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B Lyu, D W Chen, J G Li, S Zhou, Y F Zhao
Objective: To compare the residual distribution of fipronil and its metabolites in white and yellow egg, and to analyze the residual changes of fipronil and its metabolites in raw and cooked samples, regarding the risk assessment of fipronil and its metabolites via consuming egg for different age groups. Methods: The white egg and yellow egg were isolated from 10 egg samples containing fipronil residues. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified, and determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Changcheng Gong, Yufang Cai, Li Zeng
For cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transversal shifts of the rotation center exist inevitably, which will result in geometric artifacts in CT images. In this work, we propose a novel geometric calibration method for CBCT, which can also be used in micro-CT. The symmetry property of the sinogram is used for the first calibration, and then L0-norm of the gradient image from the reconstructed image is used as the cost function to be minimized for the second calibration. An iterative search method is adopted to pursue the local minimum of the L0-norm minimization problem...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Kattia Palacio-Lopez, Stephen R Keller, Jane Molofsky
Admixture can break up divergent genetic architectures between populations, resulting in phenotypic novelty and generating raw material for environmental selection. The contribution of admixture to progeny trait variation and fitness varies based on the degree of genetic isolation between the parental populations, for which most studies have used geographic distance as a proxy. A novel approach is to estimate optimal crossing distance using the adaptive genetic distance between mates estimated from loci that contribute directly to local adaptation...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Ahmed Allam, Michael Krauthammer
Motivation: Text and genomic data are composed of sequential tokens, such as words and nucleotides that give rise to higher order syntactic constructs. In this work, we aim at providing a comprehensive Python library implementing conditional random fields (CRFs), a class of probabilistic graphical models, for robust prediction of these constructs from sequential data. Results: Python Sequence Labeling (PySeqLab) is an open source package for performing supervised learning in structured prediction tasks...
July 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
Julie Loisel, Glen M MacDonald, Marcus J Thomson
The American Southwest has experienced a series of severe droughts interspersed with strong wet episodes over the past decades, prompting questions about future climate patterns and potential intensification of weather disruptions under warming conditions. Here we show that interannual hydroclimatic variability in this region has displayed a significant level of non-stationarity over the past millennium. Our tree ring-based analysis of past drought indicates that the Little Ice Age (LIA) experienced high interannual hydroclimatic variability, similar to projections for the 21st century...
2017: PloS One
Pi Guo, Tao Liu, Qin Zhang, Li Wang, Jianpeng Xiao, Qingying Zhang, Ganfeng Luo, Zhihao Li, Jianfeng He, Yonghui Zhang, Wenjun Ma
BACKGROUND: In China, dengue remains an important public health issue with expanded areas and increased incidence recently. Accurate and timely forecasts of dengue incidence in China are still lacking. We aimed to use the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to develop an accurate predictive model of dengue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Weekly dengue cases, Baidu search queries and climate factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) during 2011-2014 in Guangdong were gathered...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elisabeth Brunner, Cornelis C de Visser, Michel Verhaegen
We propose an extension of the Spline based ABerration Reconstruction (SABRE) method to Shack-Hartmann (SH) intensity measurements, through small aberration approximations of the focal spot models. The original SABRE for SH slope measurements is restricted to the use of linear spline polynomials, due to the limited amount of data, and the resolution of its reconstruction is determined by the number of lenslets. In this work, a fast algorithm is presented that directly processes the pixel information of the focal spots, allowing the employment of nonlinear polynomials for high accuracy reconstruction...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Jing Zhang, Songhan Lu, Xiangzhou Wang, Xiaohui Du, Guangming Ni, Juanxiu Liu, Lin Liu, Yong Liu
Identifying fungi in microscopic leucorrhea images provides important information for evaluating gynecological diseases. Subjective judgment and fatigue can greatly affect recognition accuracy. This paper proposes an automatic identification system to detect fungi in leucorrhea images that incorporates a convolutional neural network, the histogram of oriented gradients algorithm, and a binary support vector machine. In experiments, the detection rate of the positive samples was as high as 99.8%. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and its potential as a primary software component of a completely automated system...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Zhengqiang Jiang, Mini Das, Howard C Gifford
Visual-search (VS) model observers have the potential to provide reliable predictions of human-observer performance in detection-localization tasks. The purpose of this work was to examine some characteristics of human gaze on breast images with the goal of informing the design of our VS observers. Using a helmet-mounted eye-tracking system, we recorded the movement of gaze from human observers as they searched for masses in sets of 2D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images. The masses in this study were of a single profile...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Virendra N Mahajan, Eva Acosta
In the aberration analysis of a circular wavefront, Zernike circle polynomials are used to obtain its wave aberration coefficients. To obtain these coefficients from the wavefront slope data, we need vector functions that are orthogonal to the gradients of the Zernike polynomials, and are irrotational so as to propagate minimum uncorrelated random noise from the data to the coefficients. In this paper, we derive such vector functions, which happen to be polynomials.
