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Michael O'Brien

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431288/longitudinal-whole-brain-atrophy-and-ventricular-enlargement-in-nondemented-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Elijah Mak, Li Su, Guy B Williams, Michael J Firbank, Rachael A Lawson, Alison J Yarnall, Gordon W Duncan, Brit Mollenhauer, Adrian M Owen, Tien K Khoo, David J Brooks, James B Rowe, Roger A Barker, David J Burn, John T O'Brien
We investigated whole-brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement over 18 months in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) and examined their associations with clinical measures and baseline CSF markers. PD subjects (n = 100) were classified at baseline into those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; PD-MCI, n = 36) and no cognitive impairment (PD-NC, n = 64). Percentage of whole-brain volume change (PBVC) and ventricular expansion over 18 months were assessed with FSL-SIENA and ventricular enlargement (VIENA) respectively...
March 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427892/contour-adaptation-reduces-the-spreading-of-edge-induced-colors
#2
Andrew J Coia, Michael A Crognale
Brief exposure to flickering achromatic outlines of an area causes a reduction in the brightness contrast of the surface inside the area. This contour adaptation to achromatic contours does not reduce surface contrast when the surface is chromatic (the saturation or colorimetric purity of the surface is maintained). In addition to reducing the brightness of physical luminance contrast, contour adaptation also reduces (or even reverses) the illusory brightness contrast seen in the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet illusion, in which two physically identical grey areas appear different brightness because of a sharp luminance edge separating them...
April 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426856/adjunctive-oral-voriconazole-treatment-of-fusarium-keratitis-a-secondary-analysis-from-the-mycotic-ulcer-treatment-trial-ii
#3
N Venkatesh Prajna, Tiruvengada Krishnan, Revathi Rajaraman, Sushila Patel, Ranjeet Shah, Muthiah Srinivasan, Lumbini Devi, Manoranjan Das, Kathryn J Ray, Kieran S O'Brien, Catherine E Oldenburg, Stephen D McLeod, Michael E Zegans, Nisha R Acharya, Thomas M Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Importance: Fusarium keratitis is common and often results in poor outcomes. No new treatments since natamycin have become available. Objective: To explore the role of adjuvant oral voriconazole on clinical outcomes in Fusarium keratitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 240 patients from the Aravind Eye Care System in India, the Lumbini Eye Hospital and Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Nepal, and the University of California, San Francisco, who had culture-positive fungal ulcer and baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs placebo...
April 20, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419856/adenoma-prevalence-in-blacks-and-whites-having-equal-adherence-to-screening-colonoscopy-the-national-colonoscopy-study
#4
Robin B Mendelsohn, Sidney Winawer, Anjani Jammula, Glenn Mills, Paul Jordan, Michael J O'Brien, Georgia M Close, Michael Dorfman, Timothy R Church, Margaret T Mandelson, John Allen, Andrew Feld, Noah D Kauff, Georgia A Morgan, Julie M R Kumar, Victoria Serrano, Sharon Bayuga-Miller, Sara E Fischer, Deborah Kuk, Ann G Zauber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417544/urine-biomarkers-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-noncritically-ill-hospitalized-children-treated-with-chemotherapy
#5
Maya Sterling, Zubaida Al-Ismaili, Kelly R McMahon, Melissa Piccioni, Michael Pizzi, Theresa Mottes, Larry C Lands, Sharon Abish, Adam J Fleming, Michael R Bennett, Ana Palijan, Prasad Devarajan, Stuart L Goldstein, Maureen M O'Brien, Michael Zappitelli
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (Cis), carboplatin (Carb), and ifosfamide (Ifos) are common nephrotoxic chemotherapies. Biomarkers of tubular injury may allow for early acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis. PROCEDURE: We performed a two-center (Canada, United States) pilot study to prospectively measure serum creatinine (SCr), urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in children receiving Cis/Carb (27 episodes), Ifos (30 episodes), and in 15 hospitalized, nonchemotherapy patients...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408229/pharmacological-evaluation-of-a-novel-series-of-urea-thiourea-and-guanidine-derivatives-as-p2x7-receptor-antagonists
#6
Erick C N Wong, Tristan A Reekie, Eryn L Werry, James O'Brien-Brown, Sarah L Bowyer, Michael Kassiou
We report on P2X7 receptor antagonists based on a lead adamantly-cyanoguanidine-aryl moiety. We have investigated the importance of the central cyanoguanidine moiety by replacing it with urea, thiourea or guanidine moieties. We have also investigated the linker length between the central moiety and the aryl portion. All compounds were assessed for their inhibitory potency in a pore-formation dye uptake assay at the P2X7 receptor. None of the compounds resulted in an improved potency illustrating the importance of the cyanoguanidine moiety in this chemotype...
