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Bacteroides fragilis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435359/comparative-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-selected-root-canal-irrigants-on-commonly-isolated-microorganisms-in-endodontic-infection
#1
Sandeep Dubey, Suparna Ganguly Saha, Balakrishnan Rajkumar, Tapan Kumar Dhole
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of three selected root canal irrigants (BioPure MTAD, metronidazole, aztreonam) against microbes commonly isolated from polymicrobial microbiota of root canal infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed with four experimental groups (Group I - Bacteroides fragilis, Group II - Propionibacterium acnes, Group III - Enterococcus faecalis, Group IV - Candida albicans) based on the microbes selected for the study...
January 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433670/evaluation-of-the-routine-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-results-of-clinically-significant-anaerobic-bacteria-in-a-slovenian-tertiary-care-hospital-in-2015
#2
Samo Jeverica, Urša Kolenc, Manica Mueller-Premru, Lea Papst
The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints...
April 19, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424670/azathioprine-mercaptopurine-and-5-aminosalicylic-acid-affect-the-growth-of-ibd-associated-campylobacter-species-and-other-enteric-microbes
#3
Fang Liu, Rena Ma, Stephen M Riordan, Michael C Grimm, Lu Liu, Yiming Wang, Li Zhang
Campylobacter concisus is a bacterium that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Immunosuppressive drugs including azathioprine (AZA) and mercaptopurine (MP), and anti-inflammatory drug such as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are commonly used to treat patients with IBD. This study aimed to examine the effects of AZA, MP, and 5-ASA on the growth of IBD-associated bacterial species and to identify bacterial enzymes involved in immunosuppressive drug metabolism. A total of 15 bacterial strains of five species including 11 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414678/what-the-eyes-don-t-see-the-heart-does-grieve-over
#4
M Sciaudone, M Dery
INTRODUCTION: A 71 year old Peruvian woman presented with blurry vision and bilateral eye pain and had evidence of bilateral endophthalmitis on eye examination. Her past medical history was notable for multiple abdominal surgeries within the preceding months, including an incarcerated inguinal hernia repair which required an ileostomy placement, and cholecystitis requiring cholecystostomy tube placement. Over her multiple long hospitalizations, she developed bacteremia and fungemia on several occasions, with organisms including Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides fragilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Candida albicans...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414107/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacteroides-fragilis-group-organisms-in-hong-kong-by-the-tentative-eucast-disc-diffusion-method
#5
Pak-Leung Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Lok-Yan Ho, Eileen Ling-Yi Lai, Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Kin-Hung Chow
This study used a recently developed EUCAST disc diffusion method to measure the susceptibility of 741 B. fragilis group isolates to six antibiotics. Isolates nonsusceptible to imipenem and metronidazole by the disc method were further investigated by E-test. Species identification was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR assays and 16S rRNA sequencing. The most common species were B. fragilis (n = 424, including 81 division II and 343 division I isolates), B...
April 14, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397401/anaerobic-utilization-of-fe-iii-xenosiderophores-among-bacteroides-species-and-the-distinct-assimilation-of-fe-iii-ferrichrome-by-bacteroides-fragilis-within-the-genus
#6
Edson R Rocha, Anna S Krykunivsky
In this study, we show that Bacteroides species utilize Fe(III)-xenosiderophores as the only source of exogenous iron to support growth under iron-limiting conditions in vitro anaerobically. Bacteroides fragilis was the only species able to utilize Fe(III)-ferrichrome while Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482 and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI 5482 were able to utilize both Fe(III)-enterobactin and Fe(III)-salmochelin S4 as the only source of iron in a dose-dependent manner. We have investigated the way B. fragilis assimilates Fe(III)-ferrichrome as initial model to understand the utilization of xenosiderophores in anaerobes...
