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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457886/janus-gradient-meshes-for-continuous-separation-and-collection-of-flowing-oils-under-water
#1
Ning Li, Cunlong Yu, Yifan Si, Meirong Song, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang
Gradient meshes with Janus wettabilities are fabricated to stably separate and collect spilled oils from a range of flowing oily wastewater. Here, we demonstrate an overflow with separation methodology, which combines selective oil overflow and membrane separation, to separate low content oils from dynamic flowing oil-water mixtures by a curved gradient mesh that covered on a solid edge. The microscaled air-oil-water-solid four-phase wetting state during the oil-water separation process is visualized and demonstrated...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457827/percutaneous-transmitral-balloon-commissurotomy-using-a-single-balloon-with-arteriovenous-loop-stabilisation-an-alternative-when-there-is-no-inoue-balloon
#2
Endale Tefera, Mohamed Leye, Patrick Garceau, Denis Bouchard, Joaquim Miró
BACKGROUND: The Inoue balloon technique is the standard technique for mitral valve balloon commissurotomy at this stage. However, the hardware for this technique is expensive and may not always be available in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVE: This article reports our experience with percutaneous transmitral balloon commissurotomy using a single balloon (Nucleus) with arteriovenous loop stabilisation. METHOD: Eleven young patients, aged 12-26 years and weighing 23-48 kg, underwent transmitral balloon commissurotomy using the described technique at our centre from April to May 2014...
February 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457715/embedding-a-diketopyrrolopyrrole-based-crosslinking-interfacial-layer-enhances-the-performance-of-organic-photovoltaics
#3
Hsiang-Lin Hsu, Ying-Chieh Chao, Yu-Hua Liao, Chung-Lin Chung, Ya-Juan Peng, ChihPing Chen, Ru-Jong Jeng
In this study, we prepared DPPBTDA, a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based small molecule presenting a terminal crosslinkable azido group, as a cathode modified layer for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) having the inverted device structure glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/zinc oxide (ZnO) with or without interfacial layer (IFL)/active layer/MoO3/Ag. The active layer comprised a blend of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thien-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b´]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl] (PTB7-Th) as the electron donating moiety and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the electron acceptor...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457597/injectable-collagen-rgd-systems-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#4
Fu-Chen Kung
Imbalance crosslink density and polymer concentration gradient is formed within the traditional alginate hydrogel using calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent in external gelation for instantaneously process. In this studying, type I collagen (Col I) blended calcium salt form of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γCaPGA) was mixing with RGD-modified alginate with convenient gelation process and suitable for practical use. The hydrophilicity of the resulting hydrogels was evaluated through swelling tests, water retention capacity tests, and water vapor permeation tests...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457316/assessment-of-pulmonary-structure-function-relationships-in-young-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis-by-multivolume-proton-mri-and-ct
#5
Francesca Pennati, David J Roach, John P Clancy, Alan S Brody, Robert J Fleck, Andrea Aliverti, Jason C Woods
BACKGROUND: Lung disease is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and there is a shortage of sensitive biomarkers able to regionally monitor disease progression and to assess early responses to therapy. PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced multivolume MRI, which assesses intensity changes between expiratory and inspiratory breath-hold images, to detect and quantify regional ventilation abnormalities in CF lung disease, with a focus on the structure-function relationship...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456837/synaptic-neuron-astrocyte-communication-is-supported-by-an-order-of-magnitude-analysis-of-inositol-tris-phosphate-diffusion-at-the-nanoscale-in-a-model-of-peri-synaptic-astrocyte-projection
#6
Pavel Montes de Oca Balderas, Horacio Montes de Oca Balderas
Background: Astrocytes were conceived for decades only as supporting cells of the brain. However, the observation of Ca2+ waves in astrocyte synctitia, their neurotransmitter receptor expression and gliotransmitter secretion suggested a role in information handling, conception that has some controversies. Synaptic Neuron-Astrocyte metabotropic communication mediated by Inositol tris-phosphate (SN-AmcIP3) is supported by different reports. However, some models contradict this idea and Ca2+ stores are 1000 ± 325 nm apart from the Postsynaptic Density in the Perisynaptic Astrocyte Projections (PAP's), suggesting that SN-AmcIP3 is extrasynaptic...