April 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407997/the-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-young-children-duty-study-clinical-rule-economic-evaluation
#7
William Hollingworth, John Busby, Christopher C Butler, Kathryn O'Brien, Jonathan A C Sterne, Kerenza Hood, Paul Little, Michael Lawton, Kate Birnie, Emma Thomas-Jones, Kim Harman, Alastair D Hay
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a two-step clinical rule using symptoms, signs and dipstick testing to guide the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in acutely unwell young children presenting to primary care. METHODS: Decision analytic model synthesising data from a multicentre, prospective cohort study (DUTY) and the wider literature to estimate the short-term and lifetime costs and healthcare outcomes (symptomatic days, recurrent UTI, quality adjusted life years) of eight diagnostic strategies...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405307/the-shift-from-plant-plant-facilitation-to-competition-under-severe-water-deficit-is-spatially-explicit
#8
Michael J O'Brien, Francisco I Pugnaire, Cristina Armas, Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría, Christian Schöb
The stress-gradient hypothesis predicts a higher frequency of facilitative interactions as resource limitation increases. Under severe resource limitation, it has been suggested that facilitation may revert to competition, and identifying the presence as well as determining the magnitude of this shift is important for predicting the effect of climate change on biodiversity and plant community dynamics. In this study, we perform a meta-analysis to compare temporal differences of species diversity and productivity under a nurse plant (Retama sphaerocarpa) with varying annual rainfall quantity to test the effect of water limitation on facilitation...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391039/divergent-functional-connectivity-during-attentional-processing-in-lewy-body-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Xenia Kobeleva, Michael Firbank, Luis Peraza, Peter Gallagher, Alan Thomas, David J Burn, John O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
Attention and executive dysfunction are features of Lewy body dementia (LBD) but their neuroanatomical basis is poorly understood. To investigate underlying dysfunctional attention-executive network (EXEC) interactions, we examined functional connectivity (FC) in 30 patients with LBD, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 21 healthy controls during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants performed a modified Attention Network Test (ANT), where they were instructed to press a button in response to the majority direction of arrows, which were either all pointing in the same direction or with one pointing in the opposite direction...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382569/targeted-therapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-an-update-on-current-clinical-developments-in-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapies
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan Moreira, Alexander Tobias, Michael P O'Brien, Mark Agulnik
Most patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) will present with locally advanced disease, requiring multimodality therapy. Despite this curative approach, a significant subset of these patients will develop locoregional failure and/or distant metastases. Despite significant progress in the treatment and subsequent prognosis of locally advanced HNSCC, the prognosis of those patients with recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) HNSCC is poor, with short-lived responses to palliative chemotherapy and few therapeutic agents available...
April 5, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379446/50-important-research-questions-in-microbial-ecology
#11
Rachael E Antwis, Sarah M Griffiths, Xavier A Harrison, Paz Aranega-Bou, Andres Arce, Aimee S Bettridge, Francesca L Brailsford, Alexandre de Menezes, Andrew Devaynes, Kristian M Forbes, Ellen L Fry, Ian Goodhead, Erin Haskell, Chloe Heys, Chloe James, Sarah R Johnston, Gillian R Lewis, Zenobia Lewis, Michael C Macey, Alan McCarthy, James E McDonald, Nasmille L Mejia-Florez, David O'Brien, Chloé Orland, Marco Pautasso, William D K Reid, Heather A Robinson, Kenneth Wilson, William J Sutherland
Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: Host-Microbiome Interactions; Health and Infectious Diseases; Human Health and Food Security; Microbial Ecology in a Changing World; Environmental Processes; Functional Diversity; and Evolutionary Processes...
