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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217388/impact-of-cytomegalovirus-cmv-viral-load-on-probability-of-spontaneous-clearance-and-response-to-pre-emptive-therapy-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#1
Jose F Camargo, Erik Kimble, Rossana Rosa, Luis A Shimose, Maria X Bueno, Nikeshan Jeyakumar, Michele I Morris, Lilian M Abbo, Jacques Simkins, Maritza C Alencar, Cara Benjamin, Eric Wieder, Antonio Jimenez, Amer Beitinjaneh, Mark Goodman, John J Byrnes, Lazaros J Lekakis, Denise Pereira, Krishna V Komanduri
The optimal viral load threshold to initiate pre-emptive cytomegalovirus (CMV) therapy in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients remains to be defined. In an effort to address this question we conducted a retrospective study of 174 allogeneic HCT recipients transplanted at a single center between August 2012 and April 2016. During this period, pre-emptive therapy started at the discretion of the treating clinician. 109 (63%) patients developed CMV viremia. Median time to reactivation was 17 (IQR, 7-30) days post-HCT...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216741/annals-express-evaluation-of-cellulose-pads-as-a-method-to-detect-cytomegalovirus-dna-in-neonatal-urine
#2
Florian Kipfmueller, Kira Jungbluth, Anna-Maria Eis-Hübinger, Ulrike Reber, Stefan Holdenrieder, Ulrich Gembruch, Peter Bartmann, Andreas Mueller
BACKGROUND: Several approaches exist to screen neonates for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We here describe a new method using cellulose pads for urine collection and its evaluation in an experimental and a clinical setting. METHODS: We systematically tested the effect of storage duration of the pads after exposure to CMV-positive urine, meconium contamination and specimen handling on the CMV load and the detection rate. Further, the method was tested in clinical practice in a cohort of 500 neonates...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215460/comparison-of-preemptive-therapy-and-antiviral-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-cytomegalovirus-in-seropositive-liver-transplant-recipients
#3
Amy W Liu, Kamonwan Jutivorakool, Cynthia E Fisher, Robert M Rakita, Jorge D Reyes, Renuka B Bhattacharya, Keith R Jerome, Ajit P Limaye
BACKGROUND: Few studies have directly compared preemptive therapy (PET) and antiviral prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in CMV seropositive (R+) orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients. METHODS: We prospectively assessed CMV disease and clinical outcomes among 160 consecutive R+ OLT recipients who received PET (weekly plasma CMV PCR for 3 months, oral valganciclovir 900 mg twice daily for CMV viremia >250 IU/mL, until 2 consecutive negative weekly PCR results) and compared them to a historical cohort of 156 R+ recipients who received AP (valganciclovir 900 mg daily for 3 months)...
December 5, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214036/strong-viral-associations-with-sle-among-filipinos
#4
Evan S Vista, Michael H Weisman, Mariko L Ishimori, Hua Chen, Rebecka L Bourn, Ben F Bruner, Laniyati Hamijoyo, Robelle D Tanangunan, Noga J Gal, Julie M Robertson, John B Harley, Joel M Guthridge, Sandra V Navarra, Judith A James
Objectives: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered an important environmental factor in SLE aetiology, but the relationship between SLE and EBV in the Filipino population is unknown. We tested associations between SLE, lupus-associated autoantibodies and seropositivity for EBV and other herpes viruses in the Filipino population. Methods: Sera from Filipino patients with SLE (n=233), unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs, n=543) and unrelated controls (n=221) were tested for antibodies against EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) by standardised ELISAs...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212951/glycolytic-requirement-for-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-and-cytomegalovirus-control
#5
Annelise Y Mah, Armin Rashidi, Molly P Keppel, Nermina Saucier, Emily K Moore, Joshua B Alinger, Sandeep K Tripathy, Sandeep K Agarwal, Emily K Jeng, Hing C Wong, Jeffrey S Miller, Todd A Fehniger, Emily M Mace, Anthony R French, Megan A Cooper
