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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239405/long-term-intake-of-saccharin-decreases-post-absortive-energy-expenditure-at-rest-and-is-associated-to-greater-weight-gain-relative-to-sucrose-in-wistar-rats
#1
Denise Entrudo Pinto, Kelly Carraro Foletto, Ramiro Barcos Nunes, Pedro Dal Lago, Marcello Casaccia Bertoluci
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) have been associated with increased prevalence of obesity. In previous studies, we demonstrated that saccharin could induce an increase in weight gain either when compared to sucrose or to a non-sweetened control at a similar total caloric intake. These data raised the hypothesis that reduced energy expenditure (EE) could be a potential mechanism explaining greater weight gain with saccharin use in rats. The aim of the present study was to compare long-term energy expenditure at rest between rats using saccharin or sucrose and correlate it with weight gain...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237545/enhancement-of-brain-plasticity-and-recovery-of-locomotive-function-after-lumbar-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-combination-with-gait-training-with-partial-weight-support-in-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia
#2
Yoon-Hee Choi, Shi-Uk Lee
Lumbar spinal cord stimulation (LSCS) is reportedly effective for the recovery of locomotive intraspinal neural network, motor cortex and basal ganglia in animals with complete spinal cord injury and parkinsonism. We evaluated the effect of LSCS in combination with gait training on the recovery of locomotive function and brain plasticity using a rat model of brain ischemia. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats with ischemia were randomly assigned into one of four groups: sham treatment (group 1), LSCS only (group 2), LSCS with gait training and 50% (group 3) and 80% (group 4) of body weight support...
February 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237075/rasch-analysis-indicates-that-the-simple-shoulder-test-is-robust-but-minor-item-modifications-and-attention-to-gender-differences-should-be-considered
#3
Jayaprakash Raman, Joy C MacDermid, David Walton, George S Athwal
STUDY DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional study. INTRODUCTION: Multiple studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) through traditional methods supporting it as valid and reliable. Since the evidentiary pool supporting the use of the SST has only partially addressed key measurement properties and the development of SST pre-dates the common use of Rasch model, validation of SST has become a necessity to establish as a reliable and valid PRO for shoulder conditions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236733/influences-on-the-food-choices-and-physical-activity-behaviours-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women-a-qualitative-study
#4
Orna A O'Brien, Karen L Lindsay, Mary McCarthy, Aileen F McGloin, Maria Kennelly, Helena A Scully, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
OBJECTIVE: to qualitatively explore influences identified by overweight/obese pregnant women on food choices and physical activity (PA) behaviours; to determine the impact of pregnancy on these factors; and to inform development of future lifestyle interventions during pregnancy. DESIGN: cross-sectional interview study. SETTING: maternity hospital, Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: pregnant women (n=22), early pregnancy Body Mass Index > 25kg/m(2) MEASURES: barriers to and facilitators of healthy eating and PA in overweight/obese pregnancy...
February 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230235/seeing-overweight-adults-as-babies-physical-cues-and-implications-for-stigmatization
#5
Anton J M Dijker, Rutger DeLuster, Nicolas Peeters, Nanne K de Vries
Human babies not only are reliable triggers of tender feelings and protective tendencies, they also happen to be exceptionally fat compared to the newborns of most other species. These two facts are used to formulate a hypothesis predicting that overweight males, due to their great physical resemblance to babies, not only are perceived as cute, but also are associated with negatively evaluated traits (e.g., immaturity, lack of willpower) that are saliently inconsistent with traits required for adults. In this study, a great many physical features of adult males varying widely in weight were measured and correlated with subjective judgements...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229456/body-mass-index-waist-circumference-and-mortality-in-a-large-multiethnic-postmenopausal-cohort-results-from-the-women-s-health-initiative
#6
Zhao Chen, Yann C Klimentidis, Jennifer W Bea, Kacey C Ernst, Chengcheng Hu, Rebecca Jackson, Cynthia A Thomson
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the relationship between anthropometric measurements of obesity and mortality varies according to age, race, and ethnicity in older women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of multiethnic postmenopausal women. SETTING: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study and clinical trials in 40 clinics. PARTICIPANTS: Postmenopausal women aged 50-79 participating in WHI (N = 161,808). MEASUREMENTS: Baseline height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on height and weight...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229441/-robotic-systems-for-gait-re-education-in-cases-of-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#7
T Gandara-Sambade, M Fernandez-Pereira, A Rodriguez-Sotillo
INTRODUCTION: The evidence underlying robotic body weight supported treadmill training in patients with spinal cord injury remains poorly characterized. AIM: To perform a qualitative systematic review on the efficacy of this therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A search on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PEDro was performed from January 2005 to April 2016. The references in these articles were also reviewed to find papers not identified with the initial search strategy...
