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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434164/microglia-loss-contributes-to-the-development-of-major-depression-induced-by-different-types-of-chronic-stresses
#1
Lijuan Tong, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Hu, Jili Wang, Zhuo Chen, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
Recently, the loss and dystrophy of hippocampal microglia induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) has been reported to mediate the development of major depression in mice whose microglial cells were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein-conjuncted-CX3C receptor type 1. However, whether this happens in endogenous microglia with no genetic intervention remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue in mice treated with different types of chronic stresses, including the CUS, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433920/proteomic-analysis-of-sockeye-salmon-serum-as-a-tool-for-biomarker-discovery-and-new-insight-into-the-sublethal-toxicity-of-diluted-bitumen
#2
Sarah L Alderman, Laura A Dindia, Christopher J Kennedy, Anthony P Farrell, Todd E Gillis
Pipelines carrying diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Canada's oil sands traverse North America, including the freshwater habitat of Pacific salmon, posing a risk of environmental release and aquatic exposure. Swimming performance is impacted in juvenile sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposed to dilbit; therefore biomarkers of dilbit exposure will be valuable for monitoring at-risk salmon stocks. This study characterized changes in the serum proteome of sockeye exposed to a sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentration of dilbit using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), and included a range of experimental conditions to permit identification of biomarkers that are robust across time (1 and 4wk) and exercise level (at rest and following a swim test)...
April 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433741/loss-of-the-neurodevelopmental-gene-zswim6-alters-striatal-morphology-and-motor-regulation
#3
David J Tischfield, Dave K Saraswat, Andrew Furash, Stephen C Fowler, Marc V Fuccillo, Stewart A Anderson
The zinc-finger SWIM domain-containing protein 6 (ZSWIM6) is a protein of unknown function that has been associated with schizophrenia and limited educational attainment by three independent genome-wide association studies. Additionally, a putatively causal point mutation in ZSWIM6 has been identified in several cases of acromelic frontonasal dysostosis with severe intellectual disability. Despite the growing number of studies implicating ZSWIM6 as an important regulator of brain development, its role in this process has never been examined...
April 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433721/optimizing-the-restored-chemotactic-behavior-of-anticancer-agent-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vnp20009
#4
Katherine M Broadway, Seungbeum Suh, Bahareh Behkam, Birgit E Scharf
Bacteria, including strains of Salmonella, have been researched and applied as therapeutic cancer agents for centuries. Salmonella are particularly of interest due to their facultative anaerobic nature, facilitating colonization of differentially oxygenated tumor regions. Additionally, Salmonella can be manipulated with relative ease, resulting in the ability to attenuate the pathogen or engineer vectors for drug delivery. It was recently discovered that the anti-cancer Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain VNP20009 is lacking in chemotactic ability, due to a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in cheY...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433620/depressive-behavior-induced-by-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-increases-dentin-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#5
Fabiane Martins Barbosa, Danilo Cabral, Fernanda Kabadayan, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Maria de Fátima Monteiro Martins, Thiago Berti Kirsten, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Nicolle Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Maria Martha Bernardi, Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the nociceptive response induced by dentin hypersensitivity after dental erosion in rats that were exhibited to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced depressive-like behavior. DESIGN: Adult male rats were subjected to UCMS (depression [D] group) or not (no depression [ND] group) for 30days and received either acidic solution to induce dental erosion (E) or water (W), thus forming the WND, END, WD, and ED groups. After the end of treatment, depressive-like parameters (i...
