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Bacteroides fragilis

Annamaria Cattaneo, Nadia Cattane, Samantha Galluzzi, Stefania Provasi, Nicola Lopizzo, Cristina Festari, Clarissa Ferrari, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Barbara Paghera, Cristina Muscio, Angelo Bianchetti, Giorgio Dalla Volta, Marinella Turla, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Michele Gennuso, Alessandro Prelle, Orazio Zanetti, Giulia Lussignoli, Dario Mirabile, Daniele Bellandi, Simona Gentile, Gloria Belotti, Daniele Villani, Taoufiq Harach, Tristan Bolmont, Alessandro Padovani, Marina Boccardi, Giovanni B Frisoni
The pathway leading from amyloid-β deposition to cognitive impairment is believed to be a cornerstone of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, what drives amyloid buildup in sporadic nongenetic cases of AD is still unknown. AD brains feature an inflammatory reaction around amyloid plaques, and a specific subset of the gut microbiota (GMB) may promote brain inflammation. We investigated the possible role of the GMB in AD pathogenesis by studying the association of brain amyloidosis with (1) GMB taxa with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity; and (2) peripheral inflammation in cognitively impaired patients...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
T Didbaridze, L Saginashvili, L Akhmeteli, B Iremashvili, N Gogokhia
This study provides a contemporary epidemiology of aspirates taken during surgery from the abdominal cavity among patients with bacterial peritonitis to identify the isolates and study their sensitivity to antibiotics. Our bacteriology investigations included isolation of poor cultures, and detection of microbes was conducted using a rapid identification system (API20E, API Staph, API Strep, API Ana, BioMerieux). Rapid tests for detection of oxidase and catalase activity were also used. Susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics was defined by the disc-diffusion method using standard discs (EUCAST guidelines 2015) according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) protocols (ATB strips: ATB G, ATB Staph, ATBANA, ATBPse, ATBStrep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Tim G J de Meij, Evelien F J de Groot, Anat Eck, Andries E Budding, C M Frank Kneepkens, Marc A Benninga, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Paul H M Savelkoul
OBJECTIVES: Disruption of the intestinal microbiota is considered an etiological factor in pediatric functional constipation. Scientifically based selection of potential beneficial probiotic strains in functional constipation therapy is not feasible due to insufficient knowledge of microbiota composition in affected subjects. The aim of this study was to describe microbial composition and diversity in children with functional constipation, compared to healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN: Fecal samples from 76 children diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria (median age 8...
2016: PloS One
Walter J Lukiw
The human microbiome consists of ~3.8 × 10(13) symbiotic microorganisms that form a highly complex and dynamic ecosystem: the gastrointestinal (GI) tract constitutes the largest repository of the human microbiome by far, and its impact on human neurological health and disease is becoming increasingly appreciated. Bacteroidetes, the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria in the GI tract microbiome, while generally beneficial to the host when confined to the GI tract, have potential to secrete a remarkably complex array of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins that include surface lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and toxic proteolytic peptides...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ellie J C Goldstein, Diane M Citron, Kerin L Tyrrell, Elisa Leoncio, C Vreni Merriam
The comparative in vitro activity of tedizolid against 124 Bacteroides group species isolates, including carbapenem, metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam resistant strains, had an MIC90 of 2 μg/ml (range, 0.5-4 μg/ml) and was 1-4 times more active than linezolid that had an MIC90 of 8 μg/ml (range, 2-16 μg/ml).
October 3, 2016: Anaerobe
Michele C R de Freitas, Juliana A Resende, Alessandra B Ferreira-Machado, Guadalupe D R Q Saji, Ana T R de Vasconcelos, Vânia L da Silva, Marisa F Nicolás, Cláudio G Diniz
Bacteroides fragilis, member from commensal gut microbiota, is an important pathogen associated to endogenous infections and metronidazole remains a valuable antibiotic for the treatment of these infections, although bacterial resistance is widely reported. Considering the need of a better understanding on the global mechanisms by which B. fragilis survive upon metronidazole exposure, we performed a RNA-seq transcriptomic approach with validation of gene expression results by qPCR. Bacteria strains were selected after in vitro subcultures with subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of the drug...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Embriette R Hyde, Jan S Suchodolski, Rob Knight
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune condition that is difficult to diagnose, and animal models of this disease have questionable human relevance(1). Here, we show that the dysbiosis network underlying IBD in dogs differs from that in humans, with some bacteria such as Fusobacterium switching roles between the two species (as Bacteroides fragilis switches roles between humans and mice)(2). For example, a dysbiosis index trained on humans fails when applied to dogs, but a dog-specific dysbiosis index achieves high correlations with the overall dog microbial community diversity patterns...
October 3, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Pauline Wanjugi, Mano Sivaganesan, Asja Korajkic, Catherine A Kelty, Brian McMinn, Robert Ulrich, Valerie J Harwood, Orin C Shanks
Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Rachel V Purcell, John Pearson, Frank A Frizelle, Jacqueline I Keenan
Gut colonization with enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) appears to be associated with the development of colorectal cancer. However, differences in carriage rates are seen with various testing methods and sampling sites. We compared standard PCR, SYBR green and TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) in detecting the B. fragilis toxin (bft) gene from cultured ETBF, and from matched luminal and faecal stool samples from 19 colorectal cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis found that all three quantitative methods performed comparably in detecting bft from purified bacterial DNA, with the same limits of detection (<1 copy/μl)...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Youlian Zhou, Huiting Chen, Hanchang He, Yanlei Du, Jiaqi Hu, Yingfei Li, Yuyuan Li, Yongjian Zhou, Hong Wang, Ye Chen, Yuqiang Nie
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity.We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yasuhiro Kino, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Masashi Fujita, Ayano Tada, Saori Yoneda, Kazuya Murakami, Masahito Hashimoto, Tetsuya Hayashi, Katsuichiro Okazaki, Tomomi Kuwahara
Markerless gene deletion is necessary for multiple gene disruptions due to the limited number of antibiotic resistant markers for some bacteria. However, even in transformable strains, obtaining the expected mutation without a marker requires laborious screening of a large number of colonies. Previous studies had success in various bacteria with a counter-selection system where a conditional lethal gene was incorporated into the vector. We examined the efficacy of the mutated pheS gene (pheS*) as a counter-selective marker for gene deletion in Bacteroides...
