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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232003/molecular-dynamics-insights-into-the-structure-function-and-substrate-binding-mechanism-of-mucin-desulfating-sulfatase-of-gut-microbe-bacteroides-fragilis
#1
Ardhendu Bhusan Praharaj, Budheswar Dehury, Namita Mahapatra, Shantanu Kumar Kar, Santosh Kumar Behera
The complex and dynamic consortia of microbiota that harbors the human gastrointestinal tract contributes ominously to the maintenance of health, the onset and progression of diverse spectrum of disorders. The capability of these enteric microbes to bloom within the gut mucosal milieu is often associated to the glycan metabolism of mucin-degrading bacteria. Accruing evidences suggests that the desulfation of mucin is a rate-limiting step in mucin degradation mechanism by colonic bacterial mucin-desulfating sulfatase enzymes (MDS) enzymes...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218031/crispr-cas-systems-in-bacteroides-fragilis-an-important-pathobiont-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#2
Mehrdad Tajkarimi, Hannah M Wexler
Background: While CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in bacteria from a wide variety of ecological niches, there are no studies to describe CRISPR-Cas elements in Bacteroides species, the most prevalent anaerobic bacteria in the lower intestinal tract. Microbes of the genus Bacteroides make up ~25% of the total gut microbiome. Bacteroides fragilis comprises only 2% of the total Bacteroides in the gut, yet causes of >70% of Bacteroides infections. The factors causing it to transition from benign resident of the gut microbiome to virulent pathogen are not well understood, but a combination of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of virulence genes and differential transcription of endogenous genes are clearly involved...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217301/-gut-microbiota-what-impact-on-colorectal-carcinogenesis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Antoine Bruneau, Minh-Tam Baylatry, Anne Christine Joly, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota, composed of 1014 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii)...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214046/high-resolution-bacterial-16s-rrna-gene-profile-meta-analysis-and-biofilm-status-reveal-common-colorectal-cancer-consortia
#4
Julia L Drewes, James R White, Christine M Dejea, Payam Fathi, Thevambiga Iyadorai, Jamuna Vadivelu, April C Roslani, Elizabeth C Wick, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Mun Fai Loke, Kumar Thulasi, Han Ming Gan, Khean Lee Goh, Hoong Yin Chong, Sandip Kumar, Jane W Wanyiri, Cynthia L Sears
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer worldwide, with a growing incidence among young adults. Multiple studies have presented associations between the gut microbiome and CRC, suggesting a link with cancer risk. Although CRC microbiome studies continue to profile larger patient cohorts with increasingly economical and rapid DNA sequencing platforms, few common associations with CRC have been identified, in part due to limitations in taxonomic resolution and differences in analysis methodologies...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211803/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-precede-or-take-place-in-absence-of-significant-rearrangements-in-bacterial-community-structure-the-planhab-randomized-trial-pilot-study
#5
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Susanne Kublik, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavić, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Matevž Likar, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208130/novel-large-scale-chromosomal-transfer-in-bacteroides-fragilis-contributes-to-its-pan-genome-and-rapid-environmental-adaptation
#6
Fasahath Husain, Kevin Tang, Yaligara Veeranagouda, Renata Boente, Sheila Patrick, Garry Blakely, Hannah M Wexler
Bacteroides fragilis, an important component of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, can cause lethal extra-intestinal infection upon escape from the gastrointestinal tract. We demonstrated transfer and recombination of large chromosomal segments from B. fragilis HMW615, a multidrug resistant clinical isolate, to B. fragilis 638R. In one example, the transfer of a segment of ~435 Kb/356 genes replaced ~413 Kb/326 genes of the B. fragilis 638R chromosome. In addition to transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, these transfers (1) replaced complete divergent polysaccharide biosynthesis loci; (2) replaced DNA inversion-controlled intergenic shufflons (that control expression of genes encoding starch utilization system outer membrane proteins) with more complex, divergent shufflons; and (3) introduced additional intergenic shufflons encoding divergent Type 1 restriction/modification systems...
