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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221701/bace1-gene-silencing-alleviates-isoflurane-anesthesia%C3%A2-induced-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-immature-rats-by-activating-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#1
Ying-Bin Wang, Jian-Qin Xie, Wei Liu, Rong-Zhi Zhang, Sheng-Hui Huang, Yan-Hong Xing
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a severe complication characterized by cognitive dysfunction following anesthesia and surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of β‑site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) gene silencing on isoflurane anesthesia‑induced POCD in immature rats via the phosphatidylinositol‑3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Rat models were established and then transfected with BACE1 small interfering RNA and wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3K)...
September 4, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221667/bafilomycin-a1-alleviates-depression%C3%A2-like-symptoms-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-rats
#2
Zhijian Wang, Shengbing Liu, Weiwei Pan, Yanjun Guo, Zhongfei Shen
Major depression is a multifactorial disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that autophagy is involved in the pathological process of depressive disorders. Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), is an inhibitor of vacuolar H+‑ATPase that is frequently used at high concentrations to block late‑phase autophagy. However, whether Baf A1 has antidepressant effects remains to be elucidated. The current study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of Baf A1 in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and its potential mechanism...
September 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219101/dscam-differentially-modulates-pre-and-postsynaptic-structural-and-functional-central-connectivity-during-visual-system-wiring
#3
Rommel A Santos, Ariel J C Fuertes, Ginger Short, Kevin C Donohue, Hanjuan Shao, Julian Quintanilla, Parinaz Malakzadeh, Susana Cohen-Cory
BACKGROUND: Proper patterning of dendritic and axonal arbors is a critical step in the formation of functional neuronal circuits. Developing circuits rely on an array of molecular cues to shape arbor morphology, but the underlying mechanisms guiding the structural formation and interconnectivity of pre- and postsynaptic arbors in real time remain unclear. Here we explore how Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) differentially shapes the dendritic morphology of central neurons and their presynaptic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the developing vertebrate visual system...
September 15, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218146/the-effects-of-embryonic-hypoxic-programming-on-cardiovascular-function-and-autonomic-regulation-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-at-rest-and-during-swimming
#4
William Joyce, Tiffany E Miller, Ruth M Elsey, Tobias Wang, Dane A Crossley
Reptilian embryos naturally experience fluctuating oxygen levels in ovo, and developmental hypoxia has been established to have long-term impacts on cardiovascular function in vertebrates. In the present study, we investigated the impact of developmental 21% (normoxia) and 10% O2 (hypoxia) on juvenile (4-year-old) American alligator cardiovascular function in animals at rest and during swimming. In both experimental groups, combined right aortic and right subclavian blood flow approximately doubled during swimming...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218075/new-suspension-feeding-radiodont-suggests-evolution-of-microplanktivory-in-cambrian-macronekton
#5
Rudy Lerosey-Aubril, Stephen Pates
The rapid diversification of metazoans and their organisation in modern-style marine ecosystems during the Cambrian profoundly transformed the biosphere. What initially sparked this Cambrian explosion remains passionately debated, but the establishment of a coupling between pelagic and benthic realms, a key characteristic of modern-day oceans, might represent a primary ecological cause. By allowing the transfer of biomass and energy from the euphotic zone-the locus of primary production-to the sea floor, this biological pump would have boosted diversification within the emerging metazoan-dominated benthic communities...
September 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217724/acute-chronic-and-combined-pulmonary-responses-to-swimming-in-competitive-swimmers
#6
Ömer Faruk Yilmaz, Mustafa Özdal
The combined effects of swimming on the inspiratory muscles and pulmonary functions are not well known. The aim of the present study was to determine the acute, chronic, and combined effects of swimming on the pulmonary functions and respiratory muscles of competitive swimmers. Thirty males (15 in the experimental group [EG] and 15 in the control group [CG]) participated in this study. The EG subjects participated in an 8-week swim training program and performed 1 day before and after an 8-week 100-m swimming event...
September 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217149/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-responds-to-exogenous-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufas-by-modifying-phospholipid-composition-membrane-permeability-and-phenotypes-associated-with-virulence
#7
Lyssa Y Baker, Chelsea R Hobby, Andrew W Siv, William C Bible, Michael S Glennon, Derek M Anderson, Steven J Symes, David K Giles
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause infections in a variety of compromised human tissues. An emerging mechanism for microbial survival is the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids to alter the cell's membrane phospholipid profile. With these findings, we show that exogenous fatty acid exposure leads to changes in bacterial membrane phospholipid structure, membrane permeability, virulence phenotypes and consequent stress responses that may influence survival and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217102/a-review-of-planar-piv-systems-and-image-processing-tools-for-lab-on-chip-microfluidics
#8
REVIEW
Fahrettin Gökhan Ergin, Bo Beltoft Watz, Nicolai Fog Gade-Nielsen
Image-based sensor systems are quite popular in micro-scale flow investigations due to their flexibility and scalability. The aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview of current technical possibilities for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) systems and related image processing tools used in microfluidics applications. In general, the PIV systems and related image processing tools can be used in a myriad of applications, including (but not limited to): Mixing of chemicals, droplet formation, drug delivery, cell counting, cell sorting, cell locomotion, object detection, and object tracking...