April 11, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391954/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pathogens-isolated-from-surgical-site-infections-in-japan-comparison-of-data-from-nationwide-surveillance-studies-conducted-in-2010-and-2014-2015
#7
Yoshio Takesue, Shinya Kusachi, Hiroshige Mikamo, Junko Sato, Akira Watanabe, Hiroshi Kiyota, Satoshi Iwata, Mitsuo Kaku, Hideaki Hanaki, Yoshinobu Sumiyama, Yuko Kitagawa, Toru Mizuguchi, Yoshiyasu Ambo, Masafumi Konosu, Keiichiro Ishibashi, Akihisa Matsuda, Kazuo Hase, Yasushi Harihara, Koji Okabayashi, Shiko Seki, Takuo Hara, Koshi Matsui, Yoichi Matsuo, Minako Kobayashi, Shoji Kubo, Kazuhisa Uchiyama, Junzo Shimizu, Ryohei Kawabata, Hiroki Ohge, Shinji Akagi, Masaaki Oka, Toshiro Wakatsuki, Katsunori Suzuki, Kohji Okamoto, Katsunori Yanagihara
A nationwide survey was conducted in Japan from 2014 to 2015 to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI). The resulting data were compared with that obtained in an earlier survey, conducted in 2010. Seven main organisms were collected, and 883 isolates were studied. A significant reduction in methicillin resistance was observed among Staphylococcus aureus isolates, dropping from 72.5% in 2010 to 53.8% in 2014-2015 (p < 0.001). MRSA isolates with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL accounted for 1...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373486/diastereomer-specific-quantification-of-bioactive-hexosylceramides-from-bacteria-and-mammals
#8
Johanna von Gerichten, Kerstin Schlosser, Dominic Lamprecht, Ivan Morace, Matthias Eckhardt, Dagmar Wachten, Richard Jennemann, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Matthias Mack, Roger Sandhoff
Mammals synthesize cell-type specifically the diastereomeric hexosylceramides β-galactosylceramide (β-GalCer) and β-glucosylceramide (β-GlcCer), which are involved in several diseases such as sphingolipidosis, diabetes, chronic kidney diseases, or cancer. In contrast Bacteroides fragilis, a member of the human gut microbiome, and the marine sponge Agelas mauritianus produce α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), one of the most potent stimulators for iNKT cells. To dissect the contribution of these individual stereoisomers to pathologies, we established a novel HILIC based LC MS(2) method and separate (R > 1...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367145/safety-evaluation-of-a-novel-strain-of-bacteroides-fragilis
#9
Ye Wang, Huimin Deng, Zhengchao Li, Yafang Tan, Yanping Han, Xiaoyi Wang, Zongmin Du, Yangyang Liu, Ruifu Yang, Yang Bai, Yujing Bi, Fachao Zhi
Commensal non-toxigenic Bacteroides fragilis confers powerful health benefits to the host, and has recently been identified as a promising probiotic candidate. We previously isolated B. fragilis strain ZY-312 and identified it as a novel strain based on 16S rRNA sequencing and morphological analyses. We also determined that ZY-312 displayed desirable probiotic properties, including tolerance to simulated digestive fluid, adherence, and in vitro safety. In this study, we aim to investigate whether ZY-312 meets the safety criteria required for probiotic bacteria through comprehensive and systematic evaluation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367029/biofilm-colonization-in-chronic-treatment-refractory-infections-presenting-with-discharging-sinuses-a-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-eastern-india
#10
Asmita De, Hirak Jyoti Raj, Jayeeta Haldar, Poulami Mukherjee, Prasanta Kumar Maiti
INTRODUCTION: Treatment refractory chronic recurrent infections mean those chronic infections which recur by same causal agents with similar drug responsiveness after apparent relief following full course of recommended antimicrobial management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty different samples were collected from patients with chronic surgical site infections, laparoscopic port site infections, anal fistula, mesh hernioplasty, chronic dacryocystitis, chronic osteomyelitis, and chronic burn wounds...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366659/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-bacteroides-fragilis-group-in-faecal-microbiota-from-healthy-danish-children
#11
Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham, Betina Hebbelstrup Jensen, Andreas Munk Petersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Ulrik Stenz Justesen
The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363695/in-vitro-anaerobic-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-to-simulate-the-bactericidal-activity-of-levornidazole-against-bacteroides-fragilis
#12
Jiali Hu, Jing Zhang, Yuancheng Chen, Wang Liang, Shi Wu
PURPOSE: This study was designed to correlate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters with PD indices of levornidazole against Bacteroides fragilis and to calculate the PK/PD target value for levornidazole to attain its expected maximal bactericidal effect using an in vitro anaerobic dynamic PK/PD model. METHODS: An anaerobic dynamic PK/PD model was developed in vitro. The scheme for PK modeling was designed according to the PK parameters of levornidazole in the human body...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362306/assessment-of-swine-specific-bacteriophages-of-bacteroides-fragilis-in-swine-farms-with-different-antibiotic-practices
#13
Yuranan Leknoi, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Kwanrawee Sirikanchana
We assessed the occurrence and specificity of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms for their potential application in microbial source tracking. A local B. fragilis host strain, SP25 (DSM29413), was isolated from a pooled swine feces sample taken from a non-antibiotic farm. This strain was highly specific to swine fecal materials because it did not detect bacteriophages in any samples from human sewage, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and cats. The reference B. fragilis strain, RYC2056, could detect phages in swine samples but also detected phages in most human sewage and polluted urban canal samples...