2018: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456545/the-dangers-of-being-a-small-oligotrophic-and-light-demanding-freshwater-plant-across-a-spatial-and-historical-eutrophication-gradient-in-southern-scandinavia
#7
Kaj Sand-Jensen, Hans Henrik Bruun, Tora Finderup Nielsen, Ditte M Christiansen, Per Hartvig, Jens C Schou, Lars Baastrup-Spohr
European freshwater habitats have experienced a severe loss of plant diversity, regionally and locally, over the last century or more. One important and well-established driver of change is eutrophication, which has increased with rising population density and agricultural intensification. However, reduced disturbance of lake margins may have played an additional key role. The geographical variation in water chemistry, which has set the scene for - and interacted with - anthropogenic impact, is much less well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456452/factors-associated-with-no-2-and-no-x-concentration-gradients-near-a-highway
#8
J Richmond-Bryant, M G Snyder, R C Owen, S Kimbrough
The objective of this research is to learn how the near-road gradient, in which NO2 and NOX (NO + NO2 ) concentrations are elevated, varies with changes in meteorological and traffic variables. Measurements of NO2 and NOX were obtained east of I-15 in Las Vegas and fit to functions whose slopes (dCNO2 /dx and dCNOX /dx, respectively) characterize the size of the near-road zone where NO2 and NOX concentrations from mobile sources on the highway are elevated. These metrics were used to learn about the near-road gradient by modeling dCNO2 /dx and dCNOX /dx as functions of meteorological variables (e...
November 21, 2017: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456262/mixed-analytical-stochastic-simulation-method-for-the-recovery-of-a-brownian-gradient-source-from-probability-fluxes-to-small-windows
#9
U Dobramysl, D Holcman
Is it possible to recover the position of a source from the steady-state fluxes of Brownian particles to small absorbing windows located on the boundary of a domain? To address this question, we develop a numerical procedure to avoid tracking Brownian trajectories in the entire infinite space. Instead, we generate particles near the absorbing windows, computed from the analytical expression of the exit probability. When the Brownian particles are generated by a steady-state gradient at a single point, we compute asymptotically the fluxes to small absorbing holes distributed on the boundary of half-space and on a disk in two dimensions, which agree with stochastic simulations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Computational Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456252/normal-tension-glaucoma-review-of-current-understanding-and-mechanisms-of-the-pathogenesis
#10
REVIEW
H E Killer, A Pircher
Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is an exception in the "glaucoma family" where the major risk factor, increased intraocular pressure, is missing. If not increased intraocular pressure, then what other causes can then lead to glaucomatous optic disc change and visual field loss in NTG? Several possibilities will be discussed. Among them a higher sensitivity to normal pressure, vascular dysregulation, an abnormally high translaminar pressure gradient and a neurodegenerative process due to impaired cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the optic nerve sheath compartment...
February 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455969/application-of-response-surface-methodology-to-tailor-the-surface-chemistry-of-electrospun-chitosan-poly-ethylene-oxide-fibers
#11
Peter Bösiger, Isabelle M T Richard, Luce Le Gat, Benjamin Michen, Mark Schubert, René M Rossi, Giuseppino Fortunato
Chitosan is a promising biocompatible polymer for regenerative engineering applications, but its processing remains challenging due to limited solubility and rigid crystalline structure. This work represents the development of electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) blend nanofibrous membranes by means of a numerical analysis in order to identify and tailor the main influencing parameters with respect to accessible surface nitrogen functionalities which are of importance for the biological activity as well as for further functionalization...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455919/satellite-based-high-resolution-pm-2-5-estimation-over-the-beijing-tianjin-hebei-region-of-china-using-an-improved-geographically-and-temporally-weighted-regression-model
#12
Qingqing He, Bo Huang
Ground fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations at high spatial resolution are substantially required for determining the population exposure to PM2.5 over densely populated urban areas. However, most studies for China have generated PM2.5 estimations at a coarse resolution (≥10 km) due to the limitation of satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) product in spatial resolution. In this study, the 3 km AOD data fused using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 AOD products were employed to estimate the ground PM2...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455746/today-s-decisions-tomorrow-s-outcomes-does-self-control-explain-the-educational-smoking-gradient
#13
Christopher J Holmes
People with more education tend to have relatively healthy lifestyles. Among other things, they smoke less than those with less education. This link between education and smoking (known as the "educational gradient") is frequently interpreted as causal: many researchers argue that education develops skills, habits, and preferences that discourage smoking and other unhealthy behaviors. However, an alternative possibility is that these skills, habits, and preferences develop early in life and determine the likelihood of both attaining a high level of education and avoiding smoking...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455470/separation-of-positional-isomers-of-nine-2-phenetylamine-derived-designer-drugs-by-lc-ms-ms
#14
Christina Grumann, Volker Auwärter
Synthesis of positional isomers of designer drugs is a common way of bypassing legal restrictions. For forensic case work, and especially for legal assessment of cases, there is a need for screening methods capable of the unequivocal identification of positional isomers. The presented LC-ESI-MS/MS method is capable of separating positional isomers of nine 2-phenetylamine-derived designer drugs in different matrices including seized materials, hair, serum, and urine specimens. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a biphenyl phase using gradient elution with a total runtime of 26 minutes...