October 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Zhixin Song, Lixin Dong, Baoqing Shan, Wenzhong Tang
It is important to understand the potential bioavailability of heavy metals in the sediments of land-freshwater interfaces (between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems). Therefore, we evaluated the pollution of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd in land-freshwater interface sediments/soils according to total concentrations, and used sequential extraction method to measure different fractions of Cd. Then, the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique was employed to study the potential bioavailability of metals...
October 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Mohammad S Rahman, Ann E Nicholson, Gholamreza Haffari
Cancer arises from successive rounds of mutations, resulting in tumor cells with different somatic mutations known as clones. Drug responsiveness and therapeutics of cancer depend on the accurate detection of clones in a tumor sample. Recent research has considered inferring clonal composition of a tumor sample using computational models based on short read data of the sample generated using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Short reads (segmented DNA parts of different tumor cells) are noisy; therefore, inferring the clones and their mutations from the data is a difficult and complex problem...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Elfu Amare, Fassil Kebede, Tesfay Berihu, Worku Mulat
This study investigated the concurrent accumulation of eight heavy metals by two floating aquatic macrophytes (Lemna minor and Azolla filiculoides) cultivated in ambient media and blended wastewaters in the semiarid regions of Ethiopia. Both species accumulated heavy metals in varying degrees with a significant concentration gradient within the immediate water media. Highest bioconcentration factor was determined for Mn and Fe in both plants. Results revealed that L. minor was high phytoaccumulator for Fe, Mn, Zn and Co but moderate for Cd, Cu, Ni and Cr...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Pablo G Romano, Marina Giuseppina Guenza
Markov State Models (MSM) are used to model the kinetics of processes sampled by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. MSM reduce the high dimensionality inherent to MD simulations as they partition the free energy landscape into discrete states, generating a kinetic model as a series of uncorrelated jumps between states. Here, we detail a new method, called GRadient Adaptive Decomposition, which optimizes coarse-grained MSM by refining borders with respect to the gradient along the free energy surface. The proposed method requires only a small number of initial microstates because it corrects for errors produced by limited sampling...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
T D Jickells, A R Baker, R Chance
This paper reviews atmospheric inputs of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans in the context of the GEOTRACES programme and provides new data from two Atlantic GEOTRACES cruises. We consider the deposition of nitrogen to the oceans, which is now dominated by anthropogenic emissions, the deposition of mineral dust and related trace elements, and the deposition of other trace elements which have a mixture of anthropogenic and dust sources. We then consider the solubility (as a surrogate for bioavailability) of the various elements...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Lei Guo, Jin Jin, Chunyi Liu, Feng Liu, Stuart Crozier
Magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MR-EPT) has significant potential for the estimation of the electrical properties (EPs) of tissue, which are essential for the calculation of specific absorption rates (SAR), a critical safety factor requiring monitoring and controlling in applications of ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, a novel, efficient method based on integral equations is proposed for the calculation of the EPs and the RF-coil induced field. An inverse problem framework is first constructed to include the forward problem operator, while the EPs are reconstructed by using a non-linear conjugate gradient method (NLCG)...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Mohamed Shaat
The nanoconfinement of water results in changes in water properties and nontraditional water flow behaviors. The determination of the interfacial interactions between water and hydrophobic surfaces helps in understanding many of the nontraditional behaviors of nanoconfined water. In this study, an approach for the identification of the viscosity of water interfaces with hydrophobic nanopores as a function of the nanopore diameter and water-solid (nanopore) interactions is proposed. In this approach, water in a hydrophobic nanopore is represented as a double phase water with two distinct viscosities: water interface and water core...
October 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lena Schulte-Uebbing, Wim de Vries
Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may increase net primary productivity in N-limited terrestrial ecosystems and thus enhance the terrestrial carbon (C) sink. To assess the magnitude of this N-induced C sink, we performed a meta-analysis on data from forest fertilization experiments to estimate N-induced C sequestration in aboveground tree woody biomass, a stable C pool with long turnover times. Our results show that boreal and temperate forests responded strongly to N addition and sequestered on average an additional 14 and 13 kg C per kg N in aboveground woody biomass, respectively...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
Jiu Yang Zhu, Peter Thurgood, Ngan Nguyen, Kamran Ghorbani, Khashayar Khoshmanesh
Generating customised temperature gradients in miniaturised flow-free liquid chambers is challenging due to the dominance of diffusion. Inducing internal flows in the form of vortices is an effective strategy for overcoming the limitations of diffusion in such environments. Vortices can be produced by applying pressure, temperature and electric potential gradients via miniaturised actuators. However, the difficulties associated with the fabrication, integration, maintenance and operation of such actuators hinder their utility...
October 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Maria Tou, Ronald Michalsky, Aldo Steinfeld
Splitting CO2 with a thermochemical redox cycle utilizes the entire solar spectrum and provides a favorable path to the synthesis of solar fuels at high rates and efficiencies. However, the temperature/pressure swing commonly applied between reduction and oxidation steps incurs irreversible energy losses and severe material stresses. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time the single-step continuous splitting of CO2 into separate streams of CO and O2 under steady-state isothermal/isobaric conditions...
September 6, 2017: Joule
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