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Bacteroides fragilis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920242/comparative-folding-analyses-of-unknotted-versus-trefoil-knotted-ornithine-transcarbamylases-suggest-stabilizing-effects-of-protein-knots
#1
Manoj Kumar Sriramoju, Tzu-Jing Yang, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Ornithine transcarbamylases (OTCs) are conserved enzymes involved in arginine biosynthesis in microbes and the urea cycle in mammals. Recent bioinformatics analyses identified two unique OTC variants, N-succinyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase from Bacteroides fragilis (BfSOTC) and N-acetyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase from Xanthomonas campestris (XcAOTC). These two variants diverged from other OTCs during evolution despite sharing the common tertiary and quaternary structures, with the exception that the substrate recognition motifs are topologically knotted...
June 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887882/colonic-mucosal-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer-a-single-center-metagenomic-study-in-saudi-arabia
#2
Ahmed O Alomair, Ibrahim Masoodi, Essam J Alyamani, Abed A Allehibi, Adel N Qutub, Khalid N Alsayari, Musaad A Altammami, Ali S Alshanqeeti
Background and Aim: Because genetic and geographic variations in intestinal microbiota are known to exist, the focus of this study was to establish an estimation of microbiota in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Saudi Arabia by means of metagenomic studies. Methods: From July 2010 to November 2012, colorectal cancer patients attending our hospital were enrolled for the metagenomic studies. All underwent clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessment. Mucosal microbiota samples were collected from each patient by jet-flushing colonic mucosa with distilled water at unified segments of the colon, followed by aspiration, during colonoscopy...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868005/-bacteroides-fragilis-protects-against-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-rats-by-modulating-intestinal-defenses
#3
Wendi Zhang, Bo Zhu, Jiahui Xu, Yangyang Liu, Enqi Qiu, Zhijun Li, Zhengchao Li, Yan He, Hongwei Zhou, Yang Bai, Fachao Zhi
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is iatrogenic diarrhea characterized by disruption of the gut microbiota. Probiotics are routinely used to treat AAD in clinical practice; however, the effectiveness and mechanisms by which probiotics alleviate symptoms remain poorly understood. We previously isolated a non-toxic Bacteroides fragilis strain ZY-312, which has been verified to be beneficial in certain infection disorders. However, the precise role of this commensal bacterium in AAD is unknown. In this study, we successfully established an AAD rat model by exposing rats to appropriate antibiotics...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861488/protective-effect-of-aplysin-supplementation-on-intestinal-permeability-and-microbiota-in-rats-treated-with-ethanol-and-iron
#4
Yan Ma, Ruiying Li, Ying Liu, Man Liu, Hui Liang
Aplysin, a kind of phytochemicals or phytonutrients, is purified from red alga Laurencia tristicha. The present study aims to investigate the influence of aplysin on changes of intestinal permeability and microbiota induced by excessive ethanol and iron. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into three groups (10/group): control group (normal saline); ethanol + iron group as EI treated with ethanol (8⁻12 mL/kg/day) and iron (1000 mg/kg) in diet; EI supplemented with aplysin (150 mg/kg/day) group as AEI; the trial lasts for 12 weeks...
May 27, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848938/a-novel-high-resolution-melting-analysis-approach-for-rapid-detection-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#5
Hani Adnan Ozbak
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are resistant to most classes of antibiotics. Diagnosis of VRE using standard methods takes 2 to 5 days. Development of a rapid PCR-assay that detects and identifies resistant genes in bacteria would provide time-critical information on the presence of VRE in clinical samples allowing early treatment and management of infected patients. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the use of high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and 16S-rRNA-PCR approach for rapid and cost-effective identification of VRE...