February 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455454/oxidative-capacity-varies-along-the-length-of-healthy-human-tibialis-anterior
#15
Andreas Boss, Linda Heskamp, Vincent Breukels, Lauren J Bains, Mark J van Uden, Arend Heerschap
The rate of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery (kPCr ) after exercise, characterizing muscle oxidative capacity, is traditionally assessed with unlocalized31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using a single surface coil. However, because of intramuscular variation in fibre type and oxygen supply, kPCr may be non-uniform within muscles. We tested this along the length of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 10 male volunteers. For this purpose we employed a 3T MR system with a31 P/1 H volume transmit coil combined with a home-built31 P phased-array receive probe, consisting of 5 coil elements covering the TA muscle length...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455202/phosphate-and-calcium-control-in-short-frequent-hemodialysis-with-the-nxstage-system-one-cycler-mass-balance-studies-and-comparison-with-standard-thrice-weekly-bicarbonate-dialysis
#16
Chiara Carla Maria Brunati, Francesca Gervasi, Costanza Casati, Maria Luisa Querques, Alberto Montoli, Giacomo Colussi
BACKGROUND: Short frequent dialysis with NxStage System One cycler (NSO) has become increasingly popular as home hemodialysis prescription. Short dialysis sessions with NSO might not allow adequate phosphate (P) removal. METHODS: Single-session and weekly balances of P and calcium (Ca) were compared in 14 patients treated with NSO (6 sessions/week) and in 14 patients on standard bicarbonate dialysis (BHD). RESULTS: NSO and BHD showed similar plasma P fall, with end-dialysis plasma P slightly lower in BHD (2...
February 16, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455134/the-increase-of-soil-organic-carbon-as-proposed-by-the-4-1000-initiative-is-strongly-limited-by-the-status-of-soil-development-a-case-study-along-a-substrate-age-gradient-in-central-europe
#17
Jasmin Schiefer, Georg J Lair, Christopher Lüthgens, Eva Maria Wild, Peter Steier, Winfried E H Blum
During COP 21 in Paris 2015, several states and organizations agreed on the "4/1000" initiative for food security and climate. This initiative aims to increase world's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks by 4‰ annually. The influence of soil development status on SOC dynamics is very important but usually not considered in studies. We analyse SOC accumulation under forest, grassland and cropping systems along a soil age gradient (10-17,000years) to show the influence of soil development status on SOC increase...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455132/rapid-sewage-pollution-assessment-by-means-of-the-coverage-of-epilithic-taxa-in-a-coastal-area-in-the-sw-atlantic
#18
M E Becherucci, M L Jaubet, M A Saracho Bottero, E N Llanos, R Elías, G V Garaffo
The sewage pollution impact over coastal environment represents one of the main reasons explaining the deterioration of marine coastal ecosystems around the globe. This paper aims to detect promptly a putative sewage pollution impact in a Southwestern Atlantic coastal area of Argentina as well as to identify a straightforward way for monitoring, based on the relative abundance coverage of the intertidal epilithic taxa. Four sampling sites were distributed at increased distances from the sewage outfall where the cover of individual epilithic species was visually estimated...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455130/structural-and-functional-characteristics-of-buffer-strip-vegetation-in-an-agricultural-landscape-high-potential-for-nutrient-removal-but-low-potential-for-plant-biodiversity
#19
Sandra Hille, Dagmar Kappel Andersen, Brian Kronvang, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen
Vegetated buffer strips constitute a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide several ecosystem services. Buffer strips are often applied as a mitigation measure against diffuse pollution in agricultural areas, primarily because they may retain nutrients and in this way help protect the aquatic environment. Additionally, they can improve biodiversity in an otherwise homogenous landscape and may therefore have a value in their own right. In the present study, we characterized the structural and functional features of the vegetation in Danish buffer strips using a nationwide dataset to explore: i) their floristic quality in terms of species diversity and conservation value and ii) based on their functional characteristics, their potential to retain nutrients...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455093/quantitative-determination-of-a-potent-geranylgeranyl-diphosphate-synthase-inhibitor-using-lc-ms-ms-derivatization-and-application
#20
Yashpal S Chhonker, Staci L Haney, Robert A Matthiesen, David F Wiemer, Sarah A Holstein, Daryl J Murry
An isomeric mixture of homogeranyl/homoneryl triazole bisphosphonates (VSW1198) has previously been shown to be a potent inhibitor of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) synthase (GGDPS) and of therapeutic interest for the treatment of multiple myeloma. We have developed and validated a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of both the E- and Z- isomers of VSW1198 in cell culture media, mouse plasma and tissues. VSW1198 and internal standard are extracted from the bio-matrices by solid-phase extraction, followed by derivatization using trimethylsilyldiazomethane...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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