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Min Ma, Fuwei Pi, Jiasheng Wang, Jian Ji, Xiulan Sun
Humans are most likely to be exposed to microcystins (MCs) combined with other water pollutants rather than to individual compounds through the consumption of contaminated drinking water or through recreational activities, such as swimming. However, the combined effects of MC-LR, estradiol (EST), and ractopamine (RAC) have not been extensively researched. The goal of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these compounds. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was evaluated in HepG2 cells treated with single or combined doses of MC-LR, EST, and RAC based on concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA), and Chou-Talalay's combination-index (CI) methods...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Shi-Ying Jin, Rui-Sheng Li, Bao-de Shen, Jin-Xia Bai, Ping-Hua Xu, Ling Dai, He Xu, Shi-Xiao Jin, Jin Han, Hai-Long Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain anti-fatigue constituents and mechanisms of Herpetospermum caudigerum. METHODS: The 80% ethanol extracts of Herpetospermum caudigerum were partitioned with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Male Kunming mice were divided into 13 groups with 16 mice in each group: a control group fed with water, 9 groups treated with 3 fractions of Herpetospermum caudigerum (chloroform fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and n-butanol fraction) at dose of 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg for the low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group, 3 herpetrione (HPE) treated groups fed with HPE at dose of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg for the low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Sónia Puga, Patrícia Pereira, Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Erin Mann, Marisa Barata, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, João Canário, Armando Almeida, Mário Pacheco
The current study aims to shed light on the neurotoxicity of MeHg in fish (white seabream - Diplodus sargus) by the combined assessment of: (i) MeHg toxicokinetics in the brain, (ii) brain morphometry (volume and number of neurons plus glial cells in specific brain regions) and (iii) fish swimming behavior (endpoints associated with the motor performance and the fear/anxiety-like status). Fish were surveyed for all the components after 7 (E7) and 14 (E14) days of dietary exposure to MeHg (8.7μgg(-1)), as well as after a post-exposure period of 28days (PE28)...
October 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
M Rincón-Cortés, R M Sullivan
Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Amanda J Sales, Vinícius A Hiroaki-Sato, Sâmia R L Joca
Systemic or hippocampal administration of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors induces antidepressant-like effects in animals, implicating increased hippocampal levels of NO in the neurobiology of depression. However, the role played by different NO synthase in this process has not been clearly defined. As stress is able to induce neuroinflammatory mechanisms and trigger the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the brain, as well as upregulate neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible differential contribution of hippocampal iNOS and nNOS in the modulation of the consequences of stress elicited by the forced swimming test...
October 24, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Sofía Negro, Liudmilla Boeva, Karla Slowing, Ana Fernández-Carballido, Luis García-García, Emilia Barcia
A new controlled delivery system is developed for ropinirole (RP) for the treatment of Parkinson´s disease (PD) consisting in PLGA microparticles (MPs) which exhibited in vitro constant release of RP (78.23 µg/day/10 mg MPs) for 19 days. The neuroprotective effects of RP released from MPs are evaluated in SKN-AS cells after exposure to rotenone (20 μM). Cell apoptosis was significantly reduced by RP (100-120 μM). Daily doses of rotenone (2 mg/kg) given i.p. to rats induced neuronal and behavioral changes similar to those of PD...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
S S Killen, T Norin, L G Halsey
The rate at which active animals can expend energy is limited by their maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR). Two methods are commonly used to estimate MMR as oxygen uptake in fishes, namely during prolonged swimming or immediately following brief exhaustive exercise, but it is unclear whether they return different estimates of MMR or whether their effectiveness for estimating MMR varies among species with different lifestyles. A broad comparative analysis of MMR data from 121 fish species revealed little evidence of different results between the two methods, either for fishes in general or for species of benthic, benthopelagic or pelagic lifestyles...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Burton C Suedel, Justin L Wilkens, Alan J Kennedy
The resuspension of sediments caused by activities, such as dredging operations, is a concern in Great Lakes harbors where multiple fish species spawn. To address such concerns, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were exposed to uncontaminated suspended sediment (nominally 0, 100, 250, and 500 mg/L) continuously for 72 h to determine the effects on egg-hatching success and swim-up fry survival and growth. The test sediments were collected from two harbors: (1) fine-grained sediment in Grand Haven Harbor, Lake Michigan, and (2) coarser-grained sediment in Fairport Harbor, Lake Erie...
October 24, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Cathy Joanna Jensen, Frauke Demol, Romy Bauwens, Ron Kooijman, Ann Massie, Agnès Villers, Laurence Ris, Jacques De Keyser
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2)...
2016: PloS One
Yi-Ju Hsu, Wen-Ching Huang, Chien-Chao Chiu, Yan-Lin Liu, Wan-Chun Chiu, Chun-Hui Chiu, Yen-Shuo Chiu, Chi-Chang Huang
Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge...