March 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228940/beneficial-effects-of-nonpharmacological-interventions-in-the-management-of-essential-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Anastasios Vamvakis, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Areti Triantafyllou, Eleni Gavriilaki, Stella Douma
Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228715/central-nervous-insulin-administration-before-nocturnal-sleep-decreases-breakfast-intake-in-healthy-young-and-elderly-subjects
#9
João C P Santiago, Manfred Hallschmid
Peripheral insulin acts on the brain to regulate metabolic functions, in particular decreasing food intake and body weight. This concept has been supported by studies in humans relying on the intranasal route of administration, a method that permits the direct permeation of insulin into the CNS without substantial absorption into the blood stream. We investigated if intranasal insulin administration before nocturnal sleep, a period of reduced metabolic activity and largely absent external stimulation, affects food intake and energy turnover on the subsequent morning...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228100/influence-of-hooks-and-a-lag-screw-on-internal-fixation-plates-for-lateral-malleolar-fracture-a-biomechanical-and-ergonomic-study
#10
Rina Sakai, Masataka Uchino, Terumasa Yoneo, Yasuaki Ohtaki, Hiroaki Minehara, Terumasa Matsuura, Tsutomu Gomi, Masanobu Ujihira
BACKGROUND: For internal fixation of AO classification Type B lateral malleolar fracture, insertion of lag screws into the fracture plane and fixation with a one-third tubular plate as a neutralization plate are the standard treatment procedures. The one-third tubular plate is processed to a hook shape and hung on the distal end of the fibula. In this study, to compare the function of the hook and lag screws of a one-third tubular plate and LCP for osteosynthesis of lateral malleolar fracture, mechanical indices of internal fixation were compared among the one-third tubular plates with lag screws with and without the hook and a locking compression plate...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227184/neuromotor-response-of-the-leg-muscles-following-a-supine-stand-retraining-with-without-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-training-intervention-for-individuals-with-sci-a-case-series
#11
Stephen Canton, Kamyar Momeni, Arvind Ramanujam, Erica Garbarini, Gail F Forrest, Stephen Canton, Kamyar Momeni, Arvind Ramanujam, Erica Garbarini, Gail F Forrest, Arvind Ramanujam, Gail F Forrest, Stephen Canton, Kamyar Momeni, Erica Garbarini
The goal of this paper is to study the effects of supine and stand retraining (SRT) interventions with and without multi muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on the neuromuscular EMG responses of the leg muscles for individuals with motor complete SCI during walking on a body-weight support (BWS) treadmill. The main outcome variables were EMG amplitude, integrated EMG and co-contraction indices (co-excitation and co-activation) collected during a 10-minute walking treadmill trial. Data was analyzed for the first, fifth and tenth minute of walking...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226959/evaluation-of-a-variable-resistance-orthotic-knee-joint
#12
Andrew Herbert-Copley, Edward D Lemaire, Natalie Baddour, Andrew Herbert-Copley, Edward D Lemaire, Natalie Baddour, Andrew Herbert-Copley, Natalie Baddour, Edward D Lemaire
Knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) are full leg braces for individuals with knee extensor weakness, designed to support the person during weight bearing activities by preventing knee flexion. KAFOs typically result in an unnatural gait pattern and are primarily used for level ground walking. A novel variable resistance orthotic knee joint, the Ottawalk-Variable Speed (OWVS), was designed to address these limitations. This paper presents a pilot test to evaluate the OWVS functional performance during walking and stair descent...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226200/effectiveness-of-group-based-self-management-education-for-individuals-with-type%C3%A2-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analyses-and-meta-regression
#13
K Odgers-Jewell, L E Ball, J T Kelly, E A Isenring, D P Reidlinger, R Thomas
AIMS: Patient education for the management of Type 2 diabetes can be delivered in various forms, with the goal of promoting and supporting positive self-management behaviours. This systematic review aimed to determine the effectiveness of group-based interventions compared with individual interventions or usual care for improving clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in people with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched. Group-based education programmes for adults with Type 2 diabetes that measured HbA1c and followed participants for ≥ 6 months were included...
