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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902732/predictors-of-current-and-longer-term-patterns-of-abundance-of-american-pikas-ochotona-princeps-across-a-leading-edge-protected-area
#1
Lucas Moyer-Horner, Erik A Beever, Douglas H Johnson, Mark Biel, Jami Belt
American pikas (Ochotona princeps) have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane 'mainlands'. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898945/effects-of-timing-and-duration-of-test-period-and-diet-type-on-intake-and-feed-efficiency-of-charolais-sired-cattle
#2
C J Cassady, T L Felix, J E Beever, D W Shike
Objectives of this experiment were to: 1) determine appropriate test length, timing, and repeatability of DMI, ADG, and efficiency over different biological time points; 2) determine the efficacy of using decoupled performance and intake data to generate accurate feed efficiency measures; and 3) determine the relationship between forage-and grain-feed efficiency measures. Over 2 yr, Charolais crossbred heifers ( = 308) and steers ( = 320) were fed for two 70 d periods and DMI, ADG, and 12th rib fat thickness were recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811334/effect-of-exhaust-and-nonexhaust-related-components-of-particulate-matter-on-long-term-survival-after-stroke
#3
Anita Desikan, Siobhan Crichton, Uy Hoang, Benjamin Barratt, Sean D Beevers, Frank J Kelly, Charles D A Wolfe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Outdoor air pollution represents a potentially modifiable risk factor for stroke. We examined the link between ambient pollution and mortality up to 5 years poststroke, especially for pollutants associated with vehicle exhaust. METHODS: Data from the South London Stroke Register, a population-based register covering an urban, multiethnic population, were used. Hazard ratios (HR) for a 1 interquartile range increase in particulate matter <2...
November 3, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799556/precise-gene-editing-paves-the-way-for-derivation-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-leukotoxin-resistant-cattle
#4
Sudarvili Shanthalingam, Ahmed Tibary, Jonathan E Beever, Poothapillai Kasinathan, Wendy C Brown, Subramaniam Srikumaran
Signal peptides of membrane proteins are cleaved by signal peptidase once the nascent proteins reach the endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, we reported that, contrary to the paradigm, the signal peptide of ruminant CD18, the β subunit of β2 integrins, is not cleaved and hence remains intact on mature CD18 molecules expressed on the surface of ruminant leukocytes. Leukotoxin secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica binds to the intact signal peptide and causes cytolysis of ruminant leukocytes, resulting in acute inflammation and lung tissue damage...
October 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786527/infants-early-visual-attention-and-social-engagement-as-developmental-precursors-to-joint-attention
#5
Brenda Salley, Stephen J Sheinkopf, A Rebecca Neal-Beevers, Elena J Tenenbaum, Cynthia L Miller-Loncar, Ed Tronick, Linda L Lagasse, Seetha Shankaran, Henrietta Bada, Charles Bauer, Toni Whitaker, Jane Hammond, Barry M Lester
This study examined infants' early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n = 325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at 4 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, included high-risk (cocaine-exposed) and matched noncocaine-exposed infants. Hierarchical regressions revealed that infants' attention orienting at 1 month significantly predicted more frequent initiating joint attention at 12 (but not 18) months of age...
November 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706935/the-london-hybrid-exposure-model-lhem-improving-human-exposure-estimates-to-no2-and-pm2-5-in-an-urban-setting
#6
James David Smith, Christina Mitsakou, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Ben M Barratt, Heather A Walton, Jonathon G Taylor, Hugh Ross Anderson, Frank J Kelly, Sean D Beevers
Here we describe the development of the London Hybrid Exposure Model (LHEM), which calculates exposure of the Greater London population to outdoor air pollution sources, in-buildings, in-vehicles and outdoors, using survey data of when and where people spend their time. For comparison and to estimate exposure misclassification we compared Londoners LHEM exposure with exposure at the residential address, a commonly used exposure metric in epidemiological research. In 2011, the mean annual LHEM exposure to outdoor sources was estimated to be 37÷ lower for PM2...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593899/genotoxicity-assessment-of-the-flavouring-agent-perillaldehyde
#7
Cheryl A Hobbs, Sean V Taylor, Carol Beevers, Melvyn Lloyd, Rachael Bowen, Lucinda Lillford, Robert Maronpot, Shim-Mo Hayashi
Perillaldehyde, a natural monocyclic terpenoid found most abundantly in the herb perilla, has a long history of use as a flavouring ingredient to add spiciness and citrus taste to foods. Previously, it was judged to be safe by several international expert panels. To confirm the safety of flavourings placed on the European Union list of flavourings, perillaldehyde was selected by the European Food Safety Authority as a representative of a subgroup of alicyclic aldehyde flavouring substances to be evaluated for genotoxic potential...