April 15, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432496/reproductive-effects-of-life-cycle-exposure-to-difenoconazole-on-female-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#6
Xiaocui Dong, Zhenghong Zuo, Jiaojiao Guo, Hongbin Li, Lemeng Zhang, Meng Chen, Zhibin Yang, Chonggang Wang
Difenoconazole (DFZ) is a widely used triazole fungicide which has been detected in some estuaries and embayments. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DFZ on ovarian development in female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). After 180 days exposure of the embryo to DFZ (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/L), the gonadosomatic index and percentage of mature oocytes produced were significantly reduced in the 1, 10 and 100 ng/L treatments but not the 1000 ng/L treatment compared to the control, thus exhibiting a U-shaped dose response curve...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432487/sodium-hydrogen-exchanger%C3%A2-expression-in-human-sperm-and-its-relationship-with-semen-parameters
#7
Zhe Zhang, Yuzhuo Yang, Han Wu, Hongliang Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Jiaming Mao, Defeng Liu, Lianming Zhao, Haocheng Lin, Wenhao Tang, Kai Hong, Hui Jiang
PURPOSE: Sperm-specific sodium-hydrogen exchanger (sNHE) is essential to maintain sperm normal function in mice; however, its role in human sperm has not been clarified to date. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression pattern of sNHE in human spermatozoa and its relationship with sperm functional parameters. METHOD: Semen samples from 68 asthenozoospermic and 61 normozoospermic men were analyzed for sperm concentration, motility, and acrosome reaction, and high motile spermatozoa were collected by swim-up method...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431969/crfr1-in-the-ventromedial-caudate-putamen-modulates-acute-stress-enhanced-expression-of-cocaine-locomotor-sensitization
#8
Shuli Liu, Zhiyan Wang, Yijing Li, Xiaowei Sun, Feifei Ge, Mingda Yang, Xinjuan Wang, Na Wang, Junkai Wang, Cailian Cui
Repeated exposure to psychostimulants induces a long-lasting enhancement of locomotor activity called behavioral sensitization, which is often reinforced by stress after drug withdrawal. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain elusive. Here we explored the effects of acute stress 3 or 14 days after the cessation of chronic cocaine treatment on the expression of locomotor sensitization induced by a cocaine challenge in rats and the key brain region and molecular mechanism underlying the phenomenon. A single session of forced swimming, as an acute stress (administered 2 days after the cessation of cocaine), significantly enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization 14 days after the final cocaine injection (challenge at 12 days after acute stress) but not 3 days after the cessation of cocaine (challenge at 1 day after acute stress)...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431906/transgenic-mice-with-increased-astrocyte-expression-of-ccl2-show-altered-behavioral-effects-of-alcohol
#9
Jennifer G Bray, Amanda J Roberts, Donna L Gruol
Emerging research provides strong evidence that activation of CNS glial cells occurs in neurological diseases and brain injury and results in elevated production of neuroimmune factors. These factors can contribute to pathophysiological processes that lead to altered CNS function. Recently, studies have also shown that both acute and chronic alcohol consumption can produce activation of CNS glial cells and the production of neuroimmune factors, particularly the chemokine CCL2. The consequences of alcohol-induced increases in CCL2 levels in the CNS have yet to be fully elucidated...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429887/effects-of-aluminium-on-long-term-memory-in-rats-and-on-sirt1-mediating-the-transcription-of-creb-dependent-gene-in-hippocampus
#10
Dongying Yan, Cuihong Jin, Yang Cao, Lulu Wang, Xiaobo Lu, Jinghua Yang, Shengwen Wu, Yuan Cai
Epidemiological investigations have shown that aluminium (Al) is an important neurotoxicant which can be absorbed by organisms via various routes. Previous studies have confirmed that exposure to Al could cause neurodegenerative diseases, decline CREB phosphorylation and then down-regulate the transcription and protein expression of its target genes including BDNF. However, recent studies revealed that CREB activation alone was far from enough to activate the expression of long-term memory (LTM) related genes; there might be other regulatory factors involved in this process...
April 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429644/a-systematic-review-of-discomfort-due-to-toe-or-ear-clipping-in-laboratory-rodents
#11
Kimberley E Wever, Florentine J Geessink, Michelle A E Brouwer, Alice Tillema, Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga
Toe clipping and ear clipping (also ear notching or ear punching) are frequently used methods for individual identification of laboratory rodents. These procedures potentially cause severe discomfort, which can reduce animal welfare and distort experimental results. However, no systematic summary of the evidence on this topic currently exists. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for discomfort due to toe or ear clipping in rodents. The review methodology was pre-specified in a registered review protocol...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429110/inhibition-of-the-crf1-receptor-influences-the-activity-of-antidepressant-drugs-in-the-forced-swim-test-in-rats
#12
Andrzej Wróbel, Anna Serefko, Aleksandra Szopa, Karol Rojek, Ewa Poleszak, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Jarosław Dudka
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and impairment of the central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system are factors in the pathogenesis of depression. Though several antagonists of the CRF1 receptor were effective in the recognized behavioral tests for antidepressant activity, there is still little information on the potential interactions between CRF1 receptor inhibitors and conventional antidepressant therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of SN003, a CRF1 receptor blocker, on the activity of imipramine and fluoxetine in the forced swim test (FST) in rats which presented some signs of depression...
April 20, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429013/a-stochastic-model-for-directional-changes-of-swimming-bacteria
#13
G Fier, D Hansmann, R C Buceta
In this work we introduce a stochastic model to describe directional changes in the movement of swimming bacteria. We use the probability density function (PDF) of turn angles, measured on tumbling wild-type E. coli, to build a Langevin equation for the deflection of the bacterial body swimming in isotropic media. We have solved this equation analytically by means of the Green function method and shown that three parameters are sufficient to describe the movement: the characteristic time, the steady-state solution and the control parameter...