September 14, 2016: Anaerobe
Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Sirus Jedari Seifi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Shahram Abdoli Oskuei, Tahereh Pirzadeh, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Naser Alizadeh, Hasan Seifi Yarijan Sofla
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the most frequent health problem among children in developing countries. Defining the etiology of acute diarrhea is critical to disease therapy and prevention. Some anaerobic bacteria such as Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains cause diarrheal disease by production of enterotoxin in children less than 5 years old. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ETBF among common bacteria and viruses causing diarrhea in children aged less than five years...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Caitlin A Brennan, Wendy S Garrett
Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cancer is largely considered to be a disease of genetic and environmental factors, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota (the microorganisms associated with the human body) in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting tumor growth and spread. Herein, we discuss both human data from meta'omics analyses and data from mechanistic studies in cell culture and animal models that support specific bacterial agents as potentiators of tumorigenesis-including Fusobacterium nucleatum, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, and colibactin-producing Escherichia coli...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Yasuki Higashimura, Chihiro Ushiroda, Katsura Mizushima, Yuji Ohashi, Zenta Yasukawa, Makoto Ozeki, Makoto Tokunaga, Tsutomu Okubo, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Yoshito Itoh, Toshikazu Yoshikawa
Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a water-soluble dietary fibre produced by the controlled partial enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum beans, has various physiological roles. This study aimed to elucidate the beneficial effects of PHGG on colonic mucosal damage in a murine 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice with TNBS after 2 weeks of pre-feeding with PHGG (5 %). The colonic mucosal inflammation was evaluated using macroscopic damage scores, and neutrophil infiltration was assessed by measuring tissue-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the colonic mucosa...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
De-Kang Zhu, Xue-Qin Yang, Yang He, Wang-Shu Zhou, Xiao-Heng Song, Jiang-Bo Wang, Yu Zhang, Ma-Feng Liu, Ming-Shu Wang, Ren-Yong Jia, Shun Chen, Kun-Feng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiao-Yue Chen, An-Chun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Riemerella anatipestifer infection is a contagious disease that has resulted in major economic losses in the duck industry worldwide. This study attempted to characterize CRISPR-Cas systems in the disease-causing agent, Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer). The CRISPR-Cas system provides adaptive immunity against foreign genetic elements in prokaryotes and CRISPR-cas loci extensively exist in the genomes of archaea and bacteria. However, the structure characteristics of R...
2016: BMC Genomics
Kevin G Roelofs, Michael J Coyne, Rahul R Gentyala, Maria Chatzidaki-Livanis, Laurie E Comstock
UNLABELLED: We recently showed that human gut Bacteroidales species secrete antimicrobial proteins (BSAPs), and we characterized in vitro the first such BSAP produced by Bacteroides fragilis In this study, we identified a second potent BSAP produced by the ubiquitous and abundant human gut species Bacteroides uniformis The two BSAPs contain a membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain but share very little sequence similarity. We identified the target molecules of BSAP-sensitive cells and showed that each BSAP targets a different class of surface molecule: BSAP-1 targets an outer membrane protein of sensitive B...
2016: MBio
Leandro A Lobo, Claudia F Benjamim, Ana Carolina Oliveira
Mammals harbor a complex gut-associated microbiota, comprising bacteria that provide immunological, metabolic and neurological benefits to the host, and contribute to their well-being. However, dysregulation of the microbiota composition, known as dysbiosis, along with the associated mucosal immune response have a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), type 1 and type 2 diabetes, asthma, multiple sclerosis, among others. In addition, outside the gut lumen, bacteria from microbiota are the causative agent of peritoneal inflammation, abdominal sepsis and systemic sepsis...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
H Y Su, M J Wang, Y H Li, C N Tang, M J Tsai
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical predictors and the aetiologies for surgery in patients with Naja atra (Taiwan or Chinese cobra) envenomation. METHODS: This case series was conducted in the only tertiary care centre in eastern Taiwan. Patients who presented to the emergency department with Naja atra bite between January 2008 and September 2014 were included. Clinical information was collected and compared between surgical and non-surgical patients. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients with Naja atra envenomation presented to the emergency department during the study period...
October 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Kejie Chen, Nanda Kumar N Shanmugam, Michael A Pazos, Bryan P Hurley, Bobby J Cherayil
Gut commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in part by activating the inflammasome and inducing secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). Although much has been learned about inflammasome activation by bacterial pathogens, little is known about how commensals carry out this process. Accordingly, we investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by representative commensal bacteria, the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis and the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis...
2016: PloS One
D Chmelař, M Hájek, J Janečková, J Vobejdová, P Martineková, A Kašíková
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to draw attention to the risk posed by anaerobic bacteria of the Bacteroides fragilis (BAFR) group, isolated particularly from abdominal lesions, and to assess the possible role of these species in colorectal cancer. A correlation has previously been suggested between the detection of the bacteria of the genus Bacteroides in patients on a meat-based diet and intestinal and, in particular, colorectal cancer. Given that the species of the BAFR group are major producers of endotoxins, measurements and statistical analysis of endotoxin production were used to compare the Bacteroides strains isolated from clinical specimens of patients with colon cancer, rectal cancer, and other abdominal lesions...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
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