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Chronic constipation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455410/can-patients-with-symptomatic-tarlov-cysts-be-differentiated-from-patients-with-specific-low-back-pain-based-on-comprehensive-history-taking
#1
Maria Anna Hulens, Wim Dankaerts, Ricky Rasschaert, Frans Bruyninckx, Marie-Laure Willaert, Charlotte Vereecke, Greet Vansant
BACKGROUND: Tarlov cysts (TCs) are expanded nerve root sheaths that occur near the dorsal root ganglion and result from increased intraspinal hydrostatic pressure. TCs most frequently affect the lumbosacral plexus and therefore may cause specific symptoms such as perineal pain and neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sphincter problems. It has been estimated that 1% of the population has symptomatic Tarlov cysts (STCs). However, STCs appear to be underdiagnosed, with the pain reported by patients commonly attributed to degenerative alterations seen on MRI...
February 17, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428470/dsp-6952-a-novel-5-ht4-receptor-partial-agonist-inhibits-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-ameliorates-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-experimental-animals
#2
Yukiko Mine, Tomohiro Itakura, Seiko Oku, Reiko Asada, Isao Shimizu
The pharmacological profile of DSP-6952, a novel 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, was investigated to evaluate the potential use for GI disorders, and to compare its effects in some GI dysfunction models with those of clinically efficacious prokinetic agents. DSP-6952 enhanced gastric motility and caused colonic giant migrating contractions (GMCs) associated with defecation in conscious dogs, having ED50 value for inducing GMCs of 1.56mg/kg. DSP-6952 (3-10mg/kg, i.g.) significantly enhanced colonic transit rate in guinea pigs; this enhancement was antagonized by SB-207266, a selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425110/a-japanese-patient-with-congenital-central-hypothyroidism-caused-by-a-novel-igsf1-mutation
#3
Takeshi Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Hothubo, Shuntaro Morikawa, Akie Nakamura, Toshihiko Mori, Toshihiro Tajima
BACKGROUND: IGSF1 abnormality causes diverse symptoms, including congenital central hypothyroidism (CCH), prolactin hyposecretion, testicular enlargement and delayed puberty. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of a male patient who visited our hospital with a chief complaint of abdominal pain and short stature, in whom we identified a novel IGSF1 mutation. He was closely examined because of chronic constipation since infancy, persistent abdominal pain at 14 years of age and marked short stature (-4...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423971/two-de-novo-novel-mutations-in-one-shank3-allele-in-a-patient-with-autism-and-moderate-intellectual-disability
#4
Wenmiao Zhu, Jianli Li, Stella Chen, Jinglan Zhang, Francesco Vetrini, Alicia Braxton, Christine M Eng, Yaping Yang, Fan Xia, Kory L Keller, Leila Okinaka-Hu, Chung Lee, J Lloyd Holder, Weimin Bi
SHANK3 encodes for a scaffolding protein that links neurotransmitter receptors to the cytoskeleton and is enriched in postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses. Deletions or mutations in one copy of the SHANK3 gene cause Phelan-McDermid syndrome, also called 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder with common features including global developmental delay, absent to severely impaired language, autistic behavior, and minor dysmorphic features. By whole exome sequencing, we identified two de novo novel variants including one frameshift pathogenic variant and one missense variant of unknown significance in a 14-year-old boy with delayed motor milestones, delayed language acquisition, autism, intellectual disability, ataxia, progressively worsening spasticity of the lower extremities, dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, failure to thrive, chronic constipation, intrauterine growth restriction, and bilateral inguinal hernias...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420795/the-burden-of-opioid-induced-constipation-in-younger-patients-with-chronic-noncancer-pain
#5
Anita Gupta, Karin S Coyne, Catherine Datto, Christine Venuti
Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the experience of opioid-induced constipation in younger patients and identify differences in the experience of opioid-induced constipation and its symptoms between younger patients (<50 years) and older patients (50-64 years). Design: Post hoc analysis of data from a 24-week prospective, multinational, longitudinal observational cohort study (NCT01928953). Setting: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Canada, Germany, and United Kingdom...
February 6, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419653/long-term-use-of-naldemedine-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation-in-patients-with-chronic-non-cancer-pain-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-study
#6
Lynn R Webster, Srinivas Nalamachu, Bart Morlion, Jyotsna Reddy, Yuko Baba, Tadaaki Yamada, Juan Camilo Arjona Ferreira
The long-term safety of naldemedine, a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist, was evaluated in patients with opioid-induced constipation and chronic non-cancer pain in a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study. Eligible adults who could be on a routine laxative regimen were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily oral naldemedine 0.2 mg (n = 623) or placebo (n = 623). The primary endpoint was summary measures of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Additional endpoints included opioid withdrawal on the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale and the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale, pain intensity on Numeric Rating Scale, frequency of bowel movements, and constipation-related symptoms and quality of life on the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms and Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life scales, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408460/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-fecal-incontinence-results-from-a-population-based-survey
#7
Stacy B Menees, Christopher V Almario, Brennan M R Spiegel, William D Chey
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fecal incontinence (FI) is characterized by uncontrolled passage of solid or liquid stool. We aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of FI in a large sample of United States residents. METHODS: We recruited a representative sample of patients in October 2015 to complete the National Gastrointestinal (GI) Survey; a mobile app called MyGiHealth was used to systematically collect data on GI symptoms. FI was defined as accidental leakage of solid or liquid stool...
