-polycystic-liver-disease
#5
May Yw Wong, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Simone I Strasser
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is characterized by the presence of multiple cholangiocyte-derived hepatic cysts that progressively replace liver tissue. They are classified as an inherited ciliopathy /cholangiopathy as pathology exists at the level of the primary cilia of cholangiocytes. Aberrant expression of the proteins in primary cilia can impair their structures and functions, thereby promoting cystogenesis. Areas covered: This review begins by looking at the epidemiology of PLD and its natural history...
March 18, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315827/contemporary-management-of-low-grade-glioma-a-paradigm-shift-in-neuro-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Caroline Hayhurst
Supratentorial diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas represent a distinct but heterogenous group of tumours, with the propensity to grow and to differentiate into malignant tumours. They have been historically viewed in the 'benign' spectrum of intrinsic brain tumours, so a watch-and-wait policy was often adopted. With recent advances in our understanding of the natural history of these tumours, combined with advances in surgical technique, an aggressive approach is now recommended. Increasing quality evidence of the impact of tumour resection and multicentre trials of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have led to a new algorithm for low-grade glioma management...
March 18, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315515/tailored-corneo-conjunctival-autografting-in-primary-and-secondary-pterygium-surgery
#7
Mahmoud M Genidy, Ahmed A Abdelghany, Jorge L Alio
PURPOSE: To describe the outcomes of a novel technique for pterygium removal: tailored corneo-conjunctival autograft, which offers the advantages of better postoperative cosmetic outcomes and recurrence prevention. METHODS: This retrospective interventional noncomparative study included 420 eyes in 370 patients (ages 25-60 years) (127 women, 243 men). We divided the patients into 2 groups. The first group included 348 primary pterygium; the second group included 72 recurrent pterygium...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314405/management-of-skull-base-defects-after-surgical-resection-of-sinonasal-and-ventral-skull-base-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Jean Anderson Eloy, Emily Marchiano, Alejandro Vázquez, Michael J Pfisterer, Leila J Mady, Soly Baredes, James K Liu
Over the past 2 decades, there has been a significant increase in the resection of larger and more complex ventral skull base malignancies. The resection of these lesions has resulted in the creation of larger and more difficult to repair skull base defects. There are many available options for ventral skull base reconstruction. Despite the variety of reconstructive options, the key objective is to eliminate any communication between the intracranial space and the sinonasal cavity. This article discusses some of the more common techniques currently used for repair of these skull base defects...
April 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314403/management-of-cavernous-sinus-involvement-in-sinonasal-and-ventral-skull-base-malignancies
#9
REVIEW
Amol Raheja, William T Couldwell
Cavernous sinus (CS) involvement by sinonasal and ventral skull base malignancies is infrequently encountered in neurosurgical practice. Despite advancements in skull base microneurosurgery and endoscopic techniques, detailed knowledge and experience of the surgical management of these lesions are limited. This article elaborates on surgical strategies and approaches for CS involvement of malignant ventral skull base tumors. The article discusses the indications, techniques, nuances, advantages, limitations, and complications of minimally invasive CS biopsy, transcranial microscopic, and transfacial endoscopic approaches to the CS using illustrative diagrams and operative videos...
April 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314402/management-of-orbital-involvement-in-sinonasal-and-ventral-skull-base-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Gregory S Neel, Thomas H Nagel, Joseph M Hoxworth, Devyani Lal
The orbit may be frequently involved by sinonasal or ventral skull base malignancy. This involvement bodes a poorer prognosis for survival. Multimodality therapy with surgery and radiation therapy is usually attempted to optimize local control and overall survival. Oncologic surgical resection with negative margins is critical to local control and survival. In the past, any involvement of the orbit was deemed to necessitate orbital sacrifice. However, contemporary studies show that in carefully selected cases, orbital preservation does not adversely impact survival...
April 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314401/combined-endoscopic-and-open-approaches-in-the-management-of-sinonasal-and-ventral-skull-base-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
James K Liu, Anni Wong, Jean Anderson Eloy
Combined transcranial and endoscopic endonasal approaches remain useful in the treatment of ventral skull base malignancies. The extended bifrontal transbasal approach provides wide access to the anterior ventral skull base and paranasal sinuses without transfacial incisions. In more extensive lesions, the bifrontal transbasal approach can then be combined with an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) from below. This article reviews the indications, surgical technique, and operative nuances of combined transbasal and EEA (cranionasal) approaches for the surgical management of ventral skull base malignancies...
April 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314400/endoscopic-resection-of-clival-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
Adam J Folbe, Peter F Svider, James K Liu, Jean Anderson Eloy
Surgical management of clival lesions presents numerous therapeutic challenges because of the close proximity of surrounding critical structures. With a detailed understanding of the endoscopic endonasal approach and relevant considerations, appropriate lesions can be removed in a safe and minimally invasive manner. Use of this technique as a primary approach represents the standard of care for many lesions at leading skull base centers, although adjunct techniques may be necessary in extensive lesions and those with significant lateral extension...
