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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926934/public-health-interventions-for-aedes-control-in-the-time-of-zikavirus-a-meta-review-on-effectiveness-of-vector-control-strategies
#1
Maha Bouzid, Julii Brainard, Lee Hooper, Paul R Hunter
BACKGROUND: There is renewed interest in effective measures to control Zika and dengue vectors. A synthesis of published literature with a focus on the quality of evidence is warranted to determine the effectiveness of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a meta-review assessing the effectiveness of any Aedes control measure. We searched Scopus and Medline for relevant reviews through to May 2016. Titles, abstracts and full texts were assessed independently for inclusion by two authors...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926892/do-mobile-phone-applications-improve-glycemic-control-hba1c-in-the-self-management-of-diabetes-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-grade-of-14-randomized-trials
#2
REVIEW
Can Hou, Ben Carter, Jonathan Hewitt, Trevor Francisa, Sharon Mayor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of mobile phone applications (apps) on glycemic control (HbA1c) in the self-management of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Relevant studies that were published between 1 January 1996 and 1 June 2015 were searched from five databases: Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated diabetes apps were included. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) of the evidence...
November 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926769/myocardial-fibrosis-progression-in-duchenne-and-becker-muscular-dystrophy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Marly Conceição Silva, Tiago Augusto Magalhães, Zilda Maria Alves Meira, Carlos Henrique Reis Esselin Rassi, Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade, Paulo Sampaio Gutierrez, Clerio Francisco Azevedo, Juliana Gurgel-Giannetti, Mariz Vainzof, Mayana Zatz, Roberto Kalil-Filho, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte
Importance: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), interventions reducing the progression of myocardial disease could affect survival. Objective: To assess the effect of early angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy in patients with normal left ventricular function on the progression of myocardial fibrosis (MF) identified on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial conducted in 2 centers included 76 male patients with DMD or BMD undergoing 2 CMR studies with a 2-year interval for ventricular function and MF assessment...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926758/association-between-surgeon-scorecard-use-and-operating-room-costs
#4
Corinna C Zygourakis, Victoria Valencia, Christopher Moriates, Christy K Boscardin, Sereina Catschegn, Alvin Rajkomar, Kevin J Bozic, Kent Soo Hoo, Andrew N Goldberg, Lawrence Pitts, Michael T Lawton, R Adams Dudley, Ralph Gonzales
Importance: Despite the significant contribution of surgical spending to health care costs, most surgeons are unaware of their operating room costs. Objective: To examine the association between providing surgeons with individualized cost feedback and surgical supply costs in the operating room. Design, Setting, and Participants: The OR Surgical Cost Reduction (OR SCORE) project was a single-health system, multihospital, multidepartmental prospective controlled study in an urban academic setting...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926743/antecedents-of-new-onset-major-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-at-high-familial-risk
#5
Frances Rice, Ruth Sellers, Gemma Hammerton, Olga Eyre, Rhys Bevan-Jones, Ajay K Thapar, Stephan Collishaw, Gordon T Harold, Anita Thapar
Importance: Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in individuals at high familial risk of depression and is associated with poor long-term mental health, social, and educational outcomes. Objectives: To examine the developmental pathways that lead to first-episode adolescent-onset MDD (incident cases) in those at high familial risk and to postulate a theoretically informed model that enables simultaneous testing of different pathways to incident adolescent-onset MDD composed of contributions from familial/genetic and social risk factors, as well as effects via specific clinical antecedents...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#6
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926687/an-initiative-to-standardize-the-identification-of-and-acute-response-to-postoperative-lower-extremity-neurological-deficits-effects-on-provider-knowledge-confidence-and-communication-skills
#7
Peter B Derman, Sravisht Iyer, Matthew Garner, Steven Orr, Karla J Felix, Allison Goldberg, Titilayo Ologhobo, Minlun Wu, Laura Robbins, Charles Cornell
BACKGROUND: Although relatively uncommon, neurological deficits following hip and knee arthroplasty can have permanent and debilitating consequences. This study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of an educational curriculum aimed at standardizing the identification of and acute response to postoperative neurological deficits in the inpatient setting, specifically with respect to improvements in clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. METHODS: A multidisciplinary committee at a single, high-volume academic institution created an algorithm delineating the appropriate clinical actions and escalation procedures in the setting of a postoperative neurological deficit for each clinical practitioner involved in care for patients who undergo arthroplasty...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926668/brief-report-interpersonal-and-intrapersonal-factors-as-parallel-independent-mediators-in-the-association-between-internalized-hiv-stigma-and-art-adherence
#8
Victoria C Seghatol-Eslami, Heather E Dark, James L Raper, Michael J Mugavero, Janet M Turan, Bulent Turan
INTRODUCTION: People living with HIV (PLWH) need to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) to achieve optimal health. One reason for ART nonadherence is HIV-related stigma. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether HIV treatment self-efficacy (an intrapersonal mechanism) mediates the stigma-adherence association. We also examined whether self-efficacy and the concern about being seen while taking HIV medication (an interpersonal mechanism) are parallel mediators independent of each other...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926633/effects-of-calcium-vitamin-d-and-hormone-therapy-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Peter F Schnatz, Xuezhi Jiang, Aaron K Aragaki, Matthew Nudy, David M OʼSullivan, Mark Williams, Erin S LeBlanc, Lisa W Martin, JoAnn E Manson, James M Shikany, Karen C Johnson, Marcia L Stefanick, Martha E Payne, Jane A Cauley, Barbara V Howard, John Robbins
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the treatment effect of calcium+vitamin D supplementation, hormone therapy, both, and neither on cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. The predefined primary outcome was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). RESULTS: Between September 1993 and October 1998, a total of 68,132 women aged 50-79 years were recruited and randomized to the WHI-Dietary Modification (n=48,835) and WHI-Hormone Therapy trials (n=27,347)...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926626/frailty-assessed-by-the-forecast-is-a-valid-tool-to-predict-short-term-outcome-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#10
Adrian R Kobe, Alexander Meyer, Hassan Elmubarak, Jörg Kempfert, Jovana Pavicevic, Francesco Maisano, Thomas Walther, Volkmar Falk, Simon H Sündermann
OBJECTIVE: The term frailty is frequently used during decision-making in transcatheter heart valve procedures. Nevertheless, frailty is still measured by eyeballing rather than by using standardized frailty assessments. In a previous study, we developed a frailty score in a cardiac surgical patient population including patients, who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Here, we present the results from the subsequent validation study focusing on the TAVR cohort. METHODS: One hundred thirty patients underwent TAVR...
