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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668120/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-living-donor-liver-transplant-recipients-significantly-impacts-the-early-post-transplant-outcome-a-single-center-experience
#1
Sanjay Kumar Yadav, Sanjiv Saigal, Narendra Singh Choudhary, Sujeet Saha, Jayant Kumar Sah, Neeraj Saraf, Naveen Kumar, Sanjay Goja, Amit Rastogi, Prashant Bhangui, A S Soin
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral infection in liver transplant recipients that influences the outcomes of liver transplantation. However, its impact on early outcomes following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is not fully defined in the Indian subcontinent. This study was done to assess the impact of CMV infection on early post-transplant outcomes in LDLT recipients. METHODS: Out of 272 LDLTs performed from January 2012 to April 2013, 151 recipients underwent CMV viral load analysis in plasma within 90 days post LDLT based on clinical suspicion...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668074/a-20-year-experience-with-nocardiosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-sot-recipients-in-the-southwestern-united-states-a-single-center-study
#2
Aneela Majeed, Norman Beatty, Ahmad Iftikhar, Adeela Mushtaq, Julia Fisher, Pryce Gaynor, Jeeyong C Kim, Jose Luis Marquez, Francisco E Mora, Anca Georgescu, Tirdad Zangeneh
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection. Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at higher risk (incidence 0.04% to 3.5%) of developing nocardiosis. Rate of nocardiosis in the Southwestern US may be high due to environmental factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review study on 54 SOT patients diagnosed with Nocardia between 1997 and 2016 at our center. To explore the association of various risk factors with both the development of disseminated disease and mortality, a series of Fisher's exact tests was used...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666934/quo-vadis-do-immunotherapies-have-a-role-in-glioblastoma
#3
REVIEW
Sylvia C Kurz, Patrick Y Wen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More effective therapies for glioblastoma are urgently needed. Immunotherapeutic strategies appear particularly promising and are therefore intensively studied. This article reviews the current understanding of the immunosuppressive glioblastoma microenvironment, discusses the rationale behind various immunotherapies, and outlines the findings of several recently published clinical studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The results of CheckMate-143 indicated that nivolumab is not superior to bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma...
April 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665923/-the-effect-of-serum-cytokine-levels-prior-transplantation-on-the-outcome-of-severe-aplastic-anemia-patients-received-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
Zhao Wang, Yuan-Yuan Shi, Xin Yang, Su-Dong Zhang, Li-Ning Zhang, Dong-Lin Yang, Yi He, Rong-Li Zhang, Er-Lie Jiang, Jia-Lin Wei, Si-Zhou Feng, Min-Zhe Han
OBJECTIVE: To identify the role of serum cytokine levels prior allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell trans-plantation (allo-HSCT) in the outcome of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients received allo-HSCT treatment. METHODS: The clinical data of 117 SAA patients received allo-HSCT were enrolled in this study. The overall survival (OS), graft versus host disease (GVHD) incidence and relationship of serum cytokines with OS and major transplantation complications were retrospectively analyzed...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664573/tcr-repertoire-evolution-during-maintenance-of-cmv-specific-t-cell-populations
#5
REVIEW
Kilian Schober, Veit R Buchholz, Dirk H Busch
During infections and cancer, the composition of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells changes over time. TCR avidity is thought to be a major driver of this process, thereby interacting with several additional regulators of T-cell responses to form a composite immune response architecture. Infections with latent viruses, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), can lead to large T-cell responses characterized by an oligoclonal TCR repertoire. Here, we review the current status of experimental studies and theoretical models of TCR repertoire evolution during CMV infection...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664565/memory-cd8-t-cell-inflation-vs-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-same-patrollers-same-controllers
#6
REVIEW
Suzanne P M Welten, Ioana Sandu, Nicolas S Baumann, Annette Oxenius
The induction of long-lived populations of memory T cells residing in peripheral tissues is of considerable interest for T cell-based vaccines, as they can execute immediate effector functions and thus provide protection in case of pathogen encounter at mucosal and barrier sites. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines support the induction and accumulation of a large population of effector memory CD8 T cells in peripheral tissues, in a process called memory inflation. Tissue-resident memory (TRM ) T cells, induced by various infections and vaccination regimens, constitute another subset of memory cells that take long-term residence in peripheral tissues...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663444/transitioning-cytomegalovirus-viral-load-testing-from-a-laboratory-developed-test-to-the-cobas%C3%A2-cmv-quantitative-nucleic-acid-assay
#7
Michael Payne, Linda Merrick, Tanya Lawson, Gordon Ritchie, Christopher Lowe
Commutability between human cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load assays (VLA) is poor, despite the development of a WHO CMV International Standard (CMV IS). We evaluated a new CMV VLA, cobas® CMV, as compared to our current laboratory developed CMV VLA (LDT), for clinical use. Both the LDT and cobas® CMV were run in parallel for 109 patient samples. In addition, 104 replicates, over 8 dilutions, of the CMV IS were tested. Conversion factors and correlation between the two assays were calculated. The correlation coefficient between the LDT and cobas® CMV was 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663435/monitoring-of-oral-cytomegalovirus-dna-shedding-for-the-prediction-of-viral-dnaemia-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#8
Tania Pascual, Carlos Solano, Ignacio Torres, Alberto Talaya, Estela Giménez, Víctor Vinuesa, José Luis Piñana, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Ariadna Pérez, David Navarro