NK cell activation has been shown to be metabolically regulated in vitro; however, the role of metabolism during in vivo NK cell responses to infection is unknown. We examined the role of glycolysis in NK cell function during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection and the ability of IL-15 to prime NK cells during CMV infection. The glucose metabolism inhibitor 2-deoxy-ᴅ-glucose (2DG) impaired both mouse and human NK cell cytotoxicity following priming in vitro. Similarly, MCMV-infected mice treated with 2DG had impaired clearance of NK-specific targets in vivo, which was associated with higher viral burden and susceptibility to infection on the C57BL/6 background...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211658/letermovir-prophylaxis-for-cytomegalovirus-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#6
Francisco M Marty, Per Ljungman, Roy F Chemaly, Johan Maertens, Sanjeet S Dadwal, Rafael F Duarte, Shariq Haider, Andrew J Ullmann, Yuta Katayama, Janice Brown, Kathleen M Mullane, Michael Boeckh, Emily A Blumberg, Hermann Einsele, David R Snydman, Yoshinobu Kanda, Mark J DiNubile, Valerie L Teal, Hong Wan, Yoshihiko Murata, Nicholas A Kartsonis, Randi Y Leavitt, Cyrus Badshah
Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation. Letermovir is an antiviral drug that inhibits the CMV-terminase complex. Methods In this phase 3, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned CMV-seropositive transplant recipients, 18 years of age or older, in a 2:1 ratio to receive letermovir or placebo, administered orally or intravenously, through week 14 after transplantation; randomization was stratified according to trial site and CMV disease risk...
December 6, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209324/comprehensive-analysis-of-cytomegalovirus-pp65-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-responses-according-to-human-leukocyte-antigen-class-i-allotypes-and-intraindividual-dominance
#7
Seung-Joo Hyun, Hyun-Jung Sohn, Hyun-Joo Lee, Seon-Duk Lee, Sueon Kim, Dae-Hee Sohn, Cheol-Hwa Hong, Haeyoun Choi, Hyun-Il Cho, Tai-Gyu Kim
To define whether individual human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I allotypes are used preferentially in human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, CD8+ T cell responses restricted by up to six HLA class I allotypes in an individual were measured in parallel using K562-based artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing both CMV pp65 antigen and one of 32 HLA class I allotypes (7 HLA-A, 14 HLA-B, and 11 HLA-C) present in 50 healthy Korean donors. The CD8+ T cell responses to pp65 in the HLA-C allotypes were lower than responses to those in HLA-A and -B allotypes and there was no difference between the HLA-A and HLA-B loci...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208861/etiology-of-early-renal-allograft-dysfunction-and-comparison-between-dysfunction-and-function-group-a-single-center-study
#8
K M Hadiuzzaman, S F Islam, M O Faroque, R M Hossain, M Munirunnessa, S I Selim, M Morshed
Over a period of two years thirty five renal allograft recipients & donors were evaluated to find out the aetiology of early renal allograft dysfunction, in the Department of Nephrology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2010 to February 2012. A comparison was made between dysfunction & functioning graft group. Mean age of recipients were (36.4±9.4) years, mean age of donors were (41.7±8.3) years, with a male and female ratio of 3:1. Fifty percent recipients showed one heliotype match, ninety percent recipients were anti CMV antibody IgG positive, few were anti CMV antibody IgM positive...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207952/economic-burden-of-preemptive-treatment-of-cmv-infection-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-retrospective-study-of-208-consecutive-patients
#9
Christine Robin, François Hémery, Christel Dindorf, Julien Thillard, Ludovic Cabanne, Rabah Redjoul, Florence Beckerich, Christophe Rodriguez, Cécile Pautas, Andrea Toma, Sébastien Maury, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Catherine Cordonnier
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease (CMV episodes) are global concerns after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). They affect survival, both by direct and indirect effects. Due to safety issues of current anti-CMV antivirals, long-term CMV prophylaxis is poorly tolerated and the most common strategy to decrease the incidence of CMV disease is preemptive. New, less toxic, molecules are currently being assessed for CMV prophylaxis which should replace or considerably decrease the preemptive approach...
