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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656612/counterintuitive-effects-of-global-warming-induced-wind-patterns-on-primary-production-in-the-northern-humboldt-current-system
#1
Rodrigo Mogollón, Paulo H R Calil
It has been hypothesized that global warming will strengthen upwelling-favorable winds in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) as a consequence of the increase of the land-sea thermal gradient along the Peruvian coast. The effect of strengthened winds in this region is assessed with the use of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model forced with projected and climatological winds. Strengthened winds induce an increase in primary production of 2% per latitudinal degree from 9.5°S to 5°S. In some important coastal upwelling sites primary production is reduced...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656601/culture-independent-analysis-of-hydrocarbonoclastic-bacterial-communities-in-environmental-samples-during-oil-bioremediation
#2
Narjes Dashti, Nedaa Ali, Samar Salamah, Majida Khanafer, Ghada Al-Shamy, Husain Al-Awadhi, Samir S Radwan
To analyze microbial communities in environmental samples, this study combined Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA-genes in total genomic DNA extracts from those samples with gene sequencing. The environmental samples studied were oily seawater and soil samples, that had been bioaugmented with natural materials rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. This molecular approach revealed much more diverse bacterial taxa than the culture-dependent method we had used in an earlier study for the analysis of the same samples...
April 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656522/hybrid-t-2-and-t-1-weighted-radial-acquisition-for-free-breathing-abdominal-examination
#3
Thomas Benkert, John P Mugler, David S Rigie, Daniel K Sodickson, Hersh Chandarana, Kai Tobias Block
PURPOSE: Most clinical MR examinations require acquisition of different image contrasts. For abdominal exams, the scans are conventionally performed as separate acquisitions using respiratory gating or repeated breath holding, which can be time-inefficient and challenging for patients. Here, a hybrid imaging approach is described that creates T2 - and T1 -weighted images from a single scan and allows for free-breathing acquisition. THEORY AND METHODS: T2 -weighted data is collected using 3D fast spin-echo (FSE) acquisition with motion-robust radial stack-of-stars sampling...
April 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656481/toward-in-vivo-quantification-of-induced-rf-currents-on-long-thin-conductors
#4
Gregory H Griffin, Venkat Ramanan, Jennifer Barry, Graham A Wright
PURPOSE: Most MR-guided catheter-based procedures, and imaging of patients with implanted medical devices, are currently contraindicated due to a significant risk of heating associated with induced RF currents. The induced RF current produces a corresponding artifact which can be used to remotely characterize current and safely predict RF heating. Application of this remote technique in vivo to safely quantify RF heating risk may allow for execution of many scans currently contraindicated...
April 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656440/in-plane-superresolution-mri-with-phaseless-sub-pixel-encoding
#5
Franciszek Hennel, Rui Tian, Maria Engel, Klaas P Pruessmann
PURPOSE: Acquisition of high-resolution imaging data using multiple excitations without the sensitivity to fluctuations of the transverse magnetization phase, which is a major problem of multi-shot MRI. THEORY AND METHODS: The concept of superresolution MRI based on microscopic tagging is analyzed using an analogy with the optical method of structured illumination. Sinusoidal tagging is shown to provide subpixel resolution by mixing of neighboring spatial frequency (k-space) bands...
April 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656389/the-robustness-of-t-2-value-as-a-trabecular-structural-index-at-multiple-spatial-resolutions-of-7-tesla-mri
#6
D K Lee, Y K Song, B W Park, H P Cho, J S Yeom, G Cho, H Cho
PURPOSE: To evaluate the robustness of MR transverse relaxation times of trabecular bone from spin-echo and gradient-echo acquisitions at multiple spatial resolutions of 7 T. METHODS: The effects of MRI resolutions to T2 and T2* of trabecular bone were numerically evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations. T2 , T2*, and trabecular structural indices from multislice multi-echo and UTE acquisitions were measured in defatted human distal femoral condyles on a 7 T scanner...
April 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656239/mechanical-alterations-of-the-bone-cartilage-unit-in-a-rabbit-model-of-early-osteoarthrosis
#7
Sarah Pragnère, Caroline Boulocher, Ophélie Pollet, Catherine Bosser, Aurélie Levillain, Magali Cruel, Thierry Hoc
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess mechanical properties along with microstructural modifications of the hyaline cartilage (HC), calcified cartilage (CC) and cortical plate (Ct.Pt), in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. Medial femoral condyles of six healthy rabbits (control group) and of six ACLT rabbits 6 weeks after OA induction were explanted. The zone of interest (ZOI) for all experiments was defined as the weight bearing areas of the samples...
