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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437992/a-large-airborne-survey-of-earth-s-visible-infrared-spectral-dimensionality
#1
David R Thompson, Joseph W Boardman, Michael L Eastwood, Robert O Green
The intrinsic spectral dimensionality indicates the observable degrees of freedom in Earth's solar-reflected light field, quantifying the diversity of spectral content accessible by visible and infrared remote sensing. The solar-reflected regime spans the 0.38 - 2.5 μm interval, and is captured by a wide range of current and planned instruments on both airborne and orbital platforms. To date there has been no systematic study of its spectral dimensionality as a function of space, time, and land cover. Here we report a multi-site, multi-year statistical survey by NASA's "Classic" Airborne Visible Near InfraRed Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C)...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437986/control-and-design-heat-flux-bending-in-thermal-devices-with-transformation-optics
#2
Guoqiang Xu, Haochun Zhang, Yan Jin, Sen Li, Yao Li
We propose a fundamental latent function of control heat transfer and heat flux density vectors at random positions on thermal materials by applying transformation optics. The expressions for heat flux bending are obtained, and the factors influencing them are investigated in both 2D and 3D cloaking schemes. Under certain conditions, more than one degree of freedom of heat flux bending exists corresponding to the temperature gradients of the 3D domain. The heat flux path can be controlled in random space based on the geometrical azimuths, radial positions, and thermal conductivity ratios of the selected materials...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437910/excitation-enhancement-in-electric-multipole-transitions-near-a-nanoedge
#3
Kosuke Shibata, Satoshi Tojo, Daniel Bloch
We investigate enhancement of electric multipole excitations of atoms in the vicinity of an object with a nanoscale edge resulted from a large electromagnetic field gradient. We calculate the excitation efficiencies of a Rb atom around a nanoedge and find the excitations are enhanced by several orders of magnitude. The efficiencies with the change in the magnetic quantum number resolved are also examined. Each resolved efficiency shows rotationally symmetric spatial distribution, with continuous modification in shape from the far field to the near field...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437772/shifts-in-soil-microbial-metabolic-activities-and-community-structures-along-a-salinity-gradient-of-irrigation-water-in-a-typical-arid-region-of-china
#4
Lijuan Chen, Changsheng Li, Qi Feng, Yongping Wei, Hang Zheng, Yan Zhao, Yongjiu Feng, Huiya Li
Saline water irrigation can change soil environment, which thereby influence soil microbial process. Based on a field experiment, the shifts in soil microbial metabolic activities and community structures under five irrigation salinities were studied using Biolog and metagenomic methods in this study. The results demonstrated that microbial metabolic activities were greatly restrained in saline water irrigated soils, as average well color development (AWCD) reduced under all saline water irrigation treatments...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437716/development-of-a-derivatization-method-for-the-quantification-of-hydrogen-sulfide-and-its-application-in-vascular-calcification-rats
#5
Xiao-Xin Tan, Kao-Qi Lian, Xiang Li, Nan Li, Wei Wang, Wei-Jun Kang, Hong-Mei Shi
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays major functional and structural roles in diverse physiological functions and the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders in biological matrices. The significance of H2S has prompted the development of sensitive and selective methods to determine its concentration in biological samples. The fluorescent reagent monobromobimane (MBB) has been widely used to measure various thiol-containing species through alkylation. MBB may prevent the oxidation of sulfide and the reaction of sulfide with several different species (such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437572/nearly-a-decade-long-repeatable-seasonal-diversity-patterns-of-bacterioplankton-communities-in-the-eutrophic-lake-donghu-wuhan-china
#6
Qingyun Yan, James C Stegen, Yuhe Yu, Ye Deng, Xinghao Li, Shu Wu, LilI Dai, Xiang Zhang, Jinjin Li, Chun Wang, Jiajia Ni, Xuemei Li, Hongjuan Hu, Fanshu Xiao, Weisong Feng, Daliang Ning, Zhili H E, Joy D Van Nostrand, Liyou Wu, Jizhong Zhou
Uncovering which environmental factors govern community diversity patterns and how ecological processes drive community turnover are key questions related to understand the community assembly. However, the ecological mechanisms regulating long-term variations of bacterioplankton communities in lake ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we present nearly a decade-long study of bacterioplankton communities from the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with MiSeq platform...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437324/noncirrhotic-portal-fibrosis-in-pediatric-population
#7
Vikrant Sood, Bikrant B Lal, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Chhagan Bihari, Seema Alam
OBJECTIVES: Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) has been classically described as a disease of young to middle age with limited literature regarding its occurrence, onset, or clinical presentation in children. We hereby present a series of 19 patients diagnosed and managed as NCPF in pediatric age group. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the patients presenting to the pediatric hepatology department (age <18 years) and diagnosed as NCPF was done and data were evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437191/analysis-of-human-tooth-pulp-chamber-temperature-after-670%C3%A2-nm-laser-irradiation-in-vitro-study
#8
Cleide Regina Alves Carrara de Oliveira, Fátima Zanin, Alessandra Cassoni, José Augusto Rodrigues, Landulfo Silveira, Marcos Tadeu Pacheco, Aldo Brugnera
OBJECTIVE: One of the limiting factors of employing laser radiation on dental therapies is the potential of causing thermal injuries to pulp tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra-chamber temperature increase on extracted human teeth exposed to 670 nm wavelength InGaAlP laser diode radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro intra-chamber temperature measurements of 12 standardized human teeth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars; n = 3) were taken both before and after laser radiation...
