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Thomas Brandt, Eva Grill, Michael Strupp, Doreen Huppert
Aims: To determine the susceptibility to visual height intolerance (vHI) in patients with acquired bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP). The question was whether postural instability in BVP, which is partially compensated for by visual substitution of the impaired vestibular control of balance, leads to an increased susceptibility. This is of particular importance since fear of heights is dependent on body posture, and visual control of balance at heights can no longer substitute vestibular input. For comparison susceptibility to vHI was determined in patients with other vestibular or functional disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Daniele Neri, Tommaso Ruberto, Violet Mwaffo, Tiziana Bartolini, Maurizio Porfiri
Zebrafish has recently become a species of choice in a number of preclinical studies to examine whether and how psychoactive compounds modulate individual and social behaviors. Here, we sought to contribute an improved understanding of the effects of caffeine, a well-known anxiogenic compound, on the swimming activity and the collective response of zebrafish. To investigate how the social environment influences individual response to acute caffeine treatment, we measured the behavior of a caffeine-treated subject swimming in isolation or in the presence of a group of untreated conspecifics...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
John Davenport, Natasha D Phillips, Elizabeth Cotter, Lawrence E Eagling, Jonathan D R Houghton
Adult ocean sunfish are the heaviest living teleosts. They have no axial musculature or caudal fin. Propulsion is by unpaired dorsal and anal fins; a pseudocaudal fin ('clavus') acts as a rudder. Despite common perception, young sunfish are active predators that swim quickly, beating their vertical fins in unison to generate lift-based propulsion and attain cruising speeds similar to salmon and marlin. Here we show that the thick subcutaneous layer (or 'capsule'), already known to provide positive buoyancy, is also crucial to locomotion...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Yong-Cai Zhao, Jin-Mei Fu, Bing-Hong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To detect the levels of miR-1, miR-21 and their targeted proteins in hearts of mice after different exercise training, and discuss potential molecular mechanism. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to 3 groups:sedentary (SE), exercise training 1(ET1) and exercise training 2 (ET2). SE did not do any exercise; ET1 undertook swimming training for 8 weeks, once a day, 5 days/week. Swimming 30 min in the 1st week, and the duration was increased 10 min per week to 90 min and maintained in the 7th and 8th week...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Hong-Fang Yang, Xiao-Jing Lin, Xiao-Hui Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 4-week moderate aerobic exercise plus diet control on serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) as well as IGF-1 activity (reflected by molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3) in female obese adolescents and youths, and their possible role on fat loss, and improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine female obese youths (age:18~19 y) and 30 female obese adolescents (age:14~16 y) were recruited and undertook 4-week aerobic exercise such as swimming and jogging (6 days/week, twice a day, 2 h/time with 5 min rest per 30 min exercise) with gradual increase of intensity from low (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 1st week:100~120 beats/min) to moderate (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 2nd -4th weeks:120~140 beats/min) level, combined with a diet intervention (total daily energy intake of 1 400 or 1 600 kcal according to basal metabolism rate) in Shanghai Dianfeng weight loss enclosed camp...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Yan-Long Niu, Jian-Min Cao, Hai-Tao Zhou, Jie Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 6-week intensive training on renal function in rats and the mechanism of exercise-induced proteinuria. METHODS: Thirty-six male SD rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into two groups, including a control group(C, n =12)and an overtraining group(M, n =24). After the rats adapted to feeding for 4 d, group C did not carry out any exercise, and the M group did 6-week of increasing load swimming, 6 days a week, once a day. Started with the load of 1%weight at the beginning of the 4th week,and gradually increased (to 6% weight)...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Bing-Nan Deng, Jing-Ran Sun, Hong Jin, Hong-Jing Nie, Rui-Feng Duan, Lie Liu, Zhi-Xian Gao, Zhao-Li Chen