April 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656204/surface-hydroxylation-regulates-cellular-osteogeneses-on-tio-2-and-ta-2-o-5-nanorod-films
#8
Liming Wang, Beibei Zhou, Zongguang Liu, Lingqing Dong, Kui Cheng, Wenjian Weng
Titanium and tantalum have been widely used for orthopedic and dental implant applications. However, how their inherent surface features regulate cellular osteogeneses still remains elusive. In this study, we engineered two distinct TiO2 and Ta2 O5 nanorod films as the two model oxidized surfaces to investigate their intrinsic osteogenic behaviors. The results indicated that the distinctive gradient on zeta potential against pH, corresponding to the deprotonation rate, but not the hydroxyl amount or hydroxylation polarity played a critical role on the cellular osteogenic performance...
April 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656196/a-fast-and-robust-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-determining-methylpentose-hexose-hexosamine-and-hexonic-acid-in-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-hydrolysates
#9
Zhen Long, Jia Li, Zhimou Guo, Zhaoqi Zhan, Yueqi Li, Yutian Wang, Changkun Li, Feng Ji, Lixiao Li, Taohong Huang
The conventional UV/Vis spectroscopy methods recommended by the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) for determining hexosamine, hexonic acid and methylpentose in pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) hydrolates are time-consuming due to derivatization process (typically, an analysis cycle is more than 4 h) and improvements of selectivity and precision of the methods are in demand. In this study, a new approach based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was optimized to overcome the drawbacks of the EP methods for simultaneous determination of methylpentose, hexose, hexosamine and hexonic acid in PPSV hydrolysates...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655999/ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome-leading-to-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-malfunction-case-report
#10
Amit Azriel, Benjamin Fleming, Uri P Dior, Samuel Moscovici, Yuval Sufaro, Mohammed Awad, Kate Drummond
Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) insertion is a common neurosurgical procedure for hydrocephalus. Unfortunately, VPS malfunction is not uncommon, with an estimated cumulative rate of 32% at 5 years. As flow through the shunt is influenced by the pressure gradient between the ventricles and the peritoneal cavity, malfunction may be caused by elevated intra-abdominal pressure. We present a rare patient with ascites following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) leading to shunt malfunction. OHSS is a potentially life-threatening complication of controlled ovarian stimulation caused by the administration of exogenous gonadotropins...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655822/clinical-spectrum-and-management-of-heart-failure-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#11
REVIEW
Barry J Maron, Ethan J Rowin, James E Udelson, Martin S Maron
Heart failure (HF), characterized by excessive exertional dyspnea, is a common complication within the broad clinical spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). HF has become an increasingly prominent management issue with the reduction in sudden deaths due to use of implantable defibrillators in this disease. Exertional dyspnea ranges in severity from mild to severe (New York Heart Association functional classes II to IV) and not uncommonly becomes refractory to medical management, leading to progressive disability, but largely in the absence of pulmonary congestion and volume overload requiring hospitalization...
April 5, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655768/cell-free-dna-and-microvascular-damage-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-treated-with-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#12
Juan Sanchis, Sergio García-Blas, Luis Ortega-Paz, Ana Paula Dantas, Enrique Rodríguez, Lidia Abellán, Salvatore Brugaletta, Ernesto Valero, Gema Miñana, Manuel Garabito, África Corchón, Julio Núñez, Arturo Carratalá, Manel Sabaté
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction might originate from hyperactivated leukocytes at the coronary lesion. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between cfDNA and coronary reperfusion. METHODS: We studied 116 patients treated with primary angioplasty using thrombus aspiration. Coronary (during aspiration) and peripheral (at the end of the procedure) blood samples were drawn for cfDNA, as well as high-sensitivity troponin T and myeloperoxidase quantification...
April 11, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655724/solid-phase-extraction-with-high-polarity-carb-psa-as-composite-fillers-prior-to-uplc-ms-ms-to-determine-six-bisphenols-and-alkylphenols-in-trace-level-hotpot-seasoning
#13
Hao Dong, Xiaofang Zeng, Weidong Bai
The present study reports an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of six bisphenols (bisphenol A, bisphenol B and bisphenol F) and alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol and octylphenol) in hotpot seasoning. Samples were dispersed in n-hexane after addition of internal standards bisphenol A-d4 and 4-n-nonylphenol-d4 . Sample solutions were then centrifuged, and the supernatants purified using solid phase extraction with high polarity Carb/PSA composite fillers...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655705/spatially-correlated-gene-expression-in-bacterial-groups-the-role-of-lineage-history-spatial-gradients-and-cell-cell-interactions
#14
Simon van Vliet, Alma Dal Co, Annina R Winkler, Stefanie Spriewald, Bärbel Stecher, Martin Ackermann
Gene expression levels in clonal bacterial groups have been found to be spatially correlated. These correlations can partly be explained by the shared lineage history of nearby cells, although they could also arise from local cell-cell interactions. Here, we present a quantitative framework that allows us to disentangle the contributions of lineage history, long-range spatial gradients, and local cell-cell interactions to spatial correlations in gene expression. We study pathways involved in toxin production, SOS stress response, and metabolism in Escherichia coli microcolonies and find for all pathways that shared lineage history is the main cause of spatial correlations in gene expression levels...