February 16, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436895/online-learning-algorithm-based-on-adaptive-control-theory
#9
Jian-Wei Liu, Jia-Jia Zhou, Mohamed S Kamel, Xiong-Lin Luo
This paper proposes a new online learning algorithm which is based on adaptive control (AC) theory, thus, we call this proposed algorithm as AC algorithm. Comparing to the gradient descent (GD) and exponential gradient (EG) algorithm which have been applied to online prediction problems, we find a new form of AC theory for online prediction problems and investigate two key questions: how to get a new update law which has a tighter upper bound on the error than the square loss? How to compare the upper bound for accumulated losses for the three algorithms? We obtain a new update law which fully utilizes model reference AC theory...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436863/optimization-of-camera-arrangement-using-correspondence-field-to-improve-depth-estimation
#10
Shichao Fu, Farzad Safaei, Wanqing Li
Stereo matching algorithms attempt to estimate depth from the images obtained by two cameras. In most cases, the arrangement of cameras (their locations and orientations with respect to the scene) are determined based on human experience. In this paper, it is shown that the camera arrangement can be optimized using the concept of correspondence field (CF) for better acquisition of depth. Specifically, the paper demonstrates the relationship between the correspondence field of a pair of cameras and depth estimation accuracy and presents a method to optimize their arrangement based on the gradient of CF...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436851/synergistic-pet-and-sense-mr-image-reconstruction-using-joint-sparsity-regularization
#11
Abolfazl Mehranian, Martin Belzunce, Claudia Prieto, Alexander Hammers, Andrew Reader
In this work we propose a generalized joint sparsity regularization prior and reconstruction framework for the syner-gistic reconstruction of PET and undersampled sensitivity en-coded (SENSE) MRI data with the aim of improving image quality beyond that obtained through conventional independent recon-structions. The proposed prior improves upon the joint total vari-ation (TV) using a non-convex potential function that assigns a rel-atively lower penalty for the PET and MR gradients whose mag-nitudes are jointly large, thus permitting the preservation and for-mation of common boundaries irrespective of their relative orien-tation...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436847/learning-trans-dimensional-random-fields-with-applications-to-language-modeling
#12
Bin Wang, Zhijian Ou, Zhiqiang Tan
To describe trans-dimensional observations in sample spaces of different dimensions, we propose a probabilistic model, called the trans-dimensional random field (TRF) by explicitly mixing a collection of random fields. In the framework of stochastic approximation (SA), we develop an effective training algorithm, called augmented SA, which jointly estimates the model parameters and normalizing constants while using trans-dimensional mixture sampling to generate observations of different dimensions. Furthermore, we introduce several statistical and computational techniques to improve the convergence of the training algorithm and reduce computational cost, which together enable us to successfully train TRF models on large datasets...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436672/kinetic-energy-density-as-a-predictor-of-hydrogen-bonded-oh-stretching-frequencies
#13
Joseph R Lane, Anne Schou Hansen, Kasper Mackeprang, Henrik Grum Kjærgaard
This work considers the nature of the intermolecular hydrogen bond in a series of 15 different complexes with OH donor groups and N, O, P or S acceptor atoms. To complement the existing literature, room temperature gas phase vibrational spectra of the methanol-pyridine, ethanol-pyridine and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol-pyridine complexes were recorded. These complexes were chosen as they exhibit hydrogen bonds of intermediate strength as compared to previous investigations that involved strong or weak hydrogen bonds...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436435/structure-and-function-of-the-divalent-anion-na-symporter-from-vibrio-cholerae-and-a-humanized-variant
#14
Rongxin Nie, Steven Stark, Jindrich Symersky, Ronald S Kaplan, Min Lu
Integral membrane proteins of the divalent anion/Na(+) symporter (DASS) family translocate dicarboxylate, tricarboxylate or sulphate across cell membranes, typically by utilizing the preexisting Na(+) gradient. The molecular determinants for substrate recognition by DASS remain obscure, largely owing to the absence of any substrate-bound DASS structure. Here we present 2.8-Å resolution X-ray structures of VcINDY, a DASS from Vibrio cholerae that catalyses the co-transport of Na(+) and succinate. These structures portray the Na(+)-bound VcINDY in complexes with succinate and citrate, elucidating the binding sites for substrate and two Na(+) ions...