December 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207904/graft-versus-host-disease-with-early-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-gastrointestinal-tract-biopsies
#10
Belinda L Sun, Richa Jain, Charmi Patel, Achyut K Bhattacharyya
Gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection often simulate each other. However, distinction between GVHD and CMV infection is critical in the management of immunosuppression for transplant recipients. This study retrospectively reviewed 16 patients diagnosed with GVHD from 2010 to 2016 and found 4 cases (25%) coinfected with CMV. Two cases were initially diagnosed as GVHD only but found to have CMV infection by serological testing within 3 days after immunosuppression treatment for GVHD...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204910/who-is-the-patient-at-risk-of-cmv-recurrence-a-review-of-the-current-scientific-evidence-with-a-focus-on-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Jan Styczynski
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an agent of global infection, and its acquisition in a population is characterized by an age-dependent rise in seropositivity. After primary infection, CMV remains in the host cells in latent form, and it can reactivate in the case of immune suppression. The risk of CMV recurrence is dependent on the level of incompetency of the immune system, manifested as an impairment of T-cell immunity, including the presence and function of CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This article presents data on the incidence of CMV recurrence in groups of immunocompromised patients, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and other groups of patients, based on a summary of reported data...
December 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204649/aav2-mediated-transduction-of-the-mouse-retina-after-optic-nerve-injury
#12
Robert W Nickells, Heather M Schmitt, Margaret E Maes, Cassandra L Schlamp
Purpose: Gene therapy of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has promise as a powerful therapeutic for the rescue and regeneration of these cells after optic nerve damage. However, early after damage, RGCs undergo atrophic changes, including gene silencing. It is not known if these changes will deleteriously affect transduction and transgene expression, or if the therapeutic protein can influence reactivation of the endogenous genome. Methods: Double-transgenic mice carrying a Rosa26-(LoxP)-tdTomato reporter, and a mutant allele for the proapoptotic Bax gene were reared...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204277/cytomegalovirus-mononucleosis-induced-thyroiditis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#13
V Larouche, M Tamilia
Enteroviruses, including coxsackieviruses and Echovirus, are well known pathogens responsible for the development of thyroiditis. We describe the case of a 49-year-old woman with no personal or family history of thyroid disease who presented to the emergency room with a two-week history of daily fevers up to 39°C, a sore throat, occasional palpitations and diaphoresis, decreased appetite and an unintentional 10 kg weight loss over the same time course Physical examination revealed mild tachycardia, an intention tremor and a normal-sized, nontender thyroid gland without palpable nodules...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204088/terminally-differentiated-memory-t-cells-are-increased-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-and-selective-iga-deficiency
#14
Jana Nechvatalova, Tomas Pavlik, Jiri Litzman, Marcela Vlkova
Introduction: Previous studies showed that several lymphocyte abnormalities seen in the most frequent symptomatic immunoglobulin deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), were also observed in a genetically related asymptomatic disorder - selective IgA deficiency (IgAD). In this study we searched for abnormalities in the differentiation stages of T cells as well as for similarities of these abnormalities in CVID and IgAD patients. Material and methods: Using flow cytometry in 80 patients with IgAD, 48 patients with CVID, and 80 control persons we determined T-lymphocyte subsets: both CD4 and CD8 were divided into the naïve CD45RO-CD27+, early differentiated CD45RO+CD27+, late differentiated CD45RO+CD27- and fully differentiated effector CD45RO-CD27- memory T cells, as well as Treg cells, defined as CD4+CD25highCD127low T cells...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203334/sex-differences-in-olfactory-induced-neural-activation-of-the-amygdala
#15
Takefumi Kikusui, Mayu Kajita, Natsumi Otsuka, Tatsuya Hattori, Kanako Kumazawa, Akiyuki Watarai, Miho Nagasawa, Ayumu Inutsuka, Akihiro Yamanaka, Naoki Matsuo, Herbert E Covington, Kazutaka Mogi
Olfactory signals, including the scent of urine, are thought to be processed by specific brain regions, such as the medial amygdala (Me), and regulate sexual behavior in a sex-dependent manner. We aimed to reveal the sex-specific neural circuit from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) to Me by using a transgenic mouse. We quantified the long-lasting green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression profile, which was controlled by the c-fos promotor in a sex-dependent manner by the scent of urine. Female urine predominantly activated neurons of the MePD in male mice and the MePV in female mice...