OBJECTIVE: To establish an animal model for loaded swimming, so as to investigate the energy metabolism effects of soybean isoflavones (SI) on swimming mice. METHODS: Thirty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups:normal control, swimming group, and swimming+SI group. The normal control group mice were fed a basic AIN-93M diet, the SI groups were supplied with soybean isoflavones(4 g/kg).Two weeks later, the mice were forced to swim for an hour,and then all the mice were killed, the samples of blood, liver and muscles of hind were collected...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Shuang Li, Wen-Qing Yao, Ye-Zheng Tao, Lan Ma, Xing Liu
Serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT), one of the central neurotransmitters, is the most important modulator for emotion regulation, sensory processing, cognitive control, etc. The serotonergic neurons are limited in amount and mainly distributed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and the median raphe nucleus (MR) in the midline of the brain stem. Previous studies mainly focused on the function of 5-HT neurons in the DR, but little is known about 5-HT neurons in MR. In the present study, with Pet1-Cre transgenic mice and DREADDs technology, we specifically activated or silenced 5-HT neurons in the MR, and aimed to explore their roles in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Yen-Kuan Ng, Marco Grasso, Victoria Wright, Vanina Garcia, Paul Williams, Steve Atkinson
Although Yersinia enterocolitica genomes are highly heterogeneous, they contain a conserved N -acylhomoserine lactone-dependent (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) system consisting of the luxR and luxI orthologs yenR and yenI respectively. Certain hypervirulent strains also contain a putative orphan luxR gene, ycoR , that is not linked to an AHL synthase. To explore the contribution of yenR/yenI/ycoR to QS-dependent phenotypes in Yersinia enterocolitica strain 8081, single and multiple mutants were constructed. AHL profiling identified N -(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone, N -hexanoylhomoserine lactone, and N -(3-oxoseptanoyl) homoserine lactone as the most abundant...
June 20, 2018: Genes
Daniel J Schumacher, Kathleen W Bartlett, Sean P Elliott, Catherine Michelson, Tanvi Sharma, Lynn C Garfunkel, Beth King, Alan Schwartz
PURPOSE: This single specialty, multi-institutional study aimed to determine: 1) the association between milestone ratings for individual competencies and average milestone ratings (AMRs) and 2) the association between AMRs and recommended supervisory role categorizations made by individual clinical competency committee (CCC) members. METHODS: During the 2015-16 academic year, CCC members at 14 pediatric residencies reported milestone ratings for 21 competencies and recommended supervisory role categories (may not supervise, may supervise in some settings, may supervise in all settings) for residents they reviewed...
June 17, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Harsha Mysore Rajagopal, Srikanta Belagihalli Manjegowda, Chandraprakash Serkad, Shylaja Mallaiah Dharmesh
Antiulcer potency of structurally defined low molecular weight modified pectin from turmeric (MTrPP) including inhibitory effects on H. pylori has been demonstrated previously by us. Given that ulcer is a disorder characterized by inflammatory responses leading to initiation, aggravation and perpetuation of disease conditions, the present study aims to understand the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms through which MTrPP delivered antiulcer effects. Rats triggered with early phase gastric inflammation (LPS) followed by ulcer induction (swim-stress) were pretreated with MTrPP (150 mg/kg b...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Parnit K Bhupal, Kevin A Anderson, Gabrielle P Shall, Jonathan D Lynn, Katrina S Hoolsema, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar, Michael I Sandstrom
BACKGROUND: Putative treatments derived from in-vivo stem cell transplant derived dopamine (DA) assessed with hemiparkinsonian rats have been assessed via DA-agonist-induced rotations involving imbalanced intra-hemispheric striatal DA receptor stimulation. However, such tests obscure the natural responses of grafts to sensory stimuli, and drug-induced plasticity can modify the circuit being tested. Thus, we propose an alternative testing strategy using a novel water tank swimming apparatus...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Amir Ali Amiri Moghadam, Seyedhamidreza Alaie, Suborna Deb Nath, Mahdie Aghasizade Shaarbaf, James K Min, Simon Dunham, Bobak Mosadegh
Pneumatically actuated soft robots address many challenges with interfacing with delicate objects, but these actuators/robots are still bulky and require many hours to fabricate, limiting their widespread use. This article reports a novel design and manufacturing method for ultrathin soft robots and actuators (∼70 μm) using a laser-cutting machine that cuts/welds sheets of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) from a 2D CAD drawing. Using this method, five different soft actuators (e.g., bending, rotating, contracting) are designed, fabricated, and characterized with both planar and nonplanar motions...