November 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207065/estrogen-inhibits-the-overgrowth-of-escherichia%C3%A2-coli-in-the-rat-intestine-under-simulated-microgravity
#7
Yongtao Yang, Changmin Qu, Shuwen Liang, Gang Wang, Haolun Han, Na Chen, Xiaoying Wang, Zhiwen Luo, Changqing Zhong, Yan Chen, Lianyong Li, Wei Wu
Microgravity can affect many aspects of intestinal homeostasis, leading to an increased risk of colitis. Estrogen, the most frequently affected hormone when under simulated microgravity, regulates the permeability of the colonic mucosa barrier. The associations between alterations in intestinal microbiota and increased susceptibility under microgravity have not been thoroughly elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in intestinal microbiota under simulated microgravity and to investigate the protective effect of estrogen against those changes...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184019/gut-symbiont-bacteroides-fragilis-secretes-a-eukaryotic-like-ubiquitin-protein-that-mediates-intraspecies-antagonism
#8
Maria Chatzidaki-Livanis, Michael J Coyne, Kevin G Roelofs, Rahul R Gentyala, Jarreth M Caldwell, Laurie E Comstock
Human gut Bacteroides species produce different types of toxins that antagonize closely related members of the gut microbiota. Some are toxic effectors delivered by type VI secretion systems, and others are non-contact-dependent secreted antimicrobial proteins. Many strains of Bacteroides fragilis secrete antimicrobial molecules, but only one of these toxins has been described to date (Bacteroidales secreted antimicrobial protein 1 [BSAP-1]). In this study, we describe a novel secreted protein produced by B...
November 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159195/cd4-t-cells-from-multiple-sclerosis-patients-respond-to-a-commensal-derived-antigen
#9
Joseph N Burgess, Anudeep B Pant, Lloyd H Kasper, Sara Colpitts Brass
Multiple sclerosis, an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system, is characterized by the impaired function of regulatory cells that fail to suppress self-reactive effector cells. We have previously found that polysaccharide A, a capsular antigen derived from the human gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis, can induce a population of regulatory T cells. Herein, we demonstrate that naïve T cells isolated from patients with multiple sclerosis have the capacity to acquire regulatory characteristics when stimulated in vitro with polysaccharide A...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134546/effect-of-hyperbaric-air-on-endotoxin-from-bacteroides-fragilis-strains
#10
Dittmar Chmelař, Adéla Kašíková, Petrana Martineková, Michal Hájek, Miroslav Rozložník, Marek Brabec, Jana Janečková, Jana Vobejdová, Ivan Čižnár
The aim of the project was to determine any effect of hyperbaric air on Bacteroides fragilis strains cultivated under hyperbaric conditions. Previously, it was hypothesized that there was a correlation between the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in patients preferring a meaty diet and cancer of the small intestine, and particularly of the large intestine and rectum. With respect to the fact that Bacteroides fragilis (BAFR) group are important producers of endotoxins, measurement and statistical evaluation of endotoxin production by individual strains of isolated Bacteroides species were used to compare bacteria isolated from various clinical samples from patients with colon and rectum cancer in comparison with strains isolated from other non-cancer diagnoses...
November 13, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121673/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-key-bacterial-taxa-in-infant-microbiota-in-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#11
Chris E Talsness, John Penders, Eugène H J M Jansen, Jan Damoiseaux, Carel Thijs, Monique Mommers
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was determined at approximately the 36th week of pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101081/molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteroides-isolates-from-hungarian-clinical-samples
#12
Károly Péter Sárvári, József Sóki, Katalin Kristóf, Emese Juhász, Cecilia Miszti, Szilvia Zsóka Melegh, Krisztina Latkóczy, Edit Urbán
INTRODUCTION: Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are the most important components of the normal human gut microbiota, but these bacteria can cause severe infections as well. Due to the frequent usage of antibiotics, the spreading of the MDR strains is a real threat worldwide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicentre study 400 Bacteroides isolates from five Hungarian microbiological laboratories were cultured and identified by MALDI TOF-MS. The MIC values of ten antibiotics were determined by the agar dilution method and evaluated by the breakpoints of EUCAST or CLSI...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091972/progression-of-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-gut-dysbiosis-two-year-follow-up-study
#13
Tomomi Minato, Tetsuya Maeda, Yoshiro Fujisawa, Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto, Kinji Ohno, Masaaki Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We previously reported gut dysbiosis in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine whether gut dysbiosis correlates with the progression of PD. METHODS: We examined changes in gut microbiota and demographic features in 2 years in 36 PD patients. RESULTS: A change of total UPDRS scores in 2 years was predicted by the counts of Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster at year 0 with a correlation coefficient of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080830/identification-of-a-new-subtype-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-11-and-a-third-group-of-the-s46-family-members-specifically-present-in-the-genus-bacteroides
#14
Takayuki K Nemoto, Gustavo Arruda Bezerra, Toshio Ono, Haruka Nishimata, Taku Fujiwara, Yuko Ohara-Nemoto
Peptidase family S46 consists of two types of dipeptidyl-peptidases (DPPs), DPP7 and DPP11, which liberate dipeptides from the N-termini of polypeptides along with the penultimate hydrophobic and acidic residues, respectively. Their specificities are primarily defined by a single amino acid residue, Gly(673) in DPP7 and Arg(673) in DPP11 (numbering for Porphyromonas gingivalis DPP11). Bacterial species in the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes generally possess one gene for each, while Bacteroides species exceptionally possess three genes, one gene as DPP7 and two genes as DPP11, annotated based on the full-length similarities...