April 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428958/debromoaplysiatoxin-as-the-causative-agent-of-dermatitis-in-a-dog-after-exposure-to-freshwater-in-california
#14
Birgit Puschner, Adrienne C Bautista, Chris Wong
Contamination of recreational waters with cyanobacterial toxins continues to increase and presents a risk to animals and humans. Although cases of acute hepato- and neurotoxicoses in dogs following cyanotoxin exposure exist, no reports of skin-related reactions in dogs exist. A 5-year-old female spayed 34 kg Bracco Italiano was initially presented for rapid onset of severe pruritus and urticaria. Marked excoriation and erythema were noted over the chest and neck, while urticaria was noted in the inguinal regions and ventral abdomen...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426648/pregnancy-swimming-causes-short-and-long-term-neuroprotection-against-hypoxia-ischemia-in-very-immature-rats
#15
Eduardo Farias Sanches, Luz Elena Duran Carabali, Andrea Tosta, Fabrício Nicola, Felipe Schmitz, André Rodrigues, Cassiana Siebert, Angela Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of neurological damage in preterm. Pregnancy swimming alters the pup's brain development. We tested the effects of swimming during pregnancy in the very immature rat brain. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n=12) were assigned to sedentary (SE, n=6) or swimming groups (SW, n=6). From the gestational day 0 (DG0) to GD21 they performed 20 min/daily swimming sessions. HI on postnatal day 3 rat cause sensorimotor and cognitive impairments...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425485/red-light-improves-spermatozoa-motility-and-does-not-induce-oxidative-dna-damage
#16
Daryl Preece, Kay W Chow, Veronica Gomez-Godinez, Kyle Gustafson, Selin Esener, Nicole Ravida, Barbara Durrant, Michael W Berns
The ability to successfully fertilize ova relies upon the swimming ability of spermatozoa. Both in humans and in animals, sperm motility has been used as a metric for the viability of semen samples. Recently, several studies have examined the efficacy of low dosage red light exposure for cellular repair and increasing sperm motility. Of prime importance to the practical application of this technique is the absence of DNA damage caused by radiation exposure. In this study, we examine the effect of 633 nm coherent, red laser light on sperm motility using a novel wavelet-based algorithm that allows for direct measurement of curvilinear velocity under red light illumination...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425181/effects-of-different-aerobic-exercise-frequencies-on%C3%A2-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats-continuous-versus-short-bouts-and-weekend-warrior-exercises
#17
Nuray Alaca, Serap Uslu, Guldal Gulec Suyen, Umit Ince, Mustafa Serteser, Hızır Kurtel
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is known to exert multiple beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we aimed at exploring the effects of aerobic exercise frequencies on diabetic parameters, the histopathological structure of skeletal muscle, diabetic myopathy and mitochondrial enzyme activities in an experimental model of T2DM. METHODS: T2DM was induced by using nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) in Sprague Dawley rats (n: 35)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425158/sexual-colouration-and-sperm-performance-in-the-australian-painted-dragon-lizard-ctenophorus-pictus
#18
Callum S McDiarmid, Christopher R Friesen, Cissy Ballen, Mats Olsson
Theory predicts trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits. This relationship may be mediated by the degree to which males are able to monopolise access to females, as this will place an upper limit on the strength of postcopulatory selection. Furthermore, traits that aid in mate monopolization may be costly to maintain and may limit investment in postcopulatory traits, such as sperm performance. Australian painted dragons are polymorphic for the presence or absence of a yellow gular patch ('bibs'), which may aid them to monopolise access to females...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424791/antifatigue-effects-of-antrodia-cinnamomea-cultured-mycelium-via-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-signaling-in-a-mouse-model
#19
Yange Liu, Lanzhou Li, Shengshu An, Yuanzhu Zhang, Shiwei Feng, Lu Zhao, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
Antrodia cinnamomea, a folk medicinal mushroom, has numerous biological effects. In this study, we aim to assess whether the antifatigue effects of A. cinnamomea mycelia (AC) and its underlying mechanisms are related to oxidative stress signaling using behavioral mouse models and biochemical indices detection. Mice were orally treated with AC at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.9 g/kg for three weeks. AC had no effect on the spontaneous activities of mice indicating its safety on central nervous system. Furthermore, results obtained from weight-loaded forced swimming test, rotary rod test, and exhausted running test confirmed that AC significantly enhanced exercise tolerance of mice...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424423/the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-trans-astaxanthin-involves-the-serotonergic-system
#20
Xi Jiang, Keqi Zhu, Quanyi Xu, Guokang Wang, Jiajia Zhang, Rongrong Cao, Jiang Ye, Xuefeng Yu
The antidepressant-like effect of trans-astaxanthin, a compound present rich in algae, was evaluated through behavioral and neurochemical methods. Results showed that trans-astaxanthin treatment significantly decreased the immobility time in force swim test and tail suspension test, but did not influence locomotor activity. Trans-astaxanthin treatment did not effectively antagonize hypothermia and ptosis induced by reserpine. However, pre-treatment with para-chlorophenylalanine abolished the anti-immobility effect of trans-astaxanthin in force swim and tail suspension test...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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