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James David Smith, Christina Mitsakou, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Ben M Barratt, Heather A Walton, Jonathon G Taylor, Hugh Ross Anderson, Frank J Kelly, Sean D Beevers
Here we describe the development of the London Hybrid Exposure Model (LHEM), which calculates exposure of the Greater London population to outdoor air pollution sources, in-buildings, in-vehicles and outdoors, using survey data of when and where people spend their time. For comparison and to estimate exposure misclassification we compared Londoners LHEM exposure with exposure at the residential address, a commonly used exposure metric in epidemiological research. In 2011, the mean annual LHEM exposure to outdoor sources was estimated to be 37÷ lower for PM2...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Cheryl A Hobbs, Sean V Taylor, Carol Beevers, Melvyn Lloyd, Rachael Bowen, Lucinda Lillford, Robert Maronpot, Shim-Mo Hayashi
Perillaldehyde, a natural monocyclic terpenoid found most abundantly in the herb perilla, has a long history of use as a flavouring ingredient to add spiciness and citrus taste to foods. Previously, it was judged to be safe by several international expert panels. To confirm the safety of flavourings placed on the European Union list of flavourings, perillaldehyde was selected by the European Food Safety Authority as a representative of a subgroup of alicyclic aldehyde flavouring substances to be evaluated for genotoxic potential...
September 1, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Robert T Walton, Ian S Mudway, Isobel Dundas, Nadine Marlin, Lee C Koh, Layla Aitlhadj, Tom Vulliamy, Jeenath B Jamaludin, Helen E Wood, Ben M Barratt, Sean Beevers, David Dajnak, Aziz Sheikh, Frank J Kelly, Chris J Griffiths, Jonathan Grigg
BACKGROUND: Short telomeres are associated with chronic disease and early mortality. Recent studies in adults suggest an association between telomere length and exposure to particulate matter, and that ethnicity may modify the relationship. However associations in children are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between air pollution and telomere length in an ethnically diverse group of children exposed to high levels of traffic derived pollutants, particularly diesel exhaust, and to environmental tobacco smoke...
September 1, 2016: Environment International
Paul D Mathewson, Lucas Moyer-Horner, Erik A Beever, Natalie J Briscoe, Michael Kearney, Jeremiah M Yahn, Warren P Porter
How climate constrains species' distributions through time and space is an important question in the context of conservation planning for climate change. Despite increasing awareness of the need to incorporate mechanism into species distribution models (SDMs), mechanistic modelling of endotherm distributions remains limited in the current literature. Using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an example, we present a framework whereby mechanism can be incorporated into endotherm SDMs. Pika distribution has repeatedly been found to be constrained by warm temperatures, so we used Niche Mapper, a mechanistic heat-balance model, to convert macroclimate data to pika-specific surface-activity time in summer across the western United States...
August 8, 2016: Global Change Biology
Lee J Beever, Elvin R Kulendra, Richard L Meeson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Daniel Hind, Daphne Kaklamanou, Dan Beever, Rosie Webster, Ellen Lee, Michael Barkham, Cindy Cooper
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is high; however, symptoms common to both conditions makes measurement difficult. There is no high quality overview of validation studies to guide the choice of depression inventory for this population. METHODS: A systematic review of studies validating the use of generic depression inventories in people with MS was conducted using MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Studies validating the use of depression inventories in PwMS and published in English were included; validation studies of tests for cognitive function and general mental health were excluded...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Jasper A J Smits, Mark B Powers, David Rosenfield, Michael J Zvolensky, Jolene Jacquart, Michelle L Davis, Christopher G Beevers, Bess H Marcus, Timothy S Church, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions facilitate odds of quit success among high-anxiety sensitive adults smokers. We examined the dependency of these benefits on the genetic BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism; individuals who are Met carriers have lower BDNF responses and reduced associated benefits from exercise. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the efficacy of vigorous exercise for smoking cessation would be specific to high-anxiety sensitive Val/Val carriers. METHODS: Participants were adults (N=55) of European ancestry who had participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing a smoking cessation program augmented with exercise vs...
March 2016: Mental Health and Physical Activity
E Fox, C G Beevers
Negative cognitive biases and genetic variation have been associated with risk of psychopathology in largely independent lines of research. Here, we discuss ways in which these dynamic fields of research might be fruitfully combined. We propose that gene by environment (G × E) interactions may be mediated by selective cognitive biases and that certain forms of genetic 'reactivity' or 'sensitivity' may represent heightened sensitivity to the learning environment in a 'for better and for worse' manner. To progress knowledge in this field, we recommend including assessments of cognitive processing biases; examining G × E interactions in 'both' negative and positive environments; experimentally manipulating the environment when possible; and moving beyond single-gene effects to assess polygenic sensitivity scores...
July 19, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Elizabeth Moore, Lia Chatzidiakou, Roderic L Jones, Liam Smeeth, Sean Beevers, Frank J Kelly, Jennifer K Quint, Benjamin Barratt
INTRODUCTION: Relationships between exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and air pollution are not well characterised, due in part to oversimplification in the assignment of exposure estimates to individuals and populations. New developments in miniature environmental sensors mean that patients can now carry a personal air quality monitor for long periods of time as they go about their daily lives. This creates the potential for capturing a direct link between individual activities, environmental exposures and the health of patients with COPD...
