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Bacteroides fragilis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730548/orthopedic-infections-caused-by-obligatory-anaerobic-gram-negative-rods-report-of-two-cases
#1
Marta Kierzkowska, Piotr Pedzisz, Ireneusz Babiak, Jakub Janowicz, Mateusz Kulig, Anna Majewska, Anna Sawicka-Grzelak, Grazyna Mlynarczyk
Anaerobic bone and joint infections are uncommon, although the number of anaerobic infections is presumably underestimated because of difficulties with isolation and identification of obligate anaerobes. This study describes two cases of complicated Bacteroides fragilis peri-implant infection of the lumbar spine, infection of the hip and osteomyelitis. Bacteria were identified with the use of a mass spectrometer, VITEK MS system. Drug susceptibility was performed with the use of E-test. The EUCAST breakpoints were used for interpretation with B...
July 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712201/case-of-xanthogranulomatous-oophoritis
#2
Bushra Khan, Aliya Begum Aziz, Rashida Ahmed
Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is characterized by destruction of the tissues of the organ involved and replacement by chronic inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, plasma cells, occasional neutrophils with or without multinucleated or Touton giant cells. Exact aetiology is not known but the theory of infection with organisms like Proteus, E coli, and Bacteroides fragilis is most popular. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is not common and usually involves the endometrium; however, xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the ovaries is a rare entity...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698467/effect-of-soy-isoflavones-on-growth-of-representative-bacterial-species-from-the-human-gut
#3
Lucía Vázquez, Ana Belén Flórez, Lucía Guadamuro, Baltasar Mayo
The present work aimed to assess the susceptibility of dominant and representative bacterial populations from the human gut to isoflavones and their metabolites. To do so, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isoflavone glycosides, isoflavone aglycones, and equol to 37 bacterial strains was determined by broth microdilution. Additionally, for 10 representative strains, growth curves, growth rate (μ), and optical density (OD600 nm) of the cultures at 24 h were also determined. MICs of daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein were >2048 μg mL(-1) for all strains assayed, while that of equol ranged from 16 μg mL(-1) for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
July 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694488/outer-membrane-vesicles-secreted-by-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-bacteroides-fragilis-represent-different-metabolic-activities
#4
Natalya B Zakharzhevskaya, Anna A Vanyushkina, Ilya A Altukhov, Aleksey L Shavarda, Ivan O Butenko, Daria V Rakitina, Anastasia S Nikitina, Aleksandr I Manolov, Alina N Egorova, Eugene E Kulikov, Innokentii E Vishnyakov, Gleb Y Fisunov, Vadim M Govorun
Numerous studies are devoted to the intestinal microbiota and intercellular communication maintaining homeostasis. In this regard, vesicles secreted by bacteria represent one of the most popular topics for research. For example, the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Bacteroides fragilis play an important nutritional role with respect to other microorganisms and promote anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. However, toxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) contributes to bowel disease, even causing colon cancer. If nontoxigenic B...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694294/bacteroides-fragilis-enterotoxin-induces-the-formation-of-autophagosomes-in-endothelial-cells-but-interferes-their-autophagosomal-fusion-with-lysosomes-for-complete-autophagic-flux-through-a-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-ap-1-and-c-ebp-homologous-protein
#5
Su Hyuk Ko, Jong Ik Jeon, Hyun Soo Myung, Young-Jeon Kim, Jung Mogg Kim
Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin (BFT), a virulence factor of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), plays an essential role in mucosal inflammation. Although autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse infectious diseases, little is known about autophagy in ETBF infection. This study was conducted to investigate the role of BFT in the autophagic process in endothelial cells (ECs). Stimulation of human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) with BFT increased LC3-II conversion from LC3-I and protein expression of p62, Atg5 and Atg12...
July 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694023/reactivity-toward-bifidobacterium-longum-and-enterococcus-hirae-demonstrate-robust-cd8-t-cell-response-and-better-prognosis-in-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Yihui Rong, Zheng Dong, Zhixian Hong, Yun Jin, Wei Zhang, Bailong Zhang, Wei Mao, Huifang Kong, Chunping Wang, Bin Yang, Xudong Gao, Zhenyu Song, Susan E Green, Haihan K Song, Hongbo Wang, Yinying Lu
Recent studies suggest that several bacterial species are involved in tumor immunosurveillance and antitumor immunity. The role of bacteria in immune responses in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is still unknown. In this study, we examined the bacteria-reactive CD8(+) T cell response in patients with HBV-related HCC. We found that circulating CD8(+) T cells from healthy individuals demonstrated minimal or zero specificity toward a series of commensals and bacteria previously associated with antitumor effects, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium longum, Bacteroides fragilis, and Enterococcus hirae...