February 3, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406436/clinical-practice-guidelines-from-the-french-national-society-of-coloproctology-in-treating-chronic-constipation
#8
Véronique Vitton, Henri Damon, Alban Benezech, Dominique Bouchard, Sarah Brardjanian, Charlène Brochard, Benoit Coffin, Nadia Fathallah, Thierry Higuero, Pauline Jouët, Anne-Marie Leroi, Laure Luciano, Guillaume Meurette, Thierry Piche, Alain Ropert, Jean-Marc Sabate, Laurent Siproudhis
Chronic constipation is a common symptom that regularly affects the quality of life of adult patients. Its treatment is mainly based on dietary rules, laxative drugs, perineal rehabilitation and surgical treatment. The French National Society of Coloproctology offers clinical practice recommendations on the basis of the data in the current literature, including those on recently developed treatments. Most are noninvasive, and the main concepts include the following: stimulant laxatives are now considered safe drugs and can be more easily prescribed as a second-line treatment; biofeedback therapy remains the gold standard for the treatment of anorectal dyssynergia that is resistant to medical treatment; transanal irrigation is the second-line treatment of choice in patients with neurological diseases, but it may also be proposed for patients without neurological diseases; and although interferential therapy may be a new promising treatment, it needs further evaluation...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405492/effects-of-naloxegol-on-whole-gut-transit-in-opioid-na%C3%A3-ve-healthy-subjects-receiving-codeine-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
H Halawi, P Vijayvargiya, I Busciglio, I Oduyebo, D Khemani, M Ryks, D Rhoten, D Burton, L A Szarka, A Acosta, M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Nausea, vomiting, and constipation (OIC) are common adverse effects of acute or chronic opioid use. Naloxegol (25 mg) is an approved peripherally active mu-opiate opioid receptor antagonist. AIM: To compare the effects on pan-gut transit of treatment with codeine, naloxegol, or combination in healthy volunteers. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, parallel-group study in 72 healthy opioid-naïve adults, randomized to: codeine (30 mg q...
February 6, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402303/stepped-wedge-randomised-trial-of-laparoscopic-ventral-mesh-rectopexy-in-adults-with-chronic-constipation-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Ugo Grossi, Natasha Stevens, Eleanor McAlees, Jon Lacy-Colson, Steven Brown, Anthony Dixon, Gian Luca Di Tanna, S Mark Scott, Christine Norton, Nadine Marlin, James Mason, Charles H Knowles
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy (LVMR) is an established treatment for external full-thickness rectal prolapse. However, its clinical efficacy in patients with internal prolapse is uncertain due to the lack of high-quality evidence. METHODS: An individual level, stepped-wedge randomised trial has been designed to allow observer-blinded data comparisons between patients awaiting LVMR with those who have undergone surgery. Adults with symptomatic internal rectal prolapse, unresponsive to prior conservative management, will be eligible to participate...
February 5, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402137/perceived-stress-its-physiological-correlates-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
Kristen R Weaver, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Jason Fletcher, Wendy A Henderson
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract associated with high psychological comorbidity and diminished quality of life. Patients with IBS display a heightened sensitivity to stress, although the literature is inconsistent as to whether they have a dysregulated stress response. The purpose of the present investigation, a substudy of a larger research effort, was to examine physiological correlates of perceived stress in patients with IBS (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) and to explore associations between perceived stress and quality of life...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399027/correlation-between-laxative-effects-of-uridine-and-suppression-of-er-stress-in-loperamide-induced-constipated-sd-rats
#12
Ji Eun Kim, Bo Ram Song, Woo Bin Yun, Jun Young Choi, Jin Ju Park, Mi Rim Lee, Dae Youn Hwang
A correlation between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and laxative effects was first reported in a constipation model treated with an aqueous extract of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP) roots. To investigate the correlation between the laxative effect of uridine (Urd) and ER stress response, alterations in the key parameters for ER stress were measured in loperamide (Lop) induced constipation Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with Urd. The efficacy of the laxative effect of Urd was notable on the symptoms of chronic constipation, including alteration of stool parameters and structure of the transverse colon, in Lop induced constipated SD rats...