April 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314224/image-guided-system-endoscopic-drainage-of-orbital-abscess-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-infant
#13
Tan Chai-Lee, Sanjeevan Nadarajah, Baharudin Abdullah, Irfan Mohamad, Thevagi Maruthamuthu, Chandran Nadarajan, Talib Norain, Ismail Shatriah
INTRODUCTION: The management of orbital abscesses in neonates and infants is very challenging. Surgical drainage of the abscess is aimed at removing the pus and preventing blindness. We describe a case of orbital abscess in an infant that was caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and that was successfully drained with image-guided endoscopic surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 39-day-old infant presented with progressive right maxillary swelling complicated by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital abscess...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303383/surgical-management-of-coronal-and-sagittal-imbalance-of-the-spine-without-pso-a-multicentric-cohort-study-on-compensated-adult-degenerative-deformities
#14
Alessandro Ramieri, Massimo Miscusi, Maurizio Domenicucci, Antonino Raco, Giuseppe Costanzo
PURPOSE: Sagittal imbalance of severe adult degenerative deformities requires surgical correction to improve pain, mobility and quality of life. Our aim was a harmonic and balanced spine, treating a series of adult degenerative thoracolumbar and lumbar kyphoscoliosis by a non posterior subtraction osteotomy technique. METHODS: We operated 22 painful thoracolumbar and lumbar compensated degenerative deformities by anterior (ALIF), extreme lateral (XLIF) and transforaminal (TLIF) interbody fusion and grade 2 osteotomy (SPO) to restore lumbar lordosis and mobilize the coronal curve...
March 16, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302363/new-surgical-technique-for-creation-of-a-continent-appendicostomy-invaginated-appendicostomy
#15
Maria Zornoza, Alejandro Ruiz-Montañez, Guillermo Victoria-Morales, Luis De la Torre-Mondragón
INTRODUCTION: The main complications of appendicostomy are stenosis and stomal fecal leakage. Although many authors report that the appendix is naturally continent, it is recommended to perform a plication of the cecum with the appendix to prevent stomal fecal leakage. We present here the creation of a different continent mechanism. Our technique is advantageous when the anatomy, vascularity, or the length of the appendix does not allow for a standard plication procedure. DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIVE TECHNIQUE: During 2014-2016 we performed four appendicostomies in patients with anorectal malformations with fecal incontinence that requested an "Antegrade Continent Enema" procedure after a successful bowel management program in the Colorectal Center for Children of Mexico...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301093/demonstration-of-transoral-robotic-supraglottic-laryngectomy-and-total-laryngectomy-in-cadaveric-specimens-using-the-medrobotics-flex-system
#16
Emily Funk, David Goldenberg, Neerav Goyal
BACKGROUND: Current management of laryngeal malignancies is associated with significant morbidity. Application of minimally invasive transoral techniques may reduce the morbidity associated with traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to present our investigation of the utility of a novel flexible robotic system for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. METHODS: Transoral total laryngectomy and transoral supraglottic laryngectomy were performed in cadaveric specimens using the Flex Robotic System (Medrobotics, Raynham, MA)...
March 16, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299273/guidelines-for-patient-specific-jawline-definition-with-titanium-implants-in-esthetic-deformity-and-malformation-surgery
#17
Maurice Yves Mommaerts
CONTEXT: Asymmetry and unfavorable esthetics of the jawline have become possible to correct in three dimensions using computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing. AIMS: The aim of this study was to provide esthetic, technical, and operative guidelines for mandibular angle and border augmentation using patient-specific titanium implants made by selective laser melting. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: University hospital - prospective registry...
July 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299228/surgical-management-of-unusual-biangular-mandibular-fractures
#18
Stefan Cocis, Umberto Autorino, Fabio Roccia, Chiara Corio
Bilateral mandibular angle fractures, while representing a rarity among mandibular fractures, are a huge challenge of complex management for the maxillofacial surgeon. There are still many open questions regarding the ideal management of such fractures, including the following: the removal of the third molar in the fracture line, the best surgical approach, and the fixation methods. In this report the authors present the case of 40-year-old man presenting with a bilateral mandibular angle fracture referred to the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Turin...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299194/recent-trends-in-airway-management
#19
REVIEW
Joelle Karlik, Michael Aziz
Tracheal intubation remains a life-saving procedure that is typically not difficult for experienced providers in routine conditions. Unfortunately, difficult intubation remains challenging to predict and intubation conditions may make the event life threatening. Recent technological advances aim to further improve the ease, speed, safety, and success of intubation but have not been fully investigated. Video laryngoscopy, though proven effective in the difficult airway, may result in different intubation success rates in various settings and in different providers' hands...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298786/comparison-of-dexmedetomidine-and-magnesium-sulfate-as-adjuvants-with-ropivacaine-for-spinal-anesthesia-in-infraumbilical-surgeries-and-postoperative-analgesia
#20
Reena Makhni, Joginder Pal Attri, Payal Jain, Veena Chatrath
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain is a major cause of fear and anxiety in hospitalized patients and so if patients remain pain-free during this period, they can cooperate with the circumstances well, leading to early recovery. Over the last two decades, there has been considerable revival of interest in the use of regional anesthesia techniques for surgery and pain management. As very few studies have been conducted using ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as adjuvants, the present study was undertaken with primary aims to compare the hemodynamic stability, onset and duration of sensory and motor block and with secondary aims of the postoperative analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine and MgSO4 along with ropivacaine...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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