July 7, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693916/phosphonodifluoropyruvate-is-a-mechanism-based-inhibitor-of-phosphonopyruvate-decarboxylase-from-bacteroides-fragilis
#7
Katharina Pallitsch, Megan P Rogers, Forest H Andrews, Friedrich Hammerschmidt, Michael J McLeish
Bacteroides fragilis, a human pathogen, helps in the formation of intra-abdominal abscesses and is involved in 90% of anaerobic peritoneal infections. Phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase (PnPDC), a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme, plays a key role in the formation of 2-aminoethylphosphonate, a component of the cell wall of B. fragilis. As such PnPDC is a possible target for therapeutic intervention in this, and other phosphonate producing organisms. However, the enzyme is of more general interest as it appears to be an evolutionary forerunner to the decarboxylase family of ThDP-dependent enzymes...
June 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683448/gut-microbiota-in-health-diverticular-disease-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-time-for-microbial-marker-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#8
Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Elisa Schiavoni, Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Andrea Poscia, Eleonora Gaetani, Francesco Franceschi, Giovanni Cammarota, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Luca Masucci, Franco Scaldaferri, Antonio Gasbarrini
Few data exist on differences in gut microbiota composition among principal gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. We evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among uncomplicated diverticular disease (DD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients. DD, IBS, and IBD patients along with healthy controls (CT) were enrolled in our Italian GI outpatient clinic. Stool samples were collected. Microbiota composition was evaluated through a metagenomic gene-targeted approach...
July 7, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683149/tlr2-and-interleukin-10-are-involved-in-bacteroides-fragilis-mediated-prevention-of-dss-induced-colitis-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#9
Yi-Chih Chang, Yung-Hao Ching, Chien-Chao Chiu, Ju-Yun Liu, Shao-Wen Hung, Wen-Ching Huang, Yen-Te Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacteroides fragilis (BF) are Gram-negative anaerobe symbionts present in the colon. Recent studies have reported the beneficial role of BF in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, stimulating host immunologic development, and preventing infectious colitis caused by pathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies showed that monocolonization of germ-free mice with BF significantly reduced colon inflammations and damage. METHODS: In order to investigate the Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and interleukin 10 (IL-10) molecular signaling pathways involved in BF-mediated prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680752/oral-il-10-suppresses-colon-carcinogenesis-via-elimination-of-pathogeniccd4-t-cells-and-induction-of-antitumor-cd8-t-cell-activity
#10
Tao Gu, Magdia De Jesus, Heather C Gallagher, Thomas P Burris, Nejat K Egilmez
An oral sustained-release formulation of Interleukin-10 suppressed tumor growth and enhanced survival in the APC(min/+)/Bacteroides fragilis spontaneous colon cancer model. Therapeutic benefit was associated with a 5-fold reduction in CD4(+)RORγt(+)Foxp3(-)IL-17(+) T-helper cell, CD4(+)RORγt(+)Foxp3(+)IL-17(+) pathogenic T-regulatory cell and CD4(+)RORγt(-)Foxp3(+)IL-17(-) conventional T-regulatory cell numbers and a concurrent 2-fold enhancement in CD8(+) T-cell activity in the colon. Selective subset depletion and functional blockade studies demonstrated that at steady-state CD4(+)RORγt(+)IL-17(+) T-cell subsets and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cTreg supported tumorigenesis, whereas CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes impeded tumor progression following IL-10 therapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670574/corrigendum-interaction-of-bacteroides-fragilis-toxin-with-outer-membrane-vesicles-reveals-new-mechanism-of-its-secretion-and-delivery
#11
Natalya B Zakharzhevskaya, Vladimir B Tsvetkov, Anna A Vanyushkina, Anna M Varizhuk, Daria V Rakitina, Victor V Podgorsky, Innokentii E Vishnyakov, Daria D Kharlampieva, Valentin A Manuvera, Fedor V Lisitsyn, Elena A Gushina, Vassili N Lazarev, Vadim M Govorun
[This corrects the article on p. 2 in vol. 7, PMID: 28144586.].
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666749/prevalences-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-the-cfia-resistance-gene-in-danish-bacteroides-fragilis-group-isolates-since-1973
#12
Simon Andreas Ferløv-Schwensen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham, Kia Cirkeline Hansen, Silje Vermedal Hoegh, Ulrik Stenz Justesen
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalences of resistance and the cfiA carbapenemase-producing gene in historical Bacteroides fragilis group isolates. METHODS: Danish clinical B. fragilis group isolates (n=444) spanning from 1973 to 2015 were identified with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) on the Biotyper platform. Antimicrobial resistance was determined using a disk diffusion screening method and commercial antibiotic gradient strips...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632016/the-bacteroides-fragilis-pathogenicity-island-links-virulence-and-strain-competition
#13
Benjamin W Casterline, Aaron L Hecht, Vivian M Choi, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
The mature microbiome is a stable ecosystem that resists perturbation despite constant host exposure to exogenous microbes. However, the microbial mechanisms determining microbiome development and composition are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that a non-toxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) strain restricts enteric colonization by an enterotoxigenic (ETBF) strain dependent on a type VI secretion system (T6SS). We show here that a second enterotoxigenic strain is competent to colonize, dependent on the Bacteroides fragilis pathogenicity island (BFPAI)...