October 25, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051757/role-of-gut-microbiota-on-cardio-metabolic-parameters-and-immunity-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Lidia Sanchez-Alcoholado, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Laura Jordán-Martínez, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Pilar Cardila-Cruz, Daniel Elena, Antonio J Muñoz-Garcia, Maria I Queipo-Ortuño, Manuel Jimenez-Navarro
Gut microbiota composition has been reported as a factor linking host metabolism with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and intestinal immunity. Such gut microbiota has been shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is a pro-atherogenic compound. Treg cells expressing the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) play an essential role in the regulation of immune responses to commensal microbiota and have an atheroprotective role...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038461/the-bacteroidales-produce-an-n-acylated-derivative-of-glycine-with-both-cholesterol-solubilising-and-hemolytic-activity
#16
Alli Lynch, Elaine Crowley, Eoghan Casey, Rafael Cano, Rachel Shanahan, Ger McGlacken, Julian R Marchesi, David J Clarke
The contribution of the gut microbiota to the metabolism of cholesterol is not well understood. In this study, we identify 21 fosmid clones from a human gut microbiome metagenomic library that, when expressed in Escherichia coli, produce halos on LB agar supplemented with 0.01% (w/v) cholesterol (LBC agar). Analysis of 14 of these clones revealed that they all share a fragment of DNA with homology to the genome of Bacteroides vulgatus. The gene responsible for halo production on LBC agar, named choA, was identified as an N-acyltransferase known to produce an acylated glycine molecule called commendamide...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033923/emerging-trends-in-smart-probiotics-functional-consideration-for-the-development-of-novel-health-and-industrial-applications
#17
REVIEW
Racha El Hage, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Tom Van de Wiele
The link between gut microbiota and human health is well-recognized and described. This ultimate impact on the host has contributed to explain the mutual dependence between humans and their gut bacteria. Gut microbiota can be manipulated through passive or active strategies. The former includes diet, lifestyle, and environment, while the latter comprise antibiotics, pre- and probiotics. Historically, conventional probiotic strategies included a phylogenetically limited diversity of bacteria and some yeast strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017951/identification-of-cfia-coding-genes-in-bacteroides-fragilis-isolates-recovered-in-argentina-inconsistencies-in-cfia-organization-and-nomenclature
#18
Mirta R Litterio, Daniela Cejas, Gabriel Gutkind, Marcela Radice
CfiA (CcrA) metallo-β-lactamase is the main carbapenem resistance mechanism in B. fragilis. From cfiA positive isolates detected in a previous surveillance study, 3 displayed resistance to imipenem while the remaining were susceptible. The aim of this study was to identify the cfiA alleles and to analyze the presence of IS elements in their upstream regions. CfiA-1, CfiA-4, CfiA-13, CfiA-19 and CfiA-22 were detected. IS elements belonging to IS21 family and IS942 group were identified upstream to cfiA in the 3 imipenem resistant isolates...
October 7, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960692/does-the-intestinal-microenvironment-have-an-impact-on-the-choleretic-effect-of-inchinkoto-a-hepatoprotective-herbal-medicine
#19
Masahito Uji, Yukihiro Yokoyama, Takashi Asahara, Tomoki Ebata, Tsuyoshi Igami, Takashi Mizuno, Junpei Yamaguchi, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: The choleretic effects of Inchinkoto (ICKT), a hepatoprotective herbal medicine, are variable among patients. This study sought to investigate the correlation between the choleretic effects of ICKT and the intestinal microenvironment in patients with biliary obstruction. METHODS: Patients with biliary obstruction who underwent external biliary drainage were enrolled. The concentrations of total bilirubin and bile acid in the bile, and genipin, a major active ingredient of ICKT, in the bloodstream before and after ICKT administration were measured...
September 27, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960474/strong-antimicrobial-activity-of-xanthohumol-and-other-derivatives-from-hops-humulus-lupulus-l-on-gut-anaerobic-bacteria
#20
Pavel Cermak, Jana Olsovska, Alexandr Mikyska, Martin Dusek, Zuzana Kadleckova, Jiri Vanicek, Otakar Nyc, Karel Sigler, Vanda Bostikova, Pavel Bostik
Anaerobic bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis or Clostridium perfringens, are part of indigenous human flora. However, Clostridium difficile represents also an important causative agent of nosocomial infectious antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Treatment of C. difficile infection is problematic, making it imperative to search for new compounds with antimicrobial properties. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain substances with antibacterial properties. We tested antimicrobial activity of purified hop constituents humulone, lupulone and xanthohumol against anaerobic bacteria...
November 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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