May 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798080/-the-bacteriologic-features-of-recurrent-acute-rhinosinusitis
#6
H Q Wei, Z W Zhu, Zy Cao, J W Mo, H Y Xing
Objective: To investigate the bacteriologic characteristics of recurrent acute rhinosinusitis(RAR). Method: Twenty-nine patients (29 with RAR) from outpatient clinic in our hospital between June 2010 and May 2016 were enrolled in the study. Specimens of the middle meatus or olfactory cleft area using the sinus endoscopy through were transported to the laboratory for bacterial culture. Result: Twenty-five specimens out of 29 were bacterial culture positive (culture positive rate was 86.2%).A total of 32 isolates (25 aerobic or facultative and 7 anaerobic) were recovered from the 29 cases of RAR...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788329/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-properties-of-metronidazole-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-appendicitis-a-prospective-study
#7
Jason Child, Xinhui Chen, Rakesh D Mistry, Stig Somme, Christine MacBrayne, Peter L Anderson, Ronald N Jones, Sarah K Parker
Background: Metronidazole is traditionally dosed every 6-8 hours even though in adults it has a long half-life, concentration-dependent killing, and 3-hour postantibiotic effect. Based on this logic, some pediatric hospitals adopted once-daily dosing for appendicitis, despite limited pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) in children. We studied pediatric patients with appendicitis given metronidazole once daily to determine whether this dosing would meet target area under the curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio of ≥70 for Bacteroides fragilis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773837/microbial-networking-in-cancer-when-two-toxins-collide
#8
EDITORIAL
Sarah Tomkovich, Christian Jobin
A recent study by Dejea et al. has demonstrated that two enterotoxigenic bacteria frequently associated with sporadic colorectal cancer, Bacteroides fragilis and pks+ Escherichia coli, are found together in biofilms on tissue from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. In preclinical mouse models, these two bacteria and their corresponding toxins work synergistically to promote colon cancer.
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736775/5-nitroimidazole-derived-schiff-bases-and-their-copper-ii-complexes-exhibit-potent-antimicrobial-activity-against-pathogenic-anaerobic-bacteria
#9
Alexandre A Oliveira, Ana P A Oliveira, Lucas L Franco, Micael O Ferencs, João F G Ferreira, Sofia M P S Bachi, Nivaldo L Speziali, Luiz M Farias, Paula P Magalhães, Heloisa Beraldo
In the present work a family of novel secnidazole-derived Schiff base compounds and their copper(II) complexes were synthesized. The antimicrobial activities of the compounds were evaluated against clinically important anaerobic bacterial strains. The compounds exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides ovatus, Parabacteroides distasonis and Fusubacterium nucleatum pathogenic anaerobic bacteria. Upon coordination to copper(II) the antibacterial activity significantly increased in several cases...
May 7, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729257/association-between-bacteremia-from-specific-microbes-and-subsequent-diagnosis-of-colorectal-cancer
#10
Thomas N Y Kwong, Xiansong Wang, Geicho Nakatsu, Tai Cheong Chow, Timothy Tipoe, Rudin Z W Dai, Kelvin K K Tsoi, Martin C S Wong, Gary Tse, Matthew T V Chan, Francis K L Chan, Siew C Ng, Justin C Y Wu, William K K Wu, Jun Yu, Joseph J Y Sung, Sunny H Wong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) development has been associated with increased proportions of Bacteroides fragilis and certain Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus species in the intestinal microbiota. We investigated associations between bacteremia from specific intestinal microbes and occurrence of CRC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study, collecting data from13,096 adult patients (exposed group) in Hong Kong hospitalized with bacteremia (identified by blood culture test), without a previous diagnosis of cancer, from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2015...
May 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724905/gut-microbiota-utilize-immunoglobulin-a-for-mucosal-colonization
#11
G P Donaldson, M S Ladinsky, K B Yu, J G Sanders, B B Yoo, W-C Chou, M E Conner, A M Earl, R Knight, P J Bjorkman, S K Mazmanian
The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection while permitting lifelong colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. Specific immune recognition facilitated bacterial adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells and intimate association with the gut mucosal surface in vivo...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705028/food-microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Lukas Niederreiter, Timon E Adolph, Herbert Tilg
You are what you eat. This adage has been confirmed by many studies demonstrating the high impact of nutrition on risk of cardiovascular diseases, many malignancies and other diseases. Dietary factors are of major relevance in the evolution of colorectal carcinoma. Various aspects are involved in colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis including genetics, lifestyle, age, chronic inflammation and others. It has only recently been recognized that the gut microbiota might reflect an important missing link in the interaction between diet and subsequent colorectal carcinoma development...
April 3, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686147/-in-vitro-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-isolates-from-patients-in-a-phase-3-clinical-trial-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#13
Gregory G Stone, Paul Newell, Patricia A Bradford
Increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has generated a requirement for new treatment options. Avibactam, a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, restores activity of ceftazidime against Ambler class A, C and some class D β-lactamase-producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa In vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam versus comparators was evaluated against 1,440 clinical isolates obtained in a phase 3 clinical trial in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI; NCT01499290)...