2016: BMJ Open
Alissa J Ellis, Jason Shumake, Christopher G Beevers
The experience of anger during a depressive episode has recently been identified as a poor prognostic indicator of illness course. Given the clinical implications of anger in major depressive disorder (MDD), understanding the mechanisms involved in anger reactivity and persistence is critical for improved intervention. Biological processes involved in emotion regulation during stress, such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), may play a role in maintaining negative moods. Clinically depressed (MDD; n = 49) and nondepressed (non-MDD; n = 50) individuals were challenged with a stressful computer task shown to increase anger, while RSA (high frequency range 0...
October 2016: Psychophysiology
Michelle L Davis, David Rosenfield, Amit Bernstein, Ariel Zvielli, Andrea Reinecke, Christopher G Beevers, Ernst H W Koster, Jasper A J Smits
OBJECTIVE: Threat-related attention bias figures prominently in contemporary accounts of the maintenance of anxiety disorders, yet longitudinal intervention research relating attention bias to anxiety symptom severity is limited. Capitalizing on recent advances in the conceptualization and measurement of attention bias, we aimed to examine the relation between attention bias, indexed using trial-level bias scores (TLBSs) to quantify temporal dynamics reflecting dysregulation of attentional processing of threat (as opposed to aggregated mean bias scores) and social anxiety symptom severity over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and 1-month follow-up...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Ravi Maheswaran, Tim Pearson, Sean D Beevers, Michael J Campbell, Charles D Wolfe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few studies have examined the association between air pollutants and ischemic stroke subtypes. We examined acute effects of outdoor air pollutants (PM10, NO2, O3, CO, SO2) on subtypes and severity of incident ischemic stroke and investigated if pre-existing risk factors increased susceptibility. METHODS: We used a time stratified case-crossover study and stroke cases from the South London Stroke Register set up to capture all incident cases of first ever stroke occurring amongst residents in a geographically defined area...
2016: PloS One
I M Carey, H R Anderson, R W Atkinson, S Beevers, D G Cook, D Dajnak, J Gulliver, F J Kelly
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiological evidence for adverse health effects of long-term exposure to air and noise pollution from traffic is not coherent. Further, the relative roles of background versus near traffic pollution concentrations in this process are unclear. We investigated relationships between modelled concentrations of air and noise pollution from traffic and incident cardiorespiratory disease in London. METHODS: Among 211 016 adults aged 40-79 years registered in 75 Greater London practices between 2005 and 2011, the first diagnosis for a range of cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were identified from primary care and hospital records...
June 24, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Elizabeth Moore, Lia Chatzidiakou, Moyosore-Oluwa Kuku, Roderic L Jones, Liam Smeeth, Sean Beevers, Frank J Kelly, Benjamin Barratt, Jennifer Quint
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations are key events in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), affecting lung function decline and quality of life. The effect of exposure to different air pollutants on COPD exacerbations is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To carry out a systematic review examining associations between air pollutants and hospital admissions for COPD exacerbations. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS & Science Citation Index, and the Air Pollution Epidemiology Database were searched from 1980 until September 2015...
June 17, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Siobhan Crichton, Benjamin Barratt, Anastassia Spiridou, Uy Hoang, Shao Fen Liang, Yevgeniya Kovalchuk, Sean D Beevers, Frank J Kelly, Brendan Delaney, Charles DA Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Airborne particulate matter (PM) consists of particles from diverse sources, including vehicle exhausts. Associations between short-term PM changes and stroke incidence have been shown. Cumulative exposures over several months, or years, are less well studied; few studies examined ischaemic subtypes or PM source. AIMS: This study combines a high resolution urban air quality model with a population-based stroke register to explore associations between long-term exposure to PM and stroke incidence...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Seth G Disner, Christopher G Beevers, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima
BACKGROUND: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) with transcranial laser is a non-invasive form of neuroenhancement shown to regulate neuronal metabolism and cognition. Attention bias modification (ABM) is a cognitive intervention designed to improve depression by decreasing negative attentional bias, but to date its efficacy has been inconclusive. Adjunctive neuroenhancement to augment clinical effectiveness has shown promise, particularly for individuals who respond positively to the primary intervention...
September 2016: Brain Stimulation
Rahel Pearson, Rohan H C Palmer, Leslie A Brick, John E McGeary, Valerie S Knopik, Christopher G Beevers
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study...
May 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Adam R Vaughan, James D Lee, Pawel K Misztal, Stefan Metzger, Marvin D Shaw, Alastair C Lewis, Ruth M Purvis, David C Carslaw, Allen H Goldstein, C Nicholas Hewitt, Brian Davison, Sean D Beevers, Thomas G Karl
To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas...
July 18, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Jonathan Beever, Nicolae Morar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Roy R Lewis, Eric C Milbrandt, Benjamin Brown, Ken W Krauss, André S Rovai, James W Beever, Laura L Flynn
Mangrove forest rehabilitation should begin much sooner than at the point of catastrophic loss. We describe the need for "mangrove forest heart attack prevention", and how that might be accomplished in a general sense by embedding plot and remote sensing monitoring within coastal management plans. The major cause of mangrove stress at many sites globally is often linked to reduced tidal flows and exchanges. Blocked water flows can reduce flushing not only from the seaward side, but also result in higher salinity and reduced sediments when flows are blocked landward...
August 30, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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