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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219181/exercise-increases-rho-kinase-activity-and-insulin-signaling-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Gabriel Keine Kuga, Alisson Luiz da Rocha, Barbara Moreira Crisol, José Diego Botezelli, Igor Luchini Baptista, Rania A Mekary, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
The effects of physical exercise on insulin signaling and glycemic homeostasis are not yet fully understood. Recent findings elucidated the positive role of Rho-kinase (Rock) in increasing the glucose uptake through insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle. Here, we explored the effects of short-term exercise on Rock activity and insulin signaling. Fischer 344 rats (3 months old) were subjected to a short-term swimming exercise for 2 h per day for 5 days, with an overload corresponding to 1...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218225/the-gill-parasite-paramoeba-perurans-compromises-aerobic-scope-swimming-capacity-and-ion-balance-in-atlantic-salmon
#2
Malthe Hvas, Egil Karlsbakk, Stig Mæhle, Daniel William Wright, Frode Oppedal
The parasitic amoeba Paramoeba perurans is an aetiological agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD), a serious problem in seawater salmonid aquaculture globally. Other finfish species are also infected and infection events may be associated with periods of unusual high temperatures. Currently little is known about the impact of AGD on wild fish, but in a time with global warming and increasing aquaculture production this potential threat could be on the rise. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of infected fish is therefore warranted...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217494/regulation-of-the-kynurenine-metabolism-pathway-by-xiaoyao-san-and-the-underlying-effect-in-the-hippocampus-of-the-depressed-rat
#3
Jiajia Wang, Xiaofang Li, Shugui He, Lijun Hu, Jiewen Guo, Xiangning Huang, Jinqing Hu, Yaoqun Qi, Bin Chen, Dewei Shang, Yuguan Wen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xiaoyao San (XYS) is a classic Chinese herbal formula for treatment of depression. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effects of XYS in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A CUMS rat model of depression was established via 4 weeks of unpredictable stimulation. Then the rats were orally administered paroxetine and XYS for 2 weeks with continued stress...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217379/major-epidemiological-factors-associated-with-leptospirosis-in-malaysia
#4
REVIEW
Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib, Faruku Bande
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a diverse pathogenic leptospira species and serovars. The disease is transmitted directly following contact with infected urine and other body fluids or indirectly after contact with water or soil contaminated with infected urine. OBJECTIVES: While a wide range of domestic and wild animals are known to be reservoirs of the disease, occupation, international travel and recreation are beginning to assume a center stage in the transmission of the disease...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217357/tempol-prevents-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-induced-memory-impairment
#5
Karem H Alzoubi, Abeer M Rababa'h, Omar N Yaqoub
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that can develop after a terrifying or life threatening event. Multiple symptoms are noticed in patients with PTSD including cognitive impairment, which was shown to be is associated with oxidative stress. Tempol is a highly efficient membrane-permeable antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effect of tempol on PTSD-induced memory impairment. To test this hypothesis, we used single prolonged stress (SPS) model (2h restrain, 20min forced swimming, 15min rest, and 1-2min diethyl ether exposure) as a model of PTSD...