September 1, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591803/air-pollution-ethnicity-and-telomere-length-in-east-london-schoolchildren-an-observational-study
#8
Robert T Walton, Ian S Mudway, Isobel Dundas, Nadine Marlin, Lee C Koh, Layla Aitlhadj, Tom Vulliamy, Jeenath B Jamaludin, Helen E Wood, Ben M Barratt, Sean Beevers, David Dajnak, Aziz Sheikh, Frank J Kelly, Chris J Griffiths, Jonathan Grigg
BACKGROUND: Short telomeres are associated with chronic disease and early mortality. Recent studies in adults suggest an association between telomere length and exposure to particulate matter, and that ethnicity may modify the relationship. However associations in children are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between air pollution and telomere length in an ethnically diverse group of children exposed to high levels of traffic derived pollutants, particularly diesel exhaust, and to environmental tobacco smoke...
September 1, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500587/mechanistic-variables-can-enhance-predictive-models-of-endotherm-distributions-the-american-pika-under-current-past-and-future-climates
#9
Paul D Mathewson, Lucas Moyer-Horner, Erik A Beever, Natalie J Briscoe, Michael Kearney, Jeremiah M Yahn, Warren P Porter
How climate constrains species' distributions through time and space is an important question in the context of conservation planning for climate change. Despite increasing awareness of the need to incorporate mechanism into species distribution models (SDMs), mechanistic modelling of endotherm distributions remains limited in the current literature. Using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an example, we present a framework whereby mechanism can be incorporated into endotherm SDMs. Pika distribution has repeatedly been found to be constrained by warm temperatures, so we used Niche Mapper, a mechanistic heat-balance model, to convert macroclimate data to pika-specific surface-activity time in summer across the western United States...
August 8, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492689/a-response-to-evaluation-of-pain
#10
Lee J Beever, Elvin R Kulendra, Richard L Meeson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491674/the-assessment-of-depression-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-of-psychometric-validation-studies
#11
Daniel Hind, Daphne Kaklamanou, Dan Beever, Rosie Webster, Ellen Lee, Michael Barkham, Cindy Cooper
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is high; however, symptoms common to both conditions makes measurement difficult. There is no high quality overview of validation studies to guide the choice of depression inventory for this population. METHODS: A systematic review of studies validating the use of generic depression inventories in people with MS was conducted using MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Studies validating the use of depression inventories in PwMS and published in English were included; validation studies of tests for cognitive function and general mental health were excluded...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453731/bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-as-a-moderator-of-exercise-enhancement-of-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-anxiety-vulnerable-adults
#12
Jasper A J Smits, Mark B Powers, David Rosenfield, Michael J Zvolensky, Jolene Jacquart, Michelle L Davis, Christopher G Beevers, Bess H Marcus, Timothy S Church, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions facilitate odds of quit success among high-anxiety sensitive adults smokers. We examined the dependency of these benefits on the genetic BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism; individuals who are Met carriers have lower BDNF responses and reduced associated benefits from exercise. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the efficacy of vigorous exercise for smoking cessation would be specific to high-anxiety sensitive Val/Val carriers. METHODS: Participants were adults (N=55) of European ancestry who had participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing a smoking cessation program augmented with exercise vs...
March 2016: Mental Health and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431291/differential-sensitivity-to-the-environment-contribution-of-cognitive-biases-and-genes-to-psychological-wellbeing
#13
E Fox, C G Beevers
Negative cognitive biases and genetic variation have been associated with risk of psychopathology in largely independent lines of research. Here, we discuss ways in which these dynamic fields of research might be fruitfully combined. We propose that gene by environment (G × E) interactions may be mediated by selective cognitive biases and that certain forms of genetic 'reactivity' or 'sensitivity' may represent heightened sensitivity to the learning environment in a 'for better and for worse' manner. To progress knowledge in this field, we recommend including assessments of cognitive processing biases; examining G × E interactions in 'both' negative and positive environments; experimentally manipulating the environment when possible; and moving beyond single-gene effects to assess polygenic sensitivity scores...