February 22, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225806/capsaicin-reduces-alzheimer-associated-tau-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-type-2-diabetes-rats
#14
Weijie Xu, Juanhong Liu, Delin Ma, Gang Yuan, Yan Lu, Yan Yang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a high-risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to impaired insulin signaling pathway in brain. Capsaicin is a specific transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist which was proved to ameliorate insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether dietary capsaicin could reduce the risk of AD in T2D. T2D rats were fed with capsaicin-containing high fat (HF) diet for 10 consecutive days (T2D+CAP). Pair-fed T2D rats (T2D+PF) fed with the HF-diet of average dose of T2D+CAP group were included to control for the effects of reduced food intake and body weight...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223344/an-intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-ceramide-signaling-axis-modulates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#15
Cen Xie, Changtao Jiang, Jingmin Shi, Xiaoxia Gao, Dongxue Sun, Lulu Sun, Ting Wang, Shogo Takahashi, Mallappa Anitha, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez
Increasing evidence supports the view that intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved in glucose tolerance and that FXR signaling can be profoundly impacted by the gut microbiota. Selective manipulation of the gut microbiota-FXR signaling axis was reported to significantly impact glucose intolerance, but the precise molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an over-the-counter dietary supplement and an inhibitor of bacterial bile salt hydrolase, increased levels of intestinal tauro-β-muricholic acid, which selectively suppresses intestinal FXR signaling...
March 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223091/safety-of-concomitant-cholecystectomy-at-the-time-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-analysis-of-the-american-college-of-surgeons-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-database
#16
Hanaa N Dakour-Aridi, Hebah M El-Rayess, Hussein Abou-Abbass, Ibrahim Abu-Gheida, Robert H Habib, Bassem Y Safadi
BACKGROUND: The indication and safety of concomitant cholecystectomy (CC) during bariatric surgical procedures are topics of controversy. Studies on the outcomes of CC with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and 30-day surgical outcomes of CC with LSG. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database 2010 to 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used...
December 23, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223090/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-for-the-treatment-of-severe-complications-after-omega-loop-gastric-bypass
#17
Tigran Poghosyan, Clementine Caille, David Moszkowicz, Mouna Hanachi, Claire Carette, Jean-Luc Bouillot
BACKGROUND: Omega-loop gastric bypass (OLGB) may be associated with severe complications, including anastomotic leak, refractory ulcer or stenosis, undernutrition, and disabling digestive disorders (chronic diarrhea, steatorrhea, bile reflux, and vomiting). OLGB conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was suggested to treat these complications. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and risk of severe complications after OLGB conversion to RYGB. SETTING: University hospital...
December 9, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223085/self-perception-of-weight-status-and-its-association-with-weight-related-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-among-chinese%C3%A2-children-in-guangzhou
#18
Li Cai, Ting Zhang, Jun Ma, Lu Ma, Jin Jing, Yajun Chen
BACKGROUND: How weight perception influences weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in Chinese children is unknown. We investigated self-perception of body weight and its correlates, and analyzed the relationship between weight perception and weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in children in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: We assessed self-reported weight perception, weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in 3752 children aged 7-12 years...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222548/does-positive-pressure-body-weight-support-alter-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-in-healthy-and-parkinsonian-individuals
#19
Joshua J Lander, Matthew F Moran
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests treadmill training (TT) and body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) are effective strategies to improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, few researchers have investigated the spatiotemporal parameters during TT or BWSTT. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to determine gait adaptations in PD and healthy subjects during positive pressure BWSTT and post-intervention overground walking. METHODS: Ten PD and ten healthy individuals participated in this study...
February 6, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220585/sleep-duration-is-associated-with-body-fat-and-muscle-mass-and-waist-to-height-ratio-beyond-conventional-obesity-parameters-in-korean-adolescent-boys
#20
Ga Eun Nam, Kyungdo Han, Do Hoon Kim, Jee Hyun Lee, Won Hee Seo
While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
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