December 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217174/n-propyl-2-2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyacetamide-a-novel-%C3%AE-hydroxyamide-with-anticonvulsant-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-that-inhibits-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#6
Valentina Pastore, Cristina Wasowski, Pedro Martin, Andrea Enrique, Josefina Higgs, Luis E Bruno-Blanch, Veronica Milesi, Mariel Marder
In patients with epilepsy, anxiety and depression are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidities but they often remain unrecognized and untreated. We report herein the antidepressant-like activity in two animal models, tail suspension and forced swimming tests, of six anticonvulsants α-hydroxyamides. From these, N-propyl-2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyacetamide (compound 5) emerged not only as the most active as anticonvulsant (ED50= 2.5mg/kg, MES test), but it showed the most remarkable antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests (0...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216264/a-pressure-based-force-and-torque-prediction-technique-for-the-study-of-fish-like-swimming
#7
Kelsey N Lucas, John O Dabiri, George V Lauder
Many outstanding questions about the evolution and function of fish morphology are linked to swimming dynamics, and a detailed knowledge of time-varying forces and torques along the animal's body is a key component in answering many of these questions. Yet, quantifying these forces and torques experimentally represents a major challenge that to date prevents a full understanding of fish-like swimming. Here, we develop a method for obtaining these force and torque data non-invasively using standard 2D digital particle image velocimetry in conjunction with a pressure field algorithm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215751/proteomic-response-of-the-rat-liver-in-differential-swimming-modes
#8
Liang Chen, Yanhua Yang, Yiting Wang, Lipeng Qiu, Hengchuan Xia, Aiai Wang, Hailong Liu, Hongfei Shi, Keping Chen
Moderate exercise helps improve competition results, providing a balanced muscle tone and biochemical activity, whereas excessive training disrupts the balance between training and recovery, causes harm to the organism, and leads to overtraining syndrome (OTS). To explore the mechanisms of different protein expressions during training and acquisition of immunity, we used proteomic analyses to investigate the differences of liver-protein expressions between two swimming modes. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CT), fatigue training (FT), and exhaustive training (ET) groups, and liver tissues from each group were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215355/quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-to-estimate-the-health-risk-from-exposure-to-noroviruses-in-polluted-surface-water-in-south-africa
#9
Nicole Van Abel, Janet Mans, Maureen B Taylor
This study assessed the risks posed by noroviruses (NoVs) in surface water used for drinking, domestic, and recreational purposes in South Africa (SA), using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) methodology that took a probabilistic approach coupling an exposure assessment with four dose-response models to account for uncertainty. Water samples from three rivers were found to be contaminated with NoV GI (80-1,900 gc/L) and GII (420-9,760 gc/L) leading to risk estimates that were lower for GI than GII...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215318/therapeutic-potential-of-silymarin-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#10
Vishnu N Thakare, Rajesh R Patil, Rajesh J Oswal, Valmik D Dhakane, Manoj K Aswar, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214009/the-role-of-hoxa11-and-hoxa13-in-the-evolution-of-novel-fin-morphologies-in-a-representative-batoid-leucoraja-erinacea
#11
Shannon N Barry, Karen D Crow
Background: Batoids exhibit unique body plans with derived fin morphologies, such as the anteriorly expanded pectoral fins that fuse to the head, or distally extended anterior pelvic fin lobes used for a modified swimming technique utilized by skates (Rajidae). The little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), exhibits both of these unique fin morphologies. These fin modifications are not present in a typical shark body plan, and little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying their development...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212842/lean-mean-lipolytic-machines-lipid-mobilization-in-rainbow-trout-during-graded-swimming
#12
Eric D Turenne, Jean-Michel Weber
The mobilization of mammalian lipid reserves is strongly stimulated during exercise to reach a maximum at moderate intensities, but the effects of swimming speed on fish lipolysis have never been quantified. Continuous infusion of 2-[3H]glycerol was used to measure Ra glycerol (=rate of appearance of glycerol or lipolytic rate) in rainbow trout kept at rest, or during graded exercise in a swim tunnel up to critical swimming speed (Ucrit). Results show that Ra glycerol is 1.67±0.18 µmol kg-1min-1 in control animals, and remains at a steady level of 1...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212722/first-satellite-tracks-of-south-atlantic-sea-turtle-lost-years-seasonal-variation-in-trans-equatorial-movement
#13