December 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412104/linking-e-health-records-patient-reported-symptoms-and-environmental-exposure-data-to-characterise-and-model-copd-exacerbations-protocol-for-the-cope-study
#14
Elizabeth Moore, Lia Chatzidiakou, Roderic L Jones, Liam Smeeth, Sean Beevers, Frank J Kelly, Jennifer K Quint, Benjamin Barratt
INTRODUCTION: Relationships between exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and air pollution are not well characterised, due in part to oversimplification in the assignment of exposure estimates to individuals and populations. New developments in miniature environmental sensors mean that patients can now carry a personal air quality monitor for long periods of time as they go about their daily lives. This creates the potential for capturing a direct link between individual activities, environmental exposures and the health of patients with COPD...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401801/the-effects-of-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-on-anger-reactivity-and-persistence-in-major-depression
#15
Alissa J Ellis, Jason Shumake, Christopher G Beevers
The experience of anger during a depressive episode has recently been identified as a poor prognostic indicator of illness course. Given the clinical implications of anger in major depressive disorder (MDD), understanding the mechanisms involved in anger reactivity and persistence is critical for improved intervention. Biological processes involved in emotion regulation during stress, such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), may play a role in maintaining negative moods. Clinically depressed (MDD; n = 49) and nondepressed (non-MDD; n = 50) individuals were challenged with a stressful computer task shown to increase anger, while RSA (high frequency range 0...
October 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362791/attention-bias-dynamics-and-symptom-severity-during-and-following-cbt-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#16
Michelle L Davis, David Rosenfield, Amit Bernstein, Ariel Zvielli, Andrea Reinecke, Christopher G Beevers, Ernst H W Koster, Jasper A J Smits
OBJECTIVE: Threat-related attention bias figures prominently in contemporary accounts of the maintenance of anxiety disorders, yet longitudinal intervention research relating attention bias to anxiety symptom severity is limited. Capitalizing on recent advances in the conceptualization and measurement of attention bias, we aimed to examine the relation between attention bias, indexed using trial-level bias scores (TLBSs) to quantify temporal dynamics reflecting dysregulation of attentional processing of threat (as opposed to aggregated mean bias scores) and social anxiety symptom severity over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and 1-month follow-up...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362783/air-pollution-and-subtypes-severity-and-vulnerability-to-ischemic-stroke-a-population-based-case-crossover-study
#17
Ravi Maheswaran, Tim Pearson, Sean D Beevers, Michael J Campbell, Charles D Wolfe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few studies have examined the association between air pollutants and ischemic stroke subtypes. We examined acute effects of outdoor air pollutants (PM10, NO2, O3, CO, SO2) on subtypes and severity of incident ischemic stroke and investigated if pre-existing risk factors increased susceptibility. METHODS: We used a time stratified case-crossover study and stroke cases from the South London Stroke Register set up to capture all incident cases of first ever stroke occurring amongst residents in a geographically defined area...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343184/traffic-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-cardiorespiratory-outcomes-in-an-adult-cohort-in-london
#18
I M Carey, H R Anderson, R W Atkinson, S Beevers, D G Cook, D Dajnak, J Gulliver, F J Kelly
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiological evidence for adverse health effects of long-term exposure to air and noise pollution from traffic is not coherent. Further, the relative roles of background versus near traffic pollution concentrations in this process are unclear. We investigated relationships between modelled concentrations of air and noise pollution from traffic and incident cardiorespiratory disease in London. METHODS: Among 211 016 adults aged 40-79 years registered in 75 Greater London practices between 2005 and 2011, the first diagnosis for a range of cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were identified from primary care and hospital records...
December 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314857/global-associations-between-air-pollutants-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-hospitalizations-a-systematic-review
#19
Elizabeth Moore, Lia Chatzidiakou, Moyosore-Oluwa Kuku, Roderic L Jones, Liam Smeeth, Sean Beevers, Frank J Kelly, Benjamin Barratt, Jennifer Quint
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations are key events in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), affecting lung function decline and quality of life. The effect of exposure to different air pollutants on COPD exacerbations is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To carry out a systematic review examining associations between air pollutants and hospital admissions for COPD exacerbations. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS & Science Citation Index, and the Air Pollution Epidemiology Database were searched from 1980 until September 2015...
June 17, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295599/associations-between-exhaust-and-non-exhaust-particulate-matter-and-stroke-incidence-by-stroke-subtype-in-south-london
#20
Siobhan Crichton, Benjamin Barratt, Anastassia Spiridou, Uy Hoang, Shao Fen Liang, Yevgeniya Kovalchuk, Sean D Beevers, Frank J Kelly, Brendan Delaney, Charles DA Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Airborne particulate matter (PM) consists of particles from diverse sources, including vehicle exhausts. Associations between short-term PM changes and stroke incidence have been shown. Cumulative exposures over several months, or years, are less well studied; few studies examined ischaemic subtypes or PM source. AIMS: This study combines a high resolution urban air quality model with a population-based stroke register to explore associations between long-term exposure to PM and stroke incidence...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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