June 20, 2018: Soft Robotics
A V Gorlova, D A Pavlov, E A Zubkov, A Yu Morozova, A N Inozemtsev, V P Chekhonin
We studied the effects of social isolation for 1, 2 or 3 weeks on behavioral reactions of male rats. As social isolation is a common model for inducing depressive-like state in rodents, classical tests for depressive-like behavioral features were conducted: Porsolt forced swimming test and tests for anhedonia and social interest. None of the experimental groups showed statistically significant disorders in comparison with the control group kept under standard conditions. Thus, social isolation for up to 3 weeks did not cause behavioral abnormalities in male rats...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Nuno Batalha, Sónia Dias, Daniel A Marinho, José A Parraca
The continuous execution of swimming techniques, supported mainly by the upper limbs, may cause shoulder rotator muscle imbalances, which leads to injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two training programs on strength, balance and endurance of shoulder rotator cuff muscles in youth swimmers. Twenty-five male swimmers were evaluated and randomly divided into two groups - the land group (n = 13), which conducted a conventional dry-land training program with elastic bands, and the water group (n = 12), which conducted a water resistance program...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Deepti Nair, Vijay Ramesh, David Gozal
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease manifesting as intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH) and is increasingly recognized as being independently associated with neurobehavioral deficits. These deficits may be due to increased apoptosis in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation. It has been reported that neuroglobin (Ngb) is upregulated in response to hypoxia-ischemia insults and exhibits a protective role in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Megumi Matsuo, Yoriko Ando, Yasuhiro Kamei, Shoji Fukamachi
The optomotor response (OMR) is a locomotor behavior of animals that is induced by moving repetitive visual stimuli. This characteristic helps animals particularly when stabilizing and maintaining position in schools and herds. Here, we developed a simple but sensitive method for quantifying the OMR using medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) as a model. This method, which simply requires video-recorded behavior, free tracking software, and a generic spreadsheet program, enables the evaluation of spectral sensitivity by researchers with little knowledge about the behavioral characteristics of the test animal or of the OMR...
June 19, 2018: Biology Open
Kenzo Narita, Motomu Nakashima, Hideki Takagi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of leg kick on the resistance force in front-crawl swimming. The active drag in front-crawl swimming with and without leg motion was evaluated using measured values of residual thrust (MRT method) and compared with the passive drag of the streamlined position (SP) for the same swimmers. Seven male competitive swimmers participated in this study, and the testing was conducted in a swimming flume. Each swimmer performed front-crawl under two conditions: using arms and legs (whole stroke: WS) and using arms only (arms-only stroke: AS)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jaimie L Klemish, Sarah J Bogart, Andreas Luek, Michael J Lannoo, Greg G Pyle
Nickel (Ni) concentrations in aquatic ecosystems can be amplified by anthropogenic activities including resource extraction. Compared to fish and invertebrates, knowledge of Ni toxicity in amphibians is limited, especially for northern species. We examined the effect of Ni on Wood Frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus), the species with the widest and most northern distribution of any anuran in North America. Wood Frog tadpoles were exposed to a Ni concentration gradient (0.02 to 5.5 mg/L of Ni at 164 mg/L as CaCO3 water hardness) for 8 d and examined for lethality, Ni bioaccumulation, and several sublethal endpoints, including body condition, food consumption, swimming activity, and chemosensory function...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ruoxin Li, Qing Xiao, Yuanchuan Liu, Jianxin Hu, Lijun Li, Gen Li, Hao Liu, Kainan Hu, Li Wen
In this paper, a versatile Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) algorithm is developed to integrate an incompressible fluid flow with a bio-inspired multibody dynamic system. Of particular interest to the biomimetic application, the algorithm is developed via four properly selected benchmark verifications. The present tool has shown its powerful capability for solving a variety of biomechanics fish swimming problems, including self-propelled multiple degrees of freedom with a rigid undulatory body, multiple deformable fins and an integrated system with both undulatory fish body and flexible fins...
June 19, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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