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Bacteroides fragilis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632016/the-bacteroides-fragilis-pathogenicity-island-links-virulence-and-strain-competition
#1
Benjamin W Casterline, Aaron L Hecht, Vivian M Choi, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
The mature microbiome is a stable ecosystem that resists perturbation despite constant host exposure to exogenous microbes. However, the microbial mechanisms determining microbiome development and composition are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that a non-toxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) strain restricts enteric colonization by an enterotoxigenic (ETBF) strain dependent on a type VI secretion system (T6SS). We show here that a second enterotoxigenic strain is competent to colonize, dependent on the Bacteroides fragilis pathogenicity island (BFPAI)...
February 23, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626206/in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-gatifloxacine-loaded-plga-and-hydroxyapatite-composite-for-treating-osteomyelitis
#2
Jun Makiishi, Tomonori Matsuno, Atsuo Ito, Yu Sogo, Tazuko Satoh
Molten 10 wt% gatifloxacine (GLFX-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was introduced into three-dimensionally interconnected pores and onto the surfaces of hydroxyapatite (HA) granules. The composite granules exhibited clinically sufficient bactericidal activities against Streptococcus milleri and Bacteroides fragilis from 3 h to 10 days. The composite granules were implanted in bone defects created by debridement of osteomyelitis lesions in rabbit mandibles. After 4-week implantation, inflammation in the composite granule-implanted group was significantly smaller than that in the debridement group (p<0...
June 15, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619503/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-levornidazole-in-elderly-subjects-and-dosing-regimen-evaluation-using-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis
#3
Beining Guo, Gaoli He, Xiaojie Wu, Jicheng Yu, Guoying Cao, Yi Li, Yaxin Fan, Yuancheng Chen, Yaoguo Shi, Yingyuan Zhang, Jing Zhang
PURPOSE: Levornidazole, the levo-isomer of ornidazole, is a third-generation nitroimidazole derivative newly developed after metronidazole, tinidazole, and ornidazole. An open-label, parallel-controlled, single-dose study was conducted for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of levornidazole and its metabolites in healthy elderly Chinese subjects, and for the evaluation of 2 dosing regimens in the elderly. METHODS: Levornidazole was intravenously administered at 500 mg to healthy elderly (aged 60-80 years) or young subjects (aged 19-45 years)...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618860/the-effects-of-the-lactobacillus-casei-strain-on-obesity-in-children-a-pilot-study
#4
S Nagata, Y Chiba, C Wang, Y Yamashiro
There are few data regarding the role of probiotics as a dietary intervention in the management of obesity in children. An open prospective examination was conducted to clarify the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS)-containing beverages in obese children. We compared the intestinal microbiota and organic acid levels between 12 obese (average age, 10.8 years; body mass index (BMI) Z score, 2.7±1.7) and 22 control children(average age, 8.5 years; BMI Z score, 0.1±0.7), and pre- and post-intervention in the obese children...
June 16, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606014/tlr2-stimulating-contaminants-in-glycoconjugate-fractions-prepared-from-bacteroides-fragilis
#5
Masahito Hashimoto, Junpei Waki, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Mami Ozono, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Tomomi Kuwahara
Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the normal intestinal flora and is involved in host immunostimulation via TLR2. On the bacterial cell surface, glycoconjugates, such as LPS and capsular polysaccharide A (PSA), have been reported to participate in host immunostimulation via TLR2. Previously, we identified a TLR2-stimulating lipoprotein in B. fragilis cells. In this study, we demonstrated that TLR2-stimulating principal molecules in glycoconjugate fractions prepared from B. fragilis are contaminating proteinous molecules, which may also be lipoproteins...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583022/implementation-of-the-new-virtuo-blood-culture-system-evaluation-and-comparison-to-the-3d-system-using-simulated-blood-cultures
#6
Nathalie Miller, Laetitia Brassinne, Daniel Allemeersch
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performances of the newly approved BacT/ALERT VIRTUO blood culture system for the recovery of bloodstream pathogens and compare it to the BacT/ALERT 3D system. METHODS: Simulated blood cultures of eight clinically relevant microorganisms were used: Bacteroides fragilis (ATCC 25285), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 49247), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619) and Candida krusei (ATCC 6258)...