October 20, 2016: Nutrients
Jiaming Guo, Deyun Zhao, Xiao Lei, Hainan Zhao, Yanyong Yang, Pei Zhang, Pengfei Liu, Yang Xu, Meizhou Zhu, Hu Liu, Yuanyuan Chen, Yunhai Chuai, Bailong Li, Fu Gao, Jianming Cai
Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR). All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM) observation, forced swim test (FST), the open field test (OFT), the chromosome aberration (CA), the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA), the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and the histopathological studies...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Tiago M Barbosa, Wan X Goh, Jorge E Morais, Mário J Costa, David Pendergast
The aim of this study was to compare the non-linear properties of the four competitive swim strokes. Sixty-eight swimmers performed a set of maximal 4 × 25 m using the four competitive swim strokes. The hip's speed-data as a function of time was collected with a speedo-meter. The speed fluctuation (dv), approximate entropy (ApEn) and the fractal dimension by Higuchi's method (D) were computed. Swimming data exhibited non-linear properties that were different among the four strokes (14.048 ≤ dv ≤ 39.722; 0...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Min-Wang Zhang, She-Feng Zhang, Zhen-Hua Li, Fang Han
7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) is a naturally-occurring flavone which possesses good bioavailability. Due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, previous studies have demonstrated that 7,8-DHF was a potent tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) agonist, and produced antidepressant-like effects in mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test. However, it has not been evaluated in chronic mild stress (CMS), a classical depression model modulating the processes of major depression in human. In the present study, we not only evaluated the depressive-like behaviors, but also measured the key proteins of TrkB signaling in mice exposed to CMS...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
A G Sartim, F A Moreira, S R L Joca
CB1 and TRPV1 receptors may have opposite roles in modulating neural activity and, consequently, in regulating the stress response. These receptors are widely expressed in several brain structures, including the ventral medial pre-frontal cortex (vmPFC). The functional consequences of the interaction between CB1 and TRPV1, however, have scarcely been explored. Therefore, we investigated if CB1 and TRPV1 receptors located in the vmPFC would be involved in the behavioral changes induced by the stress of the forced swim test (FST)...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience
Rachel McCarrison, Dianxu Ren, Gail Ratliff Woomer, Brenda Cassidy
INTRODUCTION: This project evaluated an evidence-based self-instructional program aimed at improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and confidence in parents with children in swim lessons. METHOD: A prospective, repeated-measures design evaluated the CPR Anytime Child program. Twenty-nine parents completed questionnaires before, immediately after, and 1 month after the program. RESULTS: Knowledge and confidence scores improved significantly over time...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Eliane Brito Cortez Lima, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Lucas Nascimento Meneses, Yuri Freitas E Silva Pereira, Natália Castelo Branco Matos, Rayanne Brito de Freitas, Nycole Brito Cortez Lima, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Glauce Socorro Barros Viana, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Extracts from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera are used in folk medicine, but their actions on the central nervous system have not been studied. Here, the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of C. nucifera husk fiber (HECN) were evaluated. Male Swiss mice were treated with HECN (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 60 min before experiments involving the plus maze test, hole-board test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test (FST). HECN was administered orally (p.o.) in acute and repeated-dose treatments...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Luisa Iacovelli, Luisa Di Menna, Daniel Peterlik, Christina Stangl, Rosamaria Orlando, Gemma Molinaro, Antonio De Blasi, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, Peter J Flor, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Ferdinando Nicoletti
We studied the interaction between mGlu7 and α1-adrenergic receptors in heterologous expression systems, brain slices, and living animals. L-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (L-AP4), and l-serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP), which activate group III mGlu receptors, restrained the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis induced by the α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, in HEK 293 cells co-expressing α1-adrenergic and mGlu7 receptors. The inibitory action of L-AP4 was abrogated by (i) the mGlu7 receptor antagonist, XAP044; (ii) the C-terminal portion of type-2 G protein coupled receptor kinase; and (iii) the MAP kinase inhibitors, UO126 and PD98059...
October 18, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Martyn J Matthews, Daniel Green, Helen Matthews, Emma Swanwick
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of training induced fatigue on shoulder strength, ROM, joint position sense, and stroke length in elite competitive swimmers. METHODS: Seventeen national level swimmers performed maximum isometric strength (internal and external rotation), ROM, and joint position sense tests before and after a fatiguing 8 × 100 m training set. Stroke length, heart rate, blood lactate and blood glucose levels were recorded throughout. RESULTS: Peak blood lactate, blood glucose levels, and heart rate increased significantly (P < 0...
August 30, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Cihan Topcu
A novel polyvinyl chloride membrane chlorate (ClO3(-)) selective electrode based on modified smectite was developed for the direct determination of chlorate ions and the potentiometric performance characteristics of its were examined. The best selectivity and sensitivity for chlorate ions were obtained for the electrode membrane containing ionophore/polyvinylchloride/o-nitrophenyloctylether in composition of 12/28/60 (w/w%). The proposed electrode showed a Nernstian response toward chlorate ions at pH=7 in the concentration range of 1×10(-7)-1×10(-1)M and the limit of detection was calculated as 9×10(-8)M from the constructed response plot...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Tessa Strain, Claire Fitzsimons, Paul Kelly, Nanette Mutrie
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the UK physical activity guidelines were updated to include recommendations for muscle strengthening and balance & coordination (at least two sessions of relevant activities per week). However, monitoring and policy efforts remain focussed on aerobic activity. This study aimed to assess differences by gender and age in the a) prevalence of muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination guidelines, and b) participation in guideline-specific activities. METHODS: The sample for the muscle strengthening analyses was 10,488 adult (16-64 years) and 3857 older adult (≥65 years) 2012-2014 Scottish Health Survey respondents...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
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