April 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360188/rapid-detection-of-cfia-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-bacteroides-fragilis-by-the-combination-of-maldi-tof-ms-and-carbanp
#14
Pak-Leung Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Lok-Yan Ho, Jonathan H K Chen, Eileen L Y Lai, Stephanie W U Lo, Cindy W S Tse, Kin-Hung Chow
AIMS: Carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis is emerging and is mainly attributed to insertion sequence (IS)-mediated activation of the carbapenemase gene cfiA. We investigated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the CarbaNP assay for the rapid identification of these strains. METHODS: This study used the Bruker MALDI Biotype system and the mass spectra models generated by 20 B. fragilis reference strains (10 cfiA-positive and 10 cfiA-negative) in the ClinProTools software to identify 404 B...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286571/we-are-not-alone-a-case-for-the-human-microbiome-in-extra-intestinal-diseases
#15
EDITORIAL
S Shivaji
BACKGROUND: "Dysbiosis" in the gut microbiome has been implicated in auto-immune diseases, in inflammatory diseases, in some cancers and mental disorders. The challenge is to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of dysbiosis so as to understand the disease manifestation. MAIN BODY: Next generation sequencing and genome enabled technologies have led to the establishment of the composition of gut microbiomes and established that "dysbiosis" is the cause of several diseases...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278201/the-symbiotic-bacterial-surface-factor-polysaccharide-a-on-bacteroides-fragilis-inhibits-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-in-human-fetal-enterocytes-via-toll-receptors-2-and-4
#16
Fei Jiang, Di Meng, Meiqian Weng, Weishu Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Dennis Kasper, W Allan Walker
Colonizing bacteria interacting with the immature, unlike the mature, human intestine favors inflammation over immune homeostasis. As a result, ten percent of premature infants under 1500 grams weight develop an inflammatory necrosis of the intestine after birth, e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is a major health problem in this population causing extensive morbidity and mortality and an enormous expenditure of health care dollars. NEC can be prevented by giving preterm infants their mother's expressed breast milk or ingesting selective probiotic organisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257448/monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-bacteroides-fragilis-enterotoxins-bft1-and-bft2-and-their-use-in-immunoassays
#17
Saraspadee Mootien, Paul M Kaplan
We have developed 22 mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Bacteroides fragilis zinc metalloprotease toxins 1 and 2 (BFT1 and BFT2). Mice were immunized with recombinant BFT1 or BFT2 proteins with metalloprotease activity. Eight of the mAbs bind specifically to BFT1. One mAb, 2H6, binds specifically to BFT2. The remaining 13 mAbs bind to both BFT1 and BFT2. The eight BFT1-specific mAbs recognize at least five different epitopes on the toxin. Four of the BFT1-specific mAbs neutralized rBFT1 metalloprotease activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216966/suppression-of-colorectal-tumorigenesis-by-recombinant-bacteroides-fragilis-enterotoxin-2-in-vivo
#18
You Lv, Tao Ye, Hui-Peng Wang, Jia-Ying Zhao, Wen-Jie Chen, Xin Wang, Chen-Xia Shen, Yi-Bin Wu, Yuan-Kun Cai
AIM: To evaluate the impact of recombinant Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin-2 (BFT-2, or Fragilysin) on colorectal tumorigenesis in mice induced by azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS). METHODS: Recombinant proBFT-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta (DE3) and BFT-2 was obtained and tested for its biological activity via colorectal adenocarcinoma cell strains SW-480. Seventy C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a blank (BC; n = 10), model (AD; n = 20), model + low-dose toxin (ADLT; n = 20, 10 μg), and a model + high-dose toxin (ADHT; n = 20, 20 μg) group...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169531/branimycins-b-and-c-antibiotics-produced-by-the-abyssal-actinobacterium-pseudonocardia-carboxydivorans-m-227
#19
Alfredo F Braña, Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Luis Otero, Jonathan Fernández, Juan José Palacios, Jesús Martín, Mercedes de la Cruz, Caridad Díaz, Francisca Vicente, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
Two new antibiotics, branimycins B (2) and C (3), were produced by fermentation of the abyssal actinobacterium Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans M-227, isolated from deep seawater of the Avilés submarine Canyon. Their structures were elucidated by HRMS and NMR analyses. These compounds exhibit antibacterial activities against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria, including Corynebacterium urealyticum, Clostridium perfringens, and Micrococcus luteus, and against the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163966/an-active-principle-of-nigella-sativa-l-thymoquinone-showing-significant-antimicrobial-activity-against-anaerobic-bacteria
#20
Mohammad Akram Randhawa, Awwad Khalaf Alenazy, Majed Gorayan Alrowaili, Jamith Basha
AIM/BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
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