June 5, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553617/bioluminescence-imaging-to-track-bacteroides-fragilis-inhibition-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection-in-mice
#7
Zhengchao Li, Huimin Deng, Yazhou Zhou, Yafang Tan, Xiaoyi Wang, Yanping Han, Yangyang Liu, Ye Wang, Ruifu Yang, Yujing Bi, Fachao Zhi
Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic, Gram-negative, commensal bacterium of the human gut. It plays an important role in promoting the maturation of the immune system, as well as suppressing abnormal inflammation. Many recent studies have focused on the relationship between B. fragilis and human immunity, and indicate that B. fragilis has many useful probiotic effects. As inhibition of intestinal pathogens is an important characteristic of probiotic strains, this study examined whether B. fragilis could inhibit pathogenic bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553274/association-between-yogurt-consumption-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-healthy-young-adults-differs-by-host-gender
#8
Yoshio Suzuki, Keiichi Ikeda, Kazuhiko Sakuma, Sachio Kawai, Keisuke Sawaki, Takashi Asahara, Takuya Takahashi, Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto, Ravinder Nagpal, Chongxin Wang, Satoru Nagata, Yuichiro Yamashiro
Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535609/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharide-using-bifidobacterial-%C3%AE-galactosidase-purified-from-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#9
So Young Oh, So Youn Youn, Myung Soo Park, Hyoung Geun Kim, Nam In Baek, Zhi Peng Li, Geun Eog Ji
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are known to be selectively utilized by Bifidobacterium, which can bring about healthy changes of the composition of intestinal microflora. In this study, β-GOS are synthesized using bifidobacterial β-galactosidase(G1) purified from recombinant E. coli with a high GOS yield and with high productivity and enhanced bifidogenic activity. The purified recombinant G1 showed maximum production of β-GOS at pH 8.5 and 45°C. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of the major peaks of the produced β-GOS showed MW of 527 and 689, indicating the synthesis of β-GOS at degrees of polymerization (DP) of 3 and DP4, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535278/nimh-a-novel-nitroimidazole-resistance-gene-contributing-to-metronidazole-resistance-in-bacteroides-fragilis
#10
Corentine Alauzet, Sibel Berger, Hélène Jean-Pierre, Luc Dubreuil, Estelle Jumas-Bilak, Alain Lozniewski, Hélène Marchandin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504574/gut-dysbiosis-following-c-section-instigates-higher-colonisation-of-toxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-in-infants
#11
R Nagpal, H Tsuji, T Takahashi, K Nomoto, K Kawashima, S Nagata, Y Yamashiro
Herein we investigated the intestinal carriage of α-toxigenic and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens during infancy, focusing on its association with other gut microbes and mode of delivery and feeding. Faecal samples from 89 healthy term infants were collected at age 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 3 years. C. perfringens was quantified by qPCR; other gut bacteria were quantified by reverse-transcription-qPCR. Alpha-toxigenic C. perfringens was detected in 3.4% infants at day 7 but was present in 35-40% infants at subsequent time-points, with counts ranging from 10(3)-10(7) cells/g faeces...
May 30, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474347/optimization-of-cord-blood-unit-sterility-testing-impact-of-dilution-analysis-delay-and-inhibitory-substances
#12
Mélissa Girard, Audrey Laforce-Lavoie, Marie Joëlle de Grandmont, Marie-Pierre Cayer, Diane Fournier, Gilles Delage, Louis Thibault
BACKGROUND: Different methods are used by cord blood banks to prepare samples for sterility testing. Suboptimal methods can result in the release of contaminated products. In our organization, samples are prepared by diluting the final product in RPMI-1640 medium. In this work, we have compared our method with different approaches to verify whether optimization should be sought. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cord blood units (n = 6 units per bacterial strain) characterized to contain inhibitory substances or not were inoculated (10 colony-forming units/mL) with Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, or Bacteroides fragilis...