September 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216886/ecotoxicological-effects-water-quality-standards-and-risk-assessment-for-the-anti-diabetic-metformin
#9
Aline Andrade Godoy, Inês Domingues, António José Arsénia Nogueira, Fábio Kummrow
Metformin (MET) is among the most consumed pharmaceuticals worldwide. This compound has been frequently detected in fresh surface water. However, ecotoxicological information for MET is still too limited, particularly regarding chronic and behavioral data. This study aimed to help filling these knowledge gaps, by carrying out both acute and chronic studies with four different test organisms from three different trophic levels. We assessed different endpoints, including the swimming behavior of Danio rerio larvae...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216117/chronic-stimulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-ameliorates-autonomic-nerve-dysfunction-and-atrial-fibrillation-susceptibility-in-rat-models-of-depression
#10
Xin Liu, Chuan Qu, Hongjie Yang, Shaobo Shi, Cui Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jinjun Liang, Bo Yang
Aims The present study assessed the effect of Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) stimulation on autonomic nerve dysfunction and atrial fibrillation susceptibility in rat depression models. Methods and Results Male rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups for four weeks: saline (CTL), saline+ intragastric administration of SA4503 (agonist of the S1R, CTS), chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to produce depression(MDD), and CUMS+ intragastric administration of SA4503 (MDS). After 4 weeks, depression-like behaviors, such as sucrose preference, body weight, and immobility during forced swimming improved in the MDS group...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214495/the-short-term-effect-of-swimming-training-load-on-shoulder-rotational-range-of-motion-shoulder-joint-position-sense-and-pectoralis-minor-length
#11
Emma Higson, Lee Herrington, Carl Butler, Ian Horsley
Background: Shoulder pain or injury is the most common issue facing elite competitive swimmers and the most frequent reason for missed or modified training. Literature suggests that highly repetitive upper limb loading leads to inappropriate adaptations within the shoulder complex. The most likely maladaptations to occur are variations in shoulder rotational range of motion, reduction in joint position sense and shortened pectoralis minor length. This has yet to have been confirmed in experimental studies...
October 2018: Shoulder & Elbow
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213966/the-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-2-is-a-molecular-host-associated-cue-for-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#12
Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, David M Fields, Steven Shema, Anne Berit Skiftesvik, Ignacio Ormazábal, Howard I Browman
Chemical signals are a key element of host-parasite interactions. In marine ecosystems, obligate ectoparasites, such as sea lice, use chemical cues and other sensory signals to increase the probability of encountering a host and to identify appropriate hosts on which they depend to complete their life cycle. The chemical compounds that underlie host identification by the sea lice are not fully described or characterized. Here, we report a novel compound - the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-2 (Cath-2) - that acts as an activation cue for the marine parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis...
September 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212806/application-of-untargeted-metabolomics-for-the-detection-of-pathogenic-naegleria-fowleri-in-an-operational-drinking-water-distribution-system
#13
Zhihao Yu, Haylea C Miller, Geoffrey J Puzon, Brian H Clowers
Found in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), swimming pools, and recreational waters, N. fowleri, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Although cases of N. fowleri infections are rare, the fatality is comparatively high (>95%) and surveillance is essential to minimize N. fowleri infections. However, conventional N. fowleri detection methods are less satisfying owing to their time-consuming and lab intensive characteristics as well as the lack of the ability to determine viability...
September 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212664/new-fluorescent-chemosensors-based-on-mononuclear-copper-complex-for-highly-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-phosphate-anion-in-aqueous-solution-and-living-cells
#14
REVIEW
Qingming Wang, Hui Sheng, Lei Jin, Zhiheng Zhang, Wenling Wang, Xinhui Tang
Three new probes, named, [Cu(L1)2 ]Cl2 (C1), [Cu(L2)2 ]Cl2 (C2) and [Cu(L3)2 ]Cl2 (C3) were synthesized and well characterized. The probes C1, C2 and C3 were successfully achieved for the efficient detection of PO4 3- as turn-on fluorescence chemosensors in DMSO/H2 O (v:v = 2:8, Tris-HCl pH = 7.20). The limit of detection (LOD) of probes C1, C2 or C3 for PO4 3- could be as low as 0.029 μM, 0.048 μM, 0.079 μM, respectively, which were effectively applied for the determination of the PO4 3- concentration in environmental water of swimming pool...