February 23, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626206/in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-gatifloxacine-loaded-plga-and-hydroxyapatite-composite-for-treating-osteomyelitis
#14
Jun Makiishi, Tomonori Matsuno, Atsuo Ito, Yu Sogo, Tazuko Satoh
Molten 10 wt% gatifloxacine (GLFX-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was introduced into three-dimensionally interconnected pores and onto the surfaces of hydroxyapatite (HA) granules. The composite granules exhibited clinically sufficient bactericidal activities against Streptococcus milleri and Bacteroides fragilis from 3 h to 10 days. The composite granules were implanted in bone defects created by debridement of osteomyelitis lesions in rabbit mandibles. After 4-week implantation, inflammation in the composite granule-implanted group was significantly smaller than that in the debridement group (p<0...
June 15, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619503/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-levornidazole-in-elderly-subjects-and-dosing-regimen-evaluation-using-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis
#15
Beining Guo, Gaoli He, Xiaojie Wu, Jicheng Yu, Guoying Cao, Yi Li, Yaxin Fan, Yuancheng Chen, Yaoguo Shi, Yingyuan Zhang, Jing Zhang
PURPOSE: Levornidazole, the levo-isomer of ornidazole, is a third-generation nitroimidazole derivative newly developed after metronidazole, tinidazole, and ornidazole. An open-label, parallel-controlled, single-dose study was conducted for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of levornidazole and its metabolites in healthy elderly Chinese subjects, and for the evaluation of 2 dosing regimens in the elderly. METHODS: Levornidazole was intravenously administered at 500 mg to healthy elderly (aged 60-80 years) or young subjects (aged 19-45 years)...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618860/the-effects-of-the-lactobacillus-casei-strain-on-obesity-in-children-a-pilot-study
#16
S Nagata, Y Chiba, C Wang, Y Yamashiro
There are few data regarding the role of probiotics as a dietary intervention in the management of obesity in children. An open prospective examination was conducted to clarify the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS)-containing beverages in obese children. We compared the intestinal microbiota and organic acid levels between 12 obese (average age, 10.8 years; body mass index (BMI) Z score, 2.7±1.7) and 22 control children(average age, 8.5 years; BMI Z score, 0.1±0.7), and pre- and post-intervention in the obese children...
June 16, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606014/tlr2-stimulating-contaminants-in-glycoconjugate-fractions-prepared-from-bacteroides-fragilis
#17
Masahito Hashimoto, Junpei Waki, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Mami Ozono, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Tomomi Kuwahara
Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the normal intestinal flora and is involved in host immunostimulation via TLR2. On the bacterial cell surface, glycoconjugates, such as LPS and capsular polysaccharide A (PSA), have been reported to participate in host immunostimulation via TLR2. Previously, we identified a TLR2-stimulating lipoprotein in B. fragilis cells. In this study, we demonstrated that TLR2-stimulating principal molecules in glycoconjugate fractions prepared from B. fragilis are contaminating proteinous molecules, which may also be lipoproteins...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583022/implementation-of-the-new-virtuo-blood-culture-system-evaluation-and-comparison-to-the-3d-system-using-simulated-blood-cultures
#18
Nathalie Miller, Laetitia Brassinne, Daniel Allemeersch
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performances of the newly approved BacT/ALERT VIRTUO blood culture system for the recovery of bloodstream pathogens and compare it to the BacT/ALERT 3D system. METHODS: Simulated blood cultures of eight clinically relevant microorganisms were used: Bacteroides fragilis (ATCC 25285), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 49247), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619) and Candida krusei (ATCC 6258)...
June 5, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553617/bioluminescence-imaging-to-track-bacteroides-fragilis-inhibition-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection-in-mice
#19
Zhengchao Li, Huimin Deng, Yazhou Zhou, Yafang Tan, Xiaoyi Wang, Yanping Han, Yangyang Liu, Ye Wang, Ruifu Yang, Yujing Bi, Fachao Zhi
Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic, Gram-negative, commensal bacterium of the human gut. It plays an important role in promoting the maturation of the immune system, as well as suppressing abnormal inflammation. Many recent studies have focused on the relationship between B. fragilis and human immunity, and indicate that B. fragilis has many useful probiotic effects. As inhibition of intestinal pathogens is an important characteristic of probiotic strains, this study examined whether B. fragilis could inhibit pathogenic bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553274/association-between-yogurt-consumption-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-healthy-young-adults-differs-by-host-gender
#20
Yoshio Suzuki, Keiichi Ikeda, Kazuhiko Sakuma, Sachio Kawai, Keisuke Sawaki, Takashi Asahara, Takuya Takahashi, Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto, Ravinder Nagpal, Chongxin Wang, Satoru Nagata, Yuichiro Yamashiro
Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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