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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225668/advanced-image-enhancement-method-for-distant-vessels-and-structures-in-capsule-endoscopy
#1
Olivier Rukundo, Marius Pedersen, Øistein Hovde
This paper proposes an advanced method for contrast enhancement of capsule endoscopic images, with the main objective to obtain sufficient information about the vessels and structures in more distant (or darker) parts of capsule endoscopic images. The proposed method (PM) combines two algorithms for the enhancement of darker and brighter areas of capsule endoscopic images, respectively. The half-unit weighted-bilinear algorithm (HWB) proposed in our previous work is used to enhance darker areas according to the darker map content of its HSV's component V...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224963/meeting-report-initial-world-health-organization-consultation-on-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-vaccine-preferred-product-characteristics-march-2017
#2
Sami L Gottlieb, Birgitte K Giersing, Julian Hickling, Rebecca Jones, Carolyn Deal, David C Kaslow
The development of vaccines against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important global goal for sexual and reproductive health. A key priority to advance development of HSV vaccines is the definition of preferred product characteristics (PPCs), which provide strategic guidance on World Health Organization (WHO) preferences for new vaccines, specifically from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) perspective. To start the PPC process for HSV vaccines, the WHO convened a global stakeholder consultation in March 2017, to define the priority public health needs that should be addressed by HSV vaccines and discuss the key considerations for HSV vaccine PPCs, particularly for LMICs...
December 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223580/modeling-hiv-disease-progression-and-transmission-at-population-level-the-potential-impact-of-modifying-disease-progression-in-hiv-treatment-programs
#3
Jennifer M Ross, Roger Ying, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Katherine K Thomas, Pamela M Murnane, Heidi van Rooyen, James P Hughes, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models that incorporate HIV disease progression dynamics can estimate the potential impact of strategies that delay HIV disease progression and reduce infectiousness for persons not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Suppressive treatment of HIV-positive persons co-infected with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) with valacyclovir, an HSV-2 antiviral, can lower HIV viral load, but the impact of partially-suppressive valacyclovir relative to fully-suppressive ART on population HIV transmission has not been estimated...
December 5, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223449/anti-hsv-2-activity-of-peganum-harmala-l-and-isolation-of-the-active-compound
#4
Roudaina Benzekri, Lamjed Bouslama, Adele Papetti, Majdi Hammami, Abderrazak Smaoui, Ferid Limam
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir (ACV) are the usual therapy for treating HSV infection. However, the overuse of this drug has led to the emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new alternative or complementary molecules to overcome this obstacle is needed. In this objective, Peganum harmala was investigated for its HSV-2 activity. The organic extracts of the different plant organs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on Vero cells by the MTT test and anti HSV-2 activity by plaque reduction assay...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221652/-acyclovir-resistant-perineal-hsv-infection-revealing-chronic-lymphoid-leukaemia
#5
E A Casassa, P Nicol, R Viraben, C Gaudin, C Bulai Livideanu, C Mengelle, L Lamant, F Fortenfant, C Paul, M P Konstantinou
BACKGROUND: Chronic HSV infection is a cause of chronic perineal ulcerations. We report a case of a chronic and refractory HSV infection revealing chronic lymphoid leukaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An 85-year-old woman with an 8-month history of chronic perineal ulcerations was referred to our dermatology department. She had no previous medical history of herpes infection. Skin biopsies ruled out carcinoma but were consistent with HSV infection. A local swab was positive for HSV2...
December 5, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219053/triazolopyrimidines-and-thiazolopyrimidines-synthesis-anti-hsv-1-cytotoxicity-and-mechanism-of-action
#6
Salwa F Mohamed, Eman M H Abbas, Hemat S Khalaf, Thoraya A Farghaly, Dina N Abd El-Shafy
Merged pyrimidine derivatives were designed by one pot synthesis of pyrimidinethione derivative with halogenated compounds. The structure of all prepared compounds was characterized by their spectroscopic data and also, their ability to inhibit the in vitro replication of HSV-1 was estimated. Amongst the tested compounds 2-acetyl-3-methyl-5-(p-tolyl)indeno[1,2-d]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-6(5H)-one (9b) and ethyl 3-methyl-6-oxo-5-(p-tolyl)-5,6-dihydroindeno[1,2-d]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-2-carboxylate (9c), caused viral inhibition over 90%...