Preemptive antiviral therapy based on detecting cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia above a preestablished threshold is the mainstay strategy for the prevention of CMV disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients; nevertheless, CMV DNAemia, even at low levels, may increase mortality. We investigated whether surveillance of saliva for the presence of CMV DNA may anticipate the occurrence of CMV DNAemia. This was a prospective observational study with 53 consecutively enrolled allo-HSCT recipients...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662245/early-human-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-is-associated-with-lower-incidence-of-relapse-of-myeloproliferative-disorders-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Zinaida Peric, Jonas Wilson, Nadira Durakovic, Alen Ostojic, Lana Desnica, Violeta Rezo Vranjes, Ivana Marekovic, Ranka Serventi-Seiwerth, Radovan Vrhovac
Conflicting results have been reported regarding the association between early cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This prompted us to evaluate the impact of CMV reactivation on outcomes of 155 consecutive adult patients transplanted in our institution. In our study, CMV reactivation did not affect cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. However, the CI of relapse in patients with myeloproliferative disorders (AML and MPN) was 37% (95% CI, 21-53) in patients without CMV reactivation as opposed to 17% (95% CI, 9-28) in patients with CMV reactivation (p = 0...
April 16, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661443/cyclosporine-versus-tacrolimus-which-calcineurin-inhibitor-has-influence-on-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-cardiac-transplantation
#10
Marina M K Bond, Marisa M K Bond, A Sehn, V H Dias, T L Said, C C Dos Santos, M A Finger, A M G Santos, J M R Neto
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in transplantation patients. Its major incidence is in the first year and viral replication is related to acute rejection, survival reduction, and graft vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate retrospectively whether a high dose of calcineurin inhibitors correlates with CMV-positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), need for treatment, and death in cardiac transplantation patients...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661141/diagnostic-utility-of-monitoring-cytomegalovirus-specific-immunity-by-quantiferon-cytomegalovirus-assay-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#11
Dominika Deborska-Materkowska, Agnieszka Perkowska-Ptasinska, Anna Sadowska, Jolanta Gozdowska, Michał Ciszek, Marta Serwanska-Swietek, Piotr Domagala, Dorota Miszewska-Szyszkowska, Elzbieta Sitarek, Agnieszka Jozwik, Artur Kwiatkowski, Magdalena Durlik
BACKGROUND: Despite universal prophylaxis, late cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs in a high proportion of kidney transplant recipients. We evaluated whether a specific viral T-cell response allows for the better identification of recipients who are at high risk of CMV infection after prophylaxis withdrawal. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in 19 pretransplant anti-CMV seronegative kidney graft recipients R- (18 from seropositive donors [D+] and one from a seronegative donor [D-]) and 67 seropositive recipients R(+) (59 from seropositive donors and eight from seronegative donors) who received antiviral prophylaxis with valganciclovir...
April 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659606/humoral-immunity-to-memory-antigens-and-pathogens-is-maintained-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Nadezhda A Wall, C Coral Dominguez-Medina, Sian E Faustini, Charlotte N Cook, Andrew McClean, Mark D Jesky, Marisol Perez-Toledo, Matthew D Morgan, Alexandra G Richter, Charles J Ferro, Paul Cockwell, Paul A Moss, Ian R Henderson, Lorraine Harper, Adam F Cunningham
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of infection and poorer responses to vaccination. This suggests that CKD patients have an impaired responsiveness to all antigens, even those first encountered before CKD onset. To examine this we evaluated antibody responses against two childhood vaccine antigens, tetanus (TT) and diphtheria toxoids (DT) and two common pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SEn) in two independent cohorts consisting of age-matched individuals with and without CKD...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659179/nk-cell-and-th17-responses-are-differentially-induced-in-murine-cytomegalovirus-infected-renal-allografts-and-vary-according-to-recipient-virus-dose-and-strain
#13
Mao Li, Srinivasa Boddeda, Bo Chen, Qiang Zeng, Trenton R Schoeb, Victoria M Velazquez, Masako Shimamura
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) donor positive (D+) serostatus with acute rejection is associated with renal allograft loss, but the impact of recipient positive (R+) serostatus is unclear. In an allogeneic renal transplant model, antiviral natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cell memory responses in murine CMV (MCMV) D+/R+ transplants were compared to D-/R- and D+/R- transplants, with recipient infection varied by MCMV dose and strain. D+/R- transplants had high primary antiviral cytolytic (interferon-γ+) and cytotoxic (granzyme B+) NK responses, whereas NK memory responses were lower in D+/R+ recipients receiving a high primary MCMV dose...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655972/effectiveness-and-safety-of-anti-tnf-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-liver-transplant-recipients-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-nationwide-case-series
#14
Romain Altwegg, Roman Combes, David Laharie, Victor De Ledinghen, Sylvie Radenne, Filomena Conti, Olivier Chazouilleres, Christophe Duvoux, Jérôme Dumortier, Vincent Leroy, Xavier Treton, François Durand, Sébastien Dharancy, Maria Nachury, Félix Goutorbe, Géraldine Lamblin, Lucile Boivineau, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Georges-Philippe Pageaux
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after liver transplantation (LT) forprimary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). AIM: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of anti-TNF therapy in patients with IBD after a LT for PSC. METHODS: We reviewed the medical files of all of the IBD patients who underwent a LT for PSC and who were treated with anti-TNF therapy at 23 French liver transplantation centers between 1989 and 2012...