April 5, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655600/response-of-epilithic-diatom-communities-to-environmental-gradients-along-an-ecuadorian-andean-river
#15
Pablo Castillejo, Susana Chamorro, Luis Paz, Carla Heinrich, Ivonne Carrillo, Jose G Salazar, Juan C Navarro, Eduardo A Lobo
Epilithic diatom communities are particularly suitable for the evaluation of freshwater quality. In Ecuador, however, no water quality index includes this biotic parameter. This work is the first attempt in the country to determine the composition of epilithic diatom communities associated with different degrees of eutrophication. This was accomplished by measuring physical, chemical and microbiological variables at five sampling sites along the Pita River, Ecuador, from August to December 2016. The results indicate a clear gradient of eutrophication from sampling sites P1 (good water) in the upper reaches to P5 (bad water) located in the lower reaches...
April 11, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655409/orthodontic-tooth-movement-the-biology-and-clinical-implications
#16
REVIEW
Yina Li, Laura A Jacox, Shannyn H Little, Ching-Chang Ko
Orthodontic tooth movement relies on coordinated tissue resorption and formation in the surrounding bone and periodontal ligament. Tooth loading causes local hypoxia and fluid flow, initiating an aseptic inflammatory cascade culminating in osteoclast resorption in areas of compression and osteoblast deposition in areas of tension. Compression and tension are associated with particular signaling factors, establishing local gradients to regulate remodeling of the bone and periodontal ligament for tooth displacement...
April 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655361/performance-of-exchange-correlation-functionals-in-density-functional-theory-calculations-for-liquid-metal-a-benchmark-test-for-sodium
#17
Jeong-Hwan Han, Takuji Oda
The performance of exchange-correlation functionals in density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for liquid metal has not been sufficiently examined. In the present study, benchmark tests of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), Armiento-Mattsson 2005 (AM05), PBE re-parameterized for solids, and local density approximation (LDA) functionals are conducted for liquid sodium. The pair correlation function, equilibrium atomic volume, bulk modulus, and relative enthalpy are evaluated at 600 K and 1000 K. Compared with the available experimental data, the errors range from -11...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655325/an-atomic-mean-field-spin-orbit-approach-within-exact-two-component-theory-for-a-non-perturbative-treatment-of-spin-orbit-coupling
#18
Junzi Liu, Lan Cheng
An atomic mean-field (AMF) spin-orbit (SO) approach within exact two-component theory (X2C) is reported, thereby exploiting the exact decoupling scheme of X2C, the one-electron approximation for the scalar-relativistic contributions, the mean-field approximation for the treatment of the two-electron SO contribution, and the local nature of the SO interactions. The Hamiltonian of the proposed SOX2CAMF scheme comprises the one-electron X2C Hamiltonian, the instantaneous two-electron Coulomb interaction, and an AMF SO term derived from spherically averaged Dirac-Coulomb Hartree-Fock calculations of atoms; no molecular relativistic two-electron integrals are required...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653406/introducing-the-risk-aggregation-problem-to-aquifers-exposed-to-impacts-of-anthropogenic-and-geogenic-origins-on-a-modular-basis-using-risk-cells
#19
Ata Allah Nadiri, Sina Sadeghfam, Maryam Gharekhani, Rahman Khatibi, Elham Akbari
Proof-of-concept is presented in this paper to a methodology formulated for indexing risks to groundwater aquifers exposed to impacts of diffuse contaminations from anthropogenic and geogenic origins. The methodology is for mapping/indexing, which refers to relative values but not their absolute values. The innovations include: (i) making use of the Origins-Source-Pathways-Receptors-Consequences (OSPRC) framework; and (ii) dividing a study area into modular Risk (OSPRC) Cells to capture their idiosyncrasies with different origins...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652856/temperature-effects-explain-continental-scale-distribution-of-cyanobacterial-toxins
#20
Evanthia Mantzouki, Miquel Lürling, Jutta Fastner, Lisette de Senerpont Domis, Elzbieta Wilk-Wo Zniak
Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
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