September 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210568/circadian-effects-on-performance-and-effort-in-collegiate-swimmers
#15
Austin Anderson, Gillian Murray, Meaghan Herlihy, Chloe Weiss, Jacob King, Ellen Hutchinson, Neil Albert, Krista K Ingram
Although individual athletic performance generally tends to peak in the evening, individuals who exhibit a strong diurnal preference perform better closer to their circadian peak. Time-of-day performance effects are influenced by circadian phenotype (diurnal preference and chronotype-sleep-wake patterns), homeostatic energy reserves and, potentially, genotype, yet little is known about how these factors influence physiological effort. Here, we investigate the effects of time of day, diurnal preference, chronotype, and PER3 (a circadian clock gene) genotype on both effort and performance in a population of Division I collegiate swimmers (n = 27)...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210565/time-of-administration-of-acute-or-chronic-doses-of-imipramine-affects-its-antidepressant-action-in-rats
#16
Hiroshi Kawai, Natsumi Kodaira, Chika Tanaka, Takuya Ishibashi, Naomi Kudo, Yoichi Kawashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto
The pathogenesis and therapeutics of depression are linked to the operation of the circadian system. Here, we studied the chronopharmacological action of a tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine. Male adult Wistar-Hannover rats were administered imipramine acutely or chronically in the morning or in the evening. The antidepressant action of imipramine was analyzed using the forced swim test (FST). A single dose of imipramine (30 mg/kg) in the morning, but not in the evening, reduced immobility and increased climbing in the FST...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210528/qtl-mapping-and-marker-identification-for-sex-determining-indicating-xy-sex-determination-system-in-the-swimming-crab-portunus-trituberculatus
#17
Jianjian Lv, Dongfang Sun, Pengpeng Huan, Liu Song, Ping Liu, Jian Li
Sex determination is an important area of research, which has always had an intriguing aspect in evolutionary and developmental biology. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for sex will be helpful in clarifying the sex determination system. In this study, the sex QTL mapping of the swimming crab ( Portunus trituberculatus ) was performed based on a high-density linkage map, and a highly significant QTL specifically mapped on a single linkage group (LG) was firstly identified (LG24, LOD > 14). Twenty markers in the QTL region showed significant associations with sex by association analysis, of which heterogametic genotypes in males supported the XY sex determination mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209982/-express-fear-extinction-learning-ability-predicts-neuropathic-pain-behaviors-and-amygdala-activity-in-male-rats
#18
Guangchen Ji, Vadim Yakhnitsa, Takaki Kiritoshi, Peyton Presto, Volker Neugebauer
The amygdala plays a key role in fear learning and extinction and has emerged as an important node of emotional-affective aspects of pain and pain modulation. Impaired fear extinction learning, which involves prefrontal cortical control of amygdala processing, has been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that fear extinction learning ability can predict the magnitude of neuropathic pain. We correlated fear extinction (FE) learning in naive adult male rats with sensory and affective behavioral outcome measures (mechanical thresholds, vocalizations, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors) before and after induction of the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain compared to sham controls...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209454/a-fast-and-powerful-swimming-microrobot-with-a-serrated-tail-enhanced-propulsion-interface
#19
Dengfeng Li, Yanting Liu, Yuanyuan Yang, Yajing Shen
We demonstrate the use of a swimming microrobot with a serrated tail in the propulsion region to enhance reaction interfaces. A 3D printed tail with multiple catalytic channels and nanointerfaces could reinforce the microrobot, allowing it to reach swimming speeds of ∼1 mm s-1 and enabling it to transport objects with a weight 6500 times that of itself. This research represents a new concept in swimming microrobot design and is expected to benefit a wide range of engineering fields.
September 13, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209042/latent-power-of-basking-sharks-revealed-by-exceptional-breaching-events
#20
Emmett M Johnston, Lewis G Halsey, Nicholas L Payne, Alison A Kock, Gil Iosilevskii, Bren Whelan, Jonathan D R Houghton
The fast swimming and associated breaching behaviour of endothermic mackerel sharks is well suited to the capture of agile prey. In contrast, the observed but rarely documented breaching capability of basking sharks is incongruous to their famously languid lifestyle as filter-feeding planktivores. Indeed, by analysing video footage and an animal-instrumented data logger, we found that basking sharks exhibit the same vertical velocity (approx. 5 m s-1 ) during breach events as the famously powerful predatory great white shark...
September 12, 2018: Biology Letters
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