May 4, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467592/-effect-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-anaerobic-bacteria
#13
Renata Večeřová, Aleš Panáček, Milan Kolář
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles on anaerobic bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 28 nm silver nanoparticles, both unstabilized and stabilized by casein, gelatin and polyacrylic acid. The following anaerobic bacteria were tested: Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Eggerthella lenta, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile and Fusobacterium varium...
March 2017: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453633/role-of-dna-gyrase-and-topoisomerase-iv-mutations-in-fluoroquinolone-resistance-of-capnocytophaga-spp-clinical-isolates-and-laboratory-mutants
#14
Elodie Ehrmann, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Thierry Fosse
Objectives: Capnocytophaga spp. are often reported to cause bacteraemia and extra-oral infections and are characterized by their significant contribution to resistance to β-lactam and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics in the human oral microbiota. The implication of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of DNA gyrase A and B ( gyrA and gyrB ) and topoisomerase IV ( parC and parE ) of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Capnocytophaga spp., hitherto unknown, was explored in this study...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445776/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-bacteroides-fragilis-group-in-faecal-samples-from-patients-receiving-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#15
Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A F Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B...
April 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435359/comparative-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-selected-root-canal-irrigants-on-commonly-isolated-microorganisms-in-endodontic-infection
#16
Sandeep Dubey, Suparna Ganguly Saha, Balakrishnan Rajkumar, Tapan Kumar Dhole
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of three selected root canal irrigants (BioPure MTAD, metronidazole, aztreonam) against microbes commonly isolated from polymicrobial microbiota of root canal infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed with four experimental groups (Group I - Bacteroides fragilis, Group II - Propionibacterium acnes, Group III - Enterococcus faecalis, Group IV - Candida albicans) based on the microbes selected for the study...
January 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433670/evaluation-of-the-routine-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-results-of-clinically-significant-anaerobic-bacteria-in-a-slovenian-tertiary-care-hospital-in-2015
#17
Samo Jeverica, Urša Kolenc, Manica Mueller-Premru, Lea Papst
The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints...
April 19, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424670/azathioprine-mercaptopurine-and-5-aminosalicylic-acid-affect-the-growth-of-ibd-associated-campylobacter-species-and-other-enteric-microbes
#18
Fang Liu, Rena Ma, Stephen M Riordan, Michael C Grimm, Lu Liu, Yiming Wang, Li Zhang
Campylobacter concisus is a bacterium that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Immunosuppressive drugs including azathioprine (AZA) and mercaptopurine (MP), and anti-inflammatory drug such as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are commonly used to treat patients with IBD. This study aimed to examine the effects of AZA, MP, and 5-ASA on the growth of IBD-associated bacterial species and to identify bacterial enzymes involved in immunosuppressive drug metabolism. A total of 15 bacterial strains of five species including 11 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414678/what-the-eyes-don-t-see-the-heart-does-grieve-over
#19
M Sciaudone, M Dery
INTRODUCTION: A 71 year old Peruvian woman presented with blurry vision and bilateral eye pain and had evidence of bilateral endophthalmitis on eye examination. Her past medical history was notable for multiple abdominal surgeries within the preceding months, including an incarcerated inguinal hernia repair which required an ileostomy placement, and cholecystitis requiring cholecystostomy tube placement. Over her multiple long hospitalizations, she developed bacteremia and fungemia on several occasions, with organisms including Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides fragilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Candida albicans...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414107/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacteroides-fragilis-group-organisms-in-hong-kong-by-the-tentative-eucast-disc-diffusion-method
#20
Pak-Leung Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Lok-Yan Ho, Eileen Ling-Yi Lai, Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Kin-Hung Chow
This study used a recently developed EUCAST disc diffusion method to measure the susceptibility of 741 B. fragilis group isolates to six antibiotics. Isolates nonsusceptible to imipenem and metronidazole by the disc method were further investigated by E-test. Species identification was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR assays and 16S rRNA sequencing. The most common species were B. fragilis (n = 424, including 81 division II and 343 division I isolates), B...
April 14, 2017: Anaerobe
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