December 6, 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926564/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prophylactic-mesh-during-primary-stoma-formation-to-prevent-parastomal-hernia
#11
Stephen J Chapman, Benjamin Wood, Thomas M Drake, Neville Young, David G Jayne
BACKGROUND: Implantation of mesh at the time of stoma formation may reduce the rate of parastomal hernia. Until recently, the evidence has been limited to only a few small randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: We present an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of mesh prophylaxis on rates of parastomal hernia. We examine ongoing and unpublished trials via online registries and propose recommendations for future research. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to March 2016 for published randomized controlled trials...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926561/percutaneous-posterior-tibial-nerve-stimulation-vs-perianal-application-of-glyceryl-trinitrate-ointment-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-anal-fissure-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Jaime Ruiz-Tovar, Carolina Llavero
BACKGROUND: Current therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of chronic anal fissure establish a medical approach as the first step. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment is the most popular of the available topical treatments in Spain but it is associated with the appearance of headache. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the compliance rate among patients receiving glyceryl trinitrate treatment for chronic anal fissure with that among patients receiving percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926559/preoperative-immunonutrition-and-elective-colorectal-resection-outcomes
#13
Lucas W Thornblade, Thomas K Varghese, Xu Shi, Eric K Johnson, Amir Bastawrous, Richard P Billingham, Richard Thirlby, Alessandro Fichera, David R Flum
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of arginine-enriched nutritional supplements (immunonutrition) in reducing complications after surgery. The effectiveness of preoperative immunonutrition has not been evaluated in a community setting. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether immunonutrition before elective colorectal surgery improves outcomes in the community at large. DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study with a propensity score-matched comparative effectiveness evaluation...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926544/cognitive-impairment-following-hormone-therapy-current-opinion-of-research-in-breast-and-prostate-cancer-patients
#14
Lisa M Wu, Ali Amidi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hormone therapy is a common cancer treatment that may be associated with numerous side and late effects, and in recent years, has been linked to changes in cognition. Here, we present the most important recent findings from empirical studies and reviews that have focused on the effects of hormone therapy on cognitive functioning in breast and prostate cancer populations, underline some general shortcomings, and propose directions for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research indicates that cognitive impairment may occur in breast and prostate cancer patients following onset of hormone therapy...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926543/effects-of-exercise-interventions-and-physical-activity-behavior-on-cancer-related-cognitive-impairments-an-update
#15
Nils Schaffrath, Max Oberste, Philipp Zimmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to give an update on studies investigating the influence of physical activity behavior and exercise interventions on cancer-related cognitive impairments. RECENT FINDINGS: Cross-sectional and observational studies underline previous findings, revealing an association of cancer patients' fitness and their cognitive functions. Results from interventional studies are sparse. Only one study investigated self-perceived cognitive function in breast cancer patients as a secondary outcome, indicating no effects...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926542/measuring-quality-of-life-in-advanced-heart-failure
#16
Jane MacIver, Kirsten Wentlandt, Heather J Ross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with Stage D heart failure can benefit from palliative care consultation to help them manage unpleasant symptoms and improve quality of life. Although guidelines describe how to manage symptoms, very little direction is provided on how to evaluate the effectiveness of those interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous studies have used the measurement of symptoms, emotional distress, functional capacity and quality of life to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in heart failure...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926458/changes-in-relative-and-absolute-concentrations-of-plasma-phospholipid-fatty-acids-observed-in-a-randomized-trial-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-supplementation-in-uganda
#17
Xiaoling Song, Pho Diep, Jeannette M Schenk, Corey Casper, Jackson Orem, Zeina Makhoul, Johanna W Lampe, Marian L Neuhouser
Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1856mg EPA and 1232mg DHA) or high-oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial...
November 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926447/motivation-and-attention-following-hemispheric-stroke
#18
E Olgiati, C Russell, D Soto, P Malhotra
Spatial neglect (SN) is an extremely common disorder of attention; it is most frequently a consequence of stroke, especially to the right cerebral hemisphere. The current view of SN is that it is not a unitary deficit but a multicomponent syndrome. Crucially, it has been repeatedly shown that it has a considerable negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. Although a number of behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been developed, none of these appears to be applicable to all patients with SN or has proved unequivocally successful in clinical trials...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926436/to-work-or-not-to-work-neural-representation-of-cost-and-benefit-of-instrumental-action
#19
N B Kroemer, C Burrasch, L Hellrung
By definition, instrumental actions are performed in order to obtain certain goals. Nevertheless, the attainment of goals typically implies obstacles, and response vigor is known to reflect an integration of subjective benefit and cost. Whereas several brain regions have been associated with cost/benefit ratio decision-making, trial-by-trial fluctuations in motivation are not well understood. We review recent evidence supporting the motivational implications of signal fluctuations in the mesocorticolimbic system...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-residents
#20
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. We evaluate whether psychosocial stressors, and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of U...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
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