December 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395154/botulinum-toxin-injection-for-childhood-constipation-is-safe-and-can-be-effective-regardless-of-anal-sphincter-dynamics
#13
Claire Zar-Kessler, Braden Kuo, Jaime Belkind-Gerson
BACKGROUND: Childhood constipation is common. Previously, internal anal sphincterotomy has been used for hypertensive/non-relaxing sphincters; however, recent benefit has been shown with Botulinum Toxin (BT) injections. The aim is to investigate BT, including response duration, symptom association and effectiveness in relation to sphincter dynamics. METHODS: Retrospective study of 164 children receiving sphincter BT for severe constipation unresponsive to medication management...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392784/acupuncture-for-patients-with-chronic-functional-constipation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
H Zheng, Z-S Liu, W Zhang, M Chen, F Zhong, X-H Jing, P-J Rong, W-Z Zhu, F-C Wang, Z-B Liu, C-Z Tang, S-J Wang, M-Q Zhou, Y Li, B Zhu
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is used to treat chronic functional constipation (CFC) in China, despite limited evidence. We aim to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in managing CFC. METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled trial was performed involving 684 patients with CFC; the patients were randomly allocated to receive He acupuncture (n = 172), Shu-mu acupuncture (n = 171), He-shu-mu acupuncture (n = 171), or oral administration of mosapride (n = 170)...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391826/spotlight-on-naldemedine-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation-in-adult-patients-with-chronic-noncancer-pain-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Emily K Stern, Darren M Brenner
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is an increasingly prevalent problem in the USA due to the growing use of opioids. A novel class of therapeutics, the peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs), has been developed to mitigate the deleterious effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract while maintaining central analgesia and minimizing opioid withdrawal. This review aimed to summarize the literature on naldemedine, the third PAMORA to gain US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of OIC in adults with chronic noncancer pain-related syndromes...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390219/-combined-treatment-of-endometriosis-radical-yet-gentle
#16
Ibrahim Alkatout, Thilo Wedel, Nicolai Maass
Endometriosis is the second most common benign female genital disease after uterine myoma. This review discusses the management of individual patients. This should take into account the severity of the disease and whether the patient desires to have children. Particular emphasis is laid on the anatomical intersections which, when injured, can lead to persistent damage of the anterior, middle or posterior compartment and are not infrequently the cause of urological and urogynaecological follow-up measures. Typical symptoms of endometriosis include chronic pelvic pain, subfertility, dysmenorrhoea, deep dyspareunia, cyclical bowel or bladder symptoms (e...
February 2018: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388040/microbial-treatment-in-chronic-constipation
#17
REVIEW
Linsheng Huang, Qi Zhu, Xiao Qu, Huanlong Qin
Chronic functional constipation is a kind of common intestinal disease that occurs in children, adults and elderly people. This disease not only causes great influence to physiological function, but also results in varying degrees of psychological barriers. At present, constipation treatments continue to rely on traditional methods such as purgative therapy and surgery. However, these approaches can disrupt intestinal function. Recent research between intestinal diseases and gut microbiota has gradually revealed a connection between constipation and intestinal flora disturbance, providing a theoretical basis for microbial treatment in chronic constipation...
January 23, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380823/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-guanylate-cyclase-c-agonists-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation-and-chronic-idiopathic-constipation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Eric D Shah, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Philip Schoenfeld
OBJECTIVES: Linaclotide and plecanatide are guanylate cyclase-C (GCC) agonists for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Our objective is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of GCC agonists based on data from multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched PubMED, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, clinicaltrials.gov, major conference abstracts, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites, and United States Securities and Exchange Commission filings of drug sponsors to identify RCTs of CIC or IBS-C patients...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380109/laxative-effect-of-repeated-daiokanzoto-is-attributable-to-decrease-in-aquaporin-3-expression-in-the-colon
#19
Risako Kon, Miho Yamamura, Yukari Matsunaga, Hiroshi Kimura, Moe Minami, Saki Kato, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Kiyoshi Sugiyama
Daiokanzoto (DKT) exerts its laxative effect via colonic inflammation caused by sennoside A in Daio (rhubarb). Previously, we showed that the laxative effect of sennoside A is related to decreased aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression in mucosal epithelial cells due to colonic inflammation. We also found that a combination of glycyrrhizin, an ingredient in Kanzo (glycyrrhiza), and sennoside A attenuates the inflammatory response induced by sennoside A and reduces its laxative effect. These findings indicate that DKT may be a long-term treatment for chronic constipation, but there is no evidence supporting this hypothesis...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376436/efficacy-and-safety-of-plecanatide-in-treating-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Philip B Miner
Uroguanylin interacting with intestinal Guanylate Cyclase C (GC-C) receptors plays an important role in gastrointestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Plecanatide is the first uroguanylin analog that stimulates GC-C receptors on gastrointestinal mucosa with pH-sensitive receptor binding. Binding to the GC-C receptor activates intracellular conversion of GTP to cGMP resulting in the stimulation of intestinal fluid secretion. Areas covered: Herein, all published research regarding the development of and clinical experience with plecanatide is reviewed...
January 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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