December 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201472/severe-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-in-patient-with-low-grade-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-after-standard-chemotherapy
#16
Lena Modvig, Ciaran Boyle, Katie Randall, Anton Borg
Clinically significant cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is not uncommon in patients with severe immunodeficiency secondary to underlying medical disorders or following aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. However, it is less frequently found in patients with low-grade haematological malignancies after nonintensive chemotherapy. We treated a patient at our centre for stage IVB follicular lymphoma with standard chemotherapy who successively developed CMV colitis associated with a CMV viral load of >3 million copies/ml...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199327/-construction-of-a-lentiviral-vector-of-rna-interference-of-perk-gene-and-identification-in-human-dental-pulp-cells
#17
Yang Wen, Ya-Qin Zhu
PURPOSE: To construct an expression vector of a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting human PERK gene and to observe gene-silencing effects of PERK in human dental pulp cells (DPCs). METHODS: According to PERK gene cDNA sequence, shRNA was designed and synthesized, which was then annealed into hU6-MCS-CMV-EGFP vector. After identified by sequencing, hU6-MCS-CMV-EGFP vector and packaging vector were co-transfected into 293 T cells. 72 hours later, the recombinant lentiviruses were obtained after harvesting and concentrating...
August 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198661/prolonged-low-dose-prophylaxis-with-valganciclovir-in-cytomegalovirus-negative-recipients-of-kidney-transplants-from-cytomegalovirus-positive-donors-allows-seroconversion-and-prevents-cytomegalovirus-disease
#18
F Halleck, D Khadzhynov, E Schrezenmeier, L Lehner, K Budde, O Staeck
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus-negative recipients of kidneys from cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive donors (D+/R-) are at high risk to develop severe clinical manifestations of CMV disease. Long-term data about incidence and timing of CMV seroconversion, CMV disease, and the influence of prolonged valganciclovir prophylaxis on the clinical course of CMV infection are missing. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective long-term study of 89 consecutive CMV D+/R- kidney transplant recipients transplanted between 2003 and 2012...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197933/impact-of-low-dose-steroids-on-hba1c-levels-and-development-of-pre-diabetes-and-nodat-in-non-diabetic-renal-transplant-recipients-on-long-term-follow-up
#19
F P Tillmann, M Schmitz, L C Rump, I Quack
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of 5 mg of prednisolone/day on HbA1c levels and its association with the development of pre-diabetes and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODAT) in non-diabetic first renal transplant recipients on long-term follow-up. METHODS: Four hundred patients were analysed on an average of 4.1 ± 3.0 years after successful transplantation: 96 (24%) were steroid-free and 304 (76%) treated with 5 mg of prednisolone/day combined with cyclosporine A (CsA) or tacrolimus (Tac) as part of their immunosuppressive protocol...
December 2, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197841/haemorrhagic-conversion-of-infectious-myelitis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#20
Michael Stephen Pohlen, Jonathan Sunwei Lin, Kevin Yuqi Wang, Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad, Christie M Lincoln
A 28-year-old man recently diagnosed with HIV (CD4 19 cells/mm3, viral load 3.6 million copies/mL, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy on initial diagnosis at outside hospital), disseminated histoplasmosis, shingles and syphilis presented with paraplegia developing over 3 days. Spine MRI demonstrated a longitudinally extensive cord lesion extending from C3 to the tip of the conus. Brain MRI was consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were notable for positive varicella zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCRs as well as a Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titre of 1:2...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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