April 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374016/divergent-modulation-of-nociception-by-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neuronal-subpopulations-in-the-periaqueductal-gray
#12
Vijay K Samineni, Jose G Grajales-Reyes, Bryan A Copits, Daniel E O'Brien, Sarah L Trigg, Adrian M Gomez, Michael R Bruchas, Robert W Gereau
The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) constitutes a major descending pain modulatory system and is a crucial site for opioid-induced analgesia. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that glutamate and GABA play critical opposing roles in nociceptive processing in the vlPAG. It has been suggested that glutamatergic neurotransmission exerts antinociceptive effects, whereas GABAergic neurotransmission exert pronociceptive effects on pain transmission, through descending pathways. The inability to exclusively manipulate subpopulations of neurons in the PAG has prevented direct testing of this hypothesis...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368524/the-health-impact-of-adult-cervical-deformity-in-patients-presenting-for-surgical-treatment-comparison-to-united-states-population-norms-and-chronic-disease-states-based-on-the-euroquol-5-dimensions-questionnaire
#13
Justin S Smith, Breton Line, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, Han Jo Kim, Gregory Mundis, Justin K Scheer, Eric Klineberg, Michael O'Brien, Richard Hostin, Munish Gupta, Alan Daniels, Michael Kelly, Jeffrey L Gum, Frank J Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Tamir Ailon, Peter Passias, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Todd J Albert, K Daniel Riew, Robert Hart, Doug Burton, Vedat Deviren, Christopher P Ames, International Spine Study Group
BACKGROUND: Although adult cervical spine deformity (ACSD) is associated with pain and disability, its health impact has not been quantified in comparison to other chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To perform a comparative analysis of the health impact of symptomatic ACSD to US normative and chronic disease values using EQ-5D (EuroQuol-5 Dimensions questionnaire) scores. METHODS: ACSD patients presenting for surgical treatment were identified from a prospectively collected multicenter database...
March 24, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366321/sleep-in-women-undergoing-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-a-pilot-study
#14
Cathy A Goldstein, Michael S Lanham, Yolanda R Smith, Louise M O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances are thought to be frequent in women undergoing IVF despite minimal research of this hypothesis. Our goal was to longitudinally assess sleep duration and disturbances in women undergoing IVF and assess impact of habitual sleep duration on oocytes retrieved, an important outcome in IVF. METHODS: Actigraphy and questionnaire batteries containing sleep and psychometric instruments were performed prior to and throughout 24 IVF cycles. RESULTS: TST <7 h was present in 46%, 57%, 69%, and 42% of baseline, stimulation, post-oocyte retrieval, and post-embryo transfer recordings...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331811/proteomic-analysis-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-balf-from-lung-cancer-patients-using-label-free-mass-spectrometry
#15
Abduladim Hmmier, Michael Emmet O'Brien, Vincent Lynch, Martin Clynes, Ross Morgan, Paul Dowling
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women throughout the world. The need to detect lung cancer at an early, potentially curable stage, is essential and may reduce mortality by 20%. The aim of this study was to identify distinct proteomic profiles in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and plasma that are able to discriminate individuals with benign disease from those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Using label-free mass spectrometry analysis of BALF during discovery-phase analysis, a significant number of proteins were found to have different abundance levels when comparing control to adenocarcinoma (AD) or squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCC)...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328172/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#16
REVIEW
Michael E Rytting, Elias J Jabbour, Susan M O'Brien, Hagop M Kantarjian
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population is a difficult clinical problem. The AYA population, generally regarded as patients aged 15 to 39 years, currently draws a good deal of attention, particularly in the area of therapy selection. The current trend is to treat this group of patients with leukemia regimens based on pediatric protocols, and results comparing pediatric approaches versus adult approaches to treatment are maturing. Results are pending from a large US trial in which pediatric-based treatment is given to AYA patients with ALL...
March 22, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325299/potent-anti-seizure-effects-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antagomirs-targeting-mir-134-in-multiple-mouse-and-rat-models-of-epilepsy
#17
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320701/alternative-method-of-tractioning-the-sengstaken-blakemore-tube
#18
Evelyn Patricia Murphy, Sean Michael O'Brien, Mark Regan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319582/trends-in-the-purchase-of-surgical-care-in-the-community-by-the-veterans-health-administration-va
#19
Amy K Rosen, William O'Brien, Qi Chen, Michael Shwartz, Kamal F M Itani, William Gunnar
BACKGROUND: The 2014 implementation of the Veterans Choice Program increased opportunities for Veterans to receive care in the community. Although surgical care is a Veterans Health Administration (VA) priority, little is known about the types of surgeries provided in the VA versus those referred to community care (CC), and whether Veterans are increasing their use of surgical care through CC with these additional opportunities. OBJECTIVES: To examine national trends across VA facilities in the frequencies and types of surgeries provided in the VA and through CC, and explore the association between facilities' purchase of care with rurality and surgical complexity designation...
March 17, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319264/a-retrospective-study-of-the-effect-of-increasing-age-on-success-rates-of-assisted-reproductive-technology
#20
Yvonne M O'Brien, Michael Ryan, Fiona Martyn, Mary B Wingfield
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effect of increasing age on the outcome of assisted reproductive technology, particularly among women aged 40 years or older. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using prospectively collected data for all in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles among women aged 30-35 years or 40-44 years conducted at Merrion Fertility Clinic, Dublin, Ireland, between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. The relationship between age and treatment outcome was assessed...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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