April 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436294/overexpression-of-vla-4-in-glial-restricted-precursors-enhances-their-endothelial-docking-and-induces-diapedesis-in-a-mouse-stroke-model
#15
Anna Jablonska, Daniel J Shea, Suyi Cao, Jeff Wm Bulte, Miroslaw Janowski, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, Piotr Walczak
The loss of oligodendrocytes after stroke is one of the major causes of secondary injury. Glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) have remylenating potential after intraparenchymal cerebral transplantation. The intraarterial (IA) injection route is an attractive gateway for global brain delivery, but, after IA infusion, naive GRPs fail to bind to the cerebral vasculature. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpression of Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4) increases endothelial docking and cerebral homing of GRPs in a stroke model...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436078/oxygen-isotope-fractionations-across-individual-leaf-carbohydrates-in-grass-and-tree-species
#16
Marco M Lehmann, Bruno Gamarra, Ansgar Kahmen, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer
Almost no δ(18) O data are available for leaf carbohydrates, leaving a gap in the understanding of the δ(18) O relationship between leaf water and cellulose. We measured δ(18) O values of bulk leaf water (δ(18) OLW ) and individual leaf carbohydrates (e.g. fructose, glucose, sucrose) in grass and tree species, and δ(18) O of leaf cellulose in grasses. The grasses were grown under two relative humidity (rH) conditions. Sucrose was generally (18) O-enriched compared to hexoses across all species with an apparent biosynthetic fractionation factor (εbio ) of more than 27‰ relative to δ(18) OLW , which might be explained by isotopic leaf water and sucrose synthesis gradients...
April 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436059/high-performance-respiration-based-biocell-using-artificial-nanochannel-regulation
#17
Qianqian Zhang, Xiulin Li, Yang Chen, Qian Zhang, Huixue Liu, Jin Zhai, Xiaoda Yang
Based on electron and proton transfer events occurring in biological respiration, a mitochondria-based biocell is constructed by combining with artificial nanochannels. In this biocell, mitochondria transfer electrons to the working electrode and pump protons into the electrolyte through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The nanochannels provide passages for protons to transport along the transmembrane concentration gradient to consume electrons on the counter electrode, forming a continuous and stable current...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435908/development-of-a-japanese-encephalitis-virus-like-particle-vaccine-in-silkworms-using-codon-optimised-prm-and-envelope-genes
#18
Sayaka Matsuda, Reiko Nerome, Kenichi Maegawa, Akira Kotaki, Shigeo Sugita, Kazunori Kawasaki, Kazumichi Kuroda, Ryoji Yamaguchi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Kuniaki Nerome
We have successfully prepared a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) - Nakayama virus like particle (NVLP) vaccine using synthetic codon-optimized prM and E genes. The expression of the recombinant JEV Nakayama-BmNPV (JEV-NNPV) virus was determined in infected silkworm Bm-N cells by fluorescence and Western blot analysis. The recombinant was inoculated into silkworm pupae and the yield of Nakayama VLP (NVLP) reached a peak in the homogenates after 3 days. Additionally, in the peptide analysis of infected pupae homogenate, it appeared approximately 300-500 μg E protein/pupa were produced...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435390/synthesis-and-characterization-of-silver-nanoparticles-from-bis-alkylamine-silver-carboxylate-precursors
#19
Pawel Uznanski, Joanna Zakrzewska, Frederic Favier, Slawomir Kazmierski, Ewa Bryszewska
A comparative study of amine and silver carboxylate adducts [R1COOAg-2(R2NH2)] (R1 = 1, 7, 11; R2 = 8, 12) as a key intermediate in NPs synthesis is carried out via differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state FT-infrared spectroscopy, (13)C CP MAS NMR, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and various solution NMR spectroscopies ((1)H and (13)C NMR, pulsed field gradient spin-echo NMR, and ROESY). It is proposed that carboxyl moieties in the presence of amine ligands are bound to silver ions via chelating bidentate type of coordination as opposed to bridging bidentate coordination of pure silver carboxylates resulting from the formation of dimeric units...
2017: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435203/dai-kou-type-conjugate-gradient-methods-with-a-line-search-only-using-gradient
#20
Yuanyuan Huang, Changhe Liu
In this paper, the Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods are developed to solve the optimality condition of an unconstrained optimization, they only utilize gradient information and have broader application scope. Under suitable conditions, the developed methods are globally convergent. Numerical tests and comparisons with the PRP+ conjugate gradient method only using gradient show that the methods are efficient.
2017: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
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