March 13, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652930/tissue-maintenance-of-cmv-specific-inflationary-memory-t-cells-by-il-15
#15
Nicolas S Baumann, Nicole Torti, Suzanne P M Welten, Isabel Barnstorf, Mariana Borsa, Katharina Pallmer, Jennifer D Oduro, Luka Cicin-Sain, Koichi Ikuta, Burkhard Ludewig, Annette Oxenius
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection induces an atypical CD8 T cell response, termed inflationary, that is characterised by accumulation and maintenance of high numbers of effector memory like cells in circulation and peripheral tissues-a feature being successfully harnessed for vaccine purposes. Although stability of this population depends on recurrent antigen encounter, the requirements for prolonged survival in peripheral tissues remain unknown. Here, we reveal that murine CMV-specific inflationary CD8 T cells are maintained in an antigen-independent manner and have a half-life of 12 weeks in the lung tissue...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652096/rapid-reconstitution-of-cmv-specific-t-cells-after-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Thomas Widmann, Urban Sester, Tina Schmidt, Barbara C Gärtner, Jörg Schubert, Michael Pfreundschuh, Martina Sester
OBJECTIVE: As reconstitution of virus-specific T-cells is critical to control CMV-viremia following stem-cell transplantation (SCT) we characterized the dynamics in CMV-specific T-cell reconstitution after SCT. METHODS: CMV-specific T-cells from 51 SCT-recipients were prospectively quantified and phenotypically characterised by intracellular cytokine-staining after specific stimulation and HLA class-I specific pentamers using flow-cytometry. RESULTS: CMV-specific CD4 T-cells reconstituted after a median of 2...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650438/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-mimicking-acute-graft-rejection-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#17
M Allaire, C Bazille, J Selves, E Salamé, M Altieri
INTRODUCTION: In liver transplant (LT) patients, hepatitis E virus (HEV) can lead to acute liver failure, chronic hepatitis and graft cirrhosis. Few data on graft rejection associated with HEV are available and are subject to discussion. CASE REPORT: Here we report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who underwent LT in July 2015 for cirrhosis due to NASH and chronic alcohol intake complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma. LT was performed with a deceased donor isogroup and a mismatch CMV (donor+ and recipient-)...
April 10, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650261/maribavir-brincidofovir-and-letermovir-efficacy-and-safety-of-new-antiviral-drugs-for-treating-cytomegalovirus-infections
#18
REVIEW
P Frange, M Leruez-Ville
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication in immunocompromised patients, especially after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation. Therapeutic antiviral options [(val)ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir] are still limited and can expose to severe toxicities. Moreover, prolonged antiviral drug exposure and ongoing viral replication are key factors in the development of antiviral drug resistance. After many years of few tangible advances in terms of new antiviral drugs, we are now experiencing an exciting period characterized by a series of phase III clinical trials incorporating three novel agents: maribavir, brincidofovir, and letermovir...
April 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644247/quantification-of-torque-teno-virus-and-epstein-barr-virus-is-of-limited-value-for-predicting-the-net-state-of-immunosuppression-after-lung-transplantation
#19
Rickard Nordén, Jesper Magnusson, Anna Lundin, Ka-Wei Tang, Staffan Nilsson, Magnus Lindh, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Gerdt C Riise, Johan Westin
Background: Major hurdles for survival after lung transplantation are rejections and infectious complications. Adequate methods for monitoring immune suppression status are lacking. Here, we evaluated quantification of torque teno virus (TTV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as biomarkers for defining the net state of immunosuppression in lung-transplanted patients. Methods: This prospective single-center study included 98 patients followed for 2 years after transplantation...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642641/signals-of-systemic-immunity-in-plants-progress-and-open-questions
#20
REVIEW
Attila L Ádám, Zoltán Á Nagy, György Kátay, Emese Mergenthaler, Orsolya Viczián
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a defence mechanism that induces protection against a wide range of pathogens in distant, pathogen-free parts of plants after a primary inoculation. Multiple mobile compounds were identified as putative SAR signals or important factors for influencing movement of SAR signalling elements in Arabidopsis and tobacco. These include compounds with very different chemical structures like lipid transfer protein DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE1), methyl salicylate (MeSA), dehydroabietinal (DA), azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate dependent factor (G3P) and the lysine catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip)...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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