April 23, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679648/in-vitro-activity-of-tigecycline-and-comparators-against-a-european-collection-of-anaerobes-collected-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-t-e-s-t-2010-2016
#14
Arne C Rodloff, Michael J Dowzicky
The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) is a global program that aims to monitor the in vitro antimicrobial activities of current therapeutic agents against clinical isolates. This study presents surveillance data for Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates (N = 7008) collected from nine European countries between 2010 and 2016. Presented in this study are antimicrobial susceptibility data, according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions...
June 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678922/enzymatic-synthesis-of-6-sialyllactose-a-dominant-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharide-by-a-novel-exo-%C3%AE-sialidase-from-bacteroides-fragilis-nctc9343
#15
Longcheng Guo, Xiaodi Chen, Li Xu, Min Xiao, Lili Lu
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutritions. Interestingly, some glycosidases are also found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo -α-sialidase genes, including three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124, and one known from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, were subjected to gene cloning and heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli The recombinant enzymes were purified, characterized for substrate specificity, and screened for transglycosylation activity...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678480/gram-negative-anaerobe-susceptibility-testing-in-clinical-isolates-using-sensititre-and-etest-methods
#16
C Hughes, C Ashhurst-Smith, J K Ferguson
Gram negative anaerobic organisms are important pathogens in a range of clinical infections, and susceptibility testing is not commonly performed in the microbiology laboratory. We performed anaerobic susceptibility testing on 70 clinically relevant Gram negative anaerobes isolated from routine cultures in a busy diagnostic laboratory which were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The susceptibility testing was performed by two methods: Sensititre trays (ThermoFisher Scientific) against 15 different antibiotics, and Etests (bioMérieux) against five clinically relevant antibiotics (metronidazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, meropenem and clindamycin)...
June 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676764/distribution-of-human-fecal-marker-gb-124-bacteriophages-in-urban-sewage-and-reclaimed-water-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#17
Tatiana Prado, Antônio de Castro Bruni, Mikaela Renata Funada Barbosa, Vilma Marques Santos Bonanno, Suzi Cristina Garcia, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato
Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 have been described as potential markers of human fecal contamination in water sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of GB-124 phages in raw sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water of the São Paulo city using a low-cost microbial source tracking method. Samples were collected monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 in four municipal wastewater treatment plants that operate with activated sludge processes followed by different tertiary treatments (sand-anthracite filtration, membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis) and final chlorination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668899/how-uterine-microbiota-might-be-responsible-for-a-receptive-fertile-endometrium
#18
Marilen Benner, Gerben Ferwerda, Irma Joosten, Renate G van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity...
April 16, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660284/nonmicrobicidal-small-molecule-inhibition-of-polysaccharide-metabolism-in-human-gut-microbes-a-potential-therapeutic-avenue
#19
Anthony D Santilli, Elizabeth M Dawson, Kristi J Whitehead, Daniel C Whitehead
A new approach for the nonmicrobicidal phenotypic manipulation of prominent gastrointestinal microbes is presented. Low micromolar concentrations of a chemical probe, acarbose, can selectively inhibit the Starch Utilization System and ablate the ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and B. fragilis strains to metabolize potato starch and pullulan. This strategy has potential therapeutic relevance for the selective modulation of the GI microbiota in a nonmicrobicidal manner.
May 18, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651861/the-first-characterized-carbapenem-resistant-bacteroides-fragilis-strain-from-croatia-and-the-case-study-for-it
#20
Maja Bogdan, Ljilijana Perić, Katalin Ördög, Dubravka Vuković, Edit Urbán, József Sóki
An imipenem-resistant Bacteroides fragilis strain was isolated from the blood of a 72-year-old male patient with a urinary bladder tumor in Osijek, Croatia. This strain was also resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and harbored cfiA, ermF, and tetQ genes where the high-level expression of the cfiA carbapenem-resistant gene was driven by an IS1187 element. Interestingly, despite the carbapenem-resistant feature of the B. fragilis from blood, the patient relatively easily recovered from the bacteremia...
April 13, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
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