Katherine L Mansfield, Milagros L Mendilaharsu, Nathan F Putman, Maria A G Dei Marcovaldi, Alexander E Sacco, Gustave Lopez, Thais Pires, Yonat Swimmer
In the South Atlantic Ocean, few data exist regarding the dispersal of young oceanic sea turtles. We characterized the movements of laboratory-reared yearling loggerhead turtles from Brazilian rookeries using novel telemetry techniques, testing for differences in dispersal during different periods of the sea turtle hatching season that correspond to seasonal changes in ocean currents. Oceanographic drifters deployed alongside satellite-tagged turtles allowed us to explore the mechanisms of dispersal (passive drift or active swimming)...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211780/prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-water-samples-in-central-italy-and-molecular-characterization-of-oprd-in-imipenem-resistant-isolates
#14
Giuditta Fiorella Schiavano, Elisa Carloni, Francesca Andreoni, Silvia Magi, Maria Chironna, Giorgio Brandi, Giulia Amagliani
SCOPE: This study aimed to analyse the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and genetic relatedness of P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from potable and recreational water samples (n. 8,351) collected from different settings (swimming pools, n. 207; healthcare facilities, n 1,684; accommodation facilities, n. 1,518; municipal waterworks, n. 4,500; residential buildings, n. 235). Possible mechanisms underlying resistance to imipenem, with particular focus on those involving oprD-based uptake, were also explored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211712/synchrotron-scanning-reveals-amphibious-ecomorphology-in-a-new-clade-of-bird-like-dinosaurs
#15
Andrea Cau, Vincent Beyrand, Dennis F A E Voeten, Vincent Fernandez, Paul Tafforeau, Koen Stein, Rinchen Barsbold, Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar, Philip J Currie, Pascal Godefroit
Maniraptora includes birds and their closest relatives among theropod dinosaurs. During the Cretaceous period, several maniraptoran lineages diverged from the ancestral coelurosaurian bauplan and evolved novel ecomorphologies, including active flight, gigantism, cursoriality and herbivory. Propagation X-ray phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography of a well-preserved maniraptoran from Mongolia, still partially embedded in the rock matrix, revealed a mosaic of features, most of them absent among non-avian maniraptorans but shared by reptilian and avian groups with aquatic or semiaquatic ecologies...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210364/too-depressed-to-swim-or-too-afraid-to-stop-a-reinterpretation-of-the-forced-swim-test-as-a-measure-of-anxiety-like-behavior
#16
Jeffrey Anyan, Shimon Amir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210119/diets-rich-in-saturated-fat-and-fructose-induce-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviours-in-the-rat-is-there-a-role-for-lipid-peroxidation
#17
Silvia Gancheva, Bistra Galunska, Maria Zhelyazkova-Savova
Epidemiological studies reveal associations between obesity/metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. We assessed behavioural changes in rats fed diets enriched in fat and fructose in different proportions and correlated the observed alterations with biochemical changes induced by the diets. Three groups of rats were used as follows: control (C) animals fed regular rat chow, rats fed high-fat diet (HF) and rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFHF). HF and HFHF animals were also given a 10% fructose solution as drinking water...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208573/swimming-against-the-tide-insights-from-the-orbita-trial
#18
Rasha Al-Lamee, Darrel P Francis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207304/evaluating-statistical-model-performance-in-water-quality-prediction
#19
Rodelyn Avila, Beverley Horn, Elaine Moriarty, Roger Hodson, Elena Moltchanova
Exposure to contaminated water while swimming or boating or participating in other recreational activities can cause gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. It is not uncommon for water bodies to experience rapid fluctuations in water quality, and it is therefore vital to be able to predict them accurately and in time so as to minimise population's exposure to pathogenic organisms. E. coli is commonly used as an indicator to measure water quality in freshwater, and higher counts of E. coli are associated with increased risk to illness...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206699/evaluation-of-antidepressant-activity-of-methanolic-extract-of-saraca-asoca-bark-in-a-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-model
#20
Meghna Gill, Manas Kinra, Amita Rai, Mallikarjuna R Chamallamudi, Nitesh Kumar
It is well established that chronic exposure to stressful events plays an important role in the etiology of depression. Saraca asoca (Roxb.), De. wild, or Saraca indica, belonging to family Fabaceae, is endogenous to India. The flowers, seeds, bark, and leaves of the plant have been used widely in Ayurveda medicine. The bark extract of S. asoca has shown chemoprotection, myeloprotection, and antioxidant potential. Owing to the above-mentioned properties of the plant, the present study sought to evaluate the effect of a methanolic extract of S...
December 4, 2017: Neuroreport
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