December 7, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217682/overexpression-of-the-histone-dimethyltransferase-g9a-in-nucleus-accumbens-shell-increases-cocaine-self-administration-stress-induced-reinstatement-and-anxiety
#7
Ethan M Anderson, Erin B Larson, Daniel Guzman, Anne Marie Wissman, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, David W Self
Repeated exposure to cocaine induces lasting epigenetic changes in neurons that promote the development and persistence of addiction. One epigenetic alteration involves reductions in levels of the histone dimethyltransferase, G9a, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after chronic cocaine administration. This reduction in G9a may enhance cocaine reward since overexpressing G9a in the NAc decreases cocaine-conditioned place preference. Thus, we hypothesized that HSV-mediated G9a overexpression in the NAc shell (NAcSh) would attenuate cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216761/efficient-therapeutic-protein-expression-using-retroviral-replicating-vector-with-2a-peptide-in-cancer-models
#8
Andrew Hofacre, Kader Yagiz, Daniel Mendoza, Fernando Lopez Espinoza, Anthony Munday, Cindy Burrascano, Oded Singer, Harry Gruber, Doug Jolly, Amy Lin
Toca 511, a retroviral replicating vector (RRV), uses an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) to express an optimized yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD2), which converts 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil. This configuration is genetically stable in both preclinical mouse models and human clinical trials. However, the use of IRES (~ 600 bp) restricts choices of therapeutic transgenes due to limits in RRV genome size. In this study, we replaced IRES with 2A peptides derived from picornaviruses with or without a GSG linker...
December 7, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216507/chimeric-hcmv-hsv-1-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-134-5-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-elicit-immune-mediated-antigliomal-effect-and-antitumor-memory
#9
Mohammed G Ghonime, Josh Jackson, Amish Shah, Justin Roth, Mao Li, Ute Saunders, Jennifer Coleman, G Yancey Gillespie, James M Markert, Kevin A Cassady
Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor and are characterized by rapid and highly invasive growth. Because of their poor prognosis, new therapeutic strategies are needed. Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is a promising strategy for treating cancer that incorporates both direct viral replication mediated and immune mediated mechanisms to kill tumor cells. C134 is a next generation Δγ134.5 oHSV-1 with improved intratumoral viral replication. It remains safe in the CNS environment by inducing early IFN signaling which restricts its replication in non-malignant cells...
December 4, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216362/an-hsv-2-single-cycle-candidate-vaccine-deleted-in-glycoprotein-d-%C3%AE-gd-2-protects-male-mice-from-lethal-skin-challenge-with-clinical-isolates-of-hsv-1-and-hsv-2
#10
Clare Burn, Natalie Ramsey, Scott J Garforth, Steven Almo, William R Jacobs, Betsy C Herold
HSV infections manifest as recurrent oral or genital mucosal lesions, meningoencephalitis, corneal blindness and perinatal disease. Subunit vaccines have advanced into the clinic without success. None were tested preclinically in male mice. We compared a single-cycle candidate vaccine deleted in HSV-2 glycoprotein D (ΔgD-2) and subunit gD-2 or gD-1 protein vaccines in a male murine skin model. ΔgD-2 provided complete protection against 10-times the lethal dose of HSV-1 or HSV-2 clinical isolates and no latent virus was detected, whereas gD-1 and gD-2 adjuvanted proteins provided little or no protection...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216315/the-pul37-tegument-protein-guides-alpha-herpesvirus-retrograde-axonal-transport-to-promote-neuroinvasion
#11
Alexsia L Richards, Patricia J Sollars, Jared D Pitts, Austin M Stults, Ekaterina E Heldwein, Gary E Pickard, Gregory A Smith
A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214036/strong-viral-associations-with-sle-among-filipinos
#12
Evan S Vista, Michael H Weisman, Mariko L Ishimori, Hua Chen, Rebecka L Bourn, Ben F Bruner, Laniyati Hamijoyo, Robelle D Tanangunan, Noga J Gal, Julie M Robertson, John B Harley, Joel M Guthridge, Sandra V Navarra, Judith A James
Objectives: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered an important environmental factor in SLE aetiology, but the relationship between SLE and EBV in the Filipino population is unknown. We tested associations between SLE, lupus-associated autoantibodies and seropositivity for EBV and other herpes viruses in the Filipino population. Methods: Sera from Filipino patients with SLE (n=233), unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs, n=543) and unrelated controls (n=221) were tested for antibodies against EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) by standardised ELISAs...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213157/immunotherapy-and-gene-therapy-as-novel-treatments-for-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Martha Montserrat Rangel-Sosa, Estuardo Aguilar-Córdova, Augusto Rojas-Martínez
The immune system interacts closely with tumors during the disease development and progression to metastasis. The complex communication between the immune system and the tumor cells can prevent or promote tumor growth. New therapeutic approaches harnessing protective immunological mechanisms have recently shown very promising results. This is performed by blocking inhibitory signals or by activating immunological effector cells directly. Immune checkpoint blockade with monoclonal antibodies directed against the inhibitory immune receptors CTLA-4 and PD-1 has emerged as a successful treatment approach for patients with advanced melanoma...
September 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209488/education-early-screening-and-treatment-of-stis-could-reduce-infertility-among-women-in-kenya
#14
EDITORIAL
S M Musundi
In Kenya, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis and trichomoniasis tend to be prevalent, especially in women. Further, the research shows that women who test positive for STIs (other than HIV), have little knowledge of these infections. Of particular concern, is that there has been little attention on the part of government to educate the general public about STIs, yet these diseases can have devastating consequences on women's and men's health...
June 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207707/diagnostic-approach-to-viral-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-aes-in-paediatric-age-group-a-study-from-new-delhi
#15
Shipra Goel, Anita Chakravarti, Mukta Mantan, Surinder Kumar, Md Anzar Ashraf
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to 'known' causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206240/influence-of-an-immunodominant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-cd8-t-cell-epitope-on-the-target-hierarchy-and-function-of-subdominant-cd8-t-cells
#16
Benjamin R Treat, Sarah M Bidula, Srividya Ramachandran, Anthony J St Leger, Robert L Hendricks, Paul R Kinchington
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency in sensory ganglia such as trigeminal ganglia (TG) is associated with a persistent immune infiltrate that includes effector memory CD8+ T cells that can influence HSV-1 reactivation. In C57BL/6 mice, HSV-1 induces a highly skewed CD8+ T cell repertoire, in which half of CD8+ T cells (gB-CD8s) recognize a single epitope on glycoprotein B (gB498-505), while the remainder (non-gB-CD8s) recognize, in varying proportions, 19 subdominant epitopes on 12 viral proteins. The gB-CD8s remain functional in TG throughout latency, while non-gB-CD8s exhibit varying degrees of functional compromise...
December 4, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203577/hiv-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-epidemiological-synergy-misguided-observational-evidence-a-modelling-study
#17
Ryosuke Omori, Nico Nagelkerke, Laith J Abu-Raddad
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether observational studies of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections have the capacity to assess the HIV/HSV-2 epidemiological synergy. METHODS: An individual-based Monte Carlo model was used to simulate HIV/HSV-2 epidemics in two scenarios: no HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction and HSV-2 seropositivity enhancing HIV acquisition. Cross-sectional observational studies were simulated by sampling individuals from the population to assess resulting crude and adjusted ORs of the HIV/HSV-2 association...
December 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203273/the-traditional-use-of-vachellia-nilotica-for-sexually-transmitted-diseases-is-substantiated-by-the-antiviral-activity-of-its-bark-extract-against-sexually-transmitted-viruses
#18
Manuela Donalisio, Valeria Cagno, Andrea Civra, Davide Gibellini, Giuseppina Musumeci, Massimo Rittà, Manik Ghosh, David Lembo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199445/analysis-of-the-auditory-feedback-and-phonation-in-normal-voices
#19
Mareike Arbeiter, Simon Petermann, Ulrich Hoppe, Christopher Bohr, Michael Doellinger, Anke Ziethe
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the auditory feedback mechanisms and voice quality during phonation in response to a spontaneous pitch change in the auditory feedback. Does the pitch shift reflex (PSR) change voice pitch and voice quality? Quantitative and qualitative voice characteristics were analyzed during the PSR. METHOD: Twenty-eight healthy subjects underwent transnasal high-speed video endoscopy (HSV) at 8000 fps during sustained phonation [a]...
December 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198810/short-duration-ocular-iontophoresis-of-ionizable-aciclovir-prodrugs-a-new-approach-to-treat-herpes-simplex-infections-in-the-anterior-and-posterior-segments-of-the-eye
#20
Yong Chen, Yogeshvar N Kalia
The objective was to investigate (trans)corneal and transscleral iontophoresis of biolabile amino acid ester prodrugs of aciclovir (ACV-X, X = Arg, Gly and Trp) as a means to increase ocular bioavailability of ACV. Prodrugs displayed tissue-dependent susceptibility to hydrolysis. Iontophoresis of ACV-Arg, ACV-Gly and ACV-Trp (5 mM, 0.5 mA/cm2) for 5 min followed by 55 min passive diffusion resulted in appreciable corneal deposition (21.5 ± 5.1, 14.1 ± 2.0 and 5.3 ± 0.6 nmol/cm2, respectively) and transcorneal permeation (13...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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