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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821230/seroprevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-among-pregnant-women-who-participated-in-a-national-hiv-surveillance-activity-in-haiti
#1
Jean Wysler Domercant, Frantz Jean Louis, Erin Hulland, Mark Griswold, Jocelyne Andre-Alboth, Tun Ye, Barbara J Marston
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), one the most common causes of genital ulcers, appears to increase both the risk of HIV acquisition and HIV transmission. HSV-2/HIV co-infection among pregnant women may increase the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV. This study describes rates of HSV-2 among pregnant women in Haiti and HSV-2 test performance in this population. METHODS: Unlinked residual serum specimens from the 2012 National HIV and Syphilis Sentinel Surveillance Survey among pregnant women in Haiti were tested using two commercial kits (Focus HerpeSelect, Kalon) for HSV-2 antibodies...
August 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819683/an-iphone-application-using-a-novel-stool-color-detection-algorithm-for-biliary-atresia-screening
#2
Eri Hoshino, Kuniyoshi Hayashi, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Masayuki Obatake, Kevin Y Urayama, Satoshi Nakano, Yasuyuki Taura, Masaki Nio, Osamu Takahashi
BACKGROUND: The stool color card has been the primary tool for identifying acholic stools in infants with biliary atresia (BA), in several countries. However, BA stools are not always acholic, as obliteration of the bile duct occurs gradually. This study aims to introduce Baby Poop (Baby unchi in Japanese), a free iPhone application, employing a detection algorithm to capture subtle differences in colors, even with non-acholic BA stools. METHODS: The application is designed for use by caregivers of infants aged approximately 2 weeks-1 month...
August 17, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817197/estimating-seroprevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-among-different-middle-east-and-north-african-male-populations-residing-in-qatar
#3
Gheyath K Nasrallah, Soha R Dargham, Layla I Mohammed, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: HSV-1 epidemiology in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to measure HSV-1 antibody prevalence (seroprevalence) and its age-distribution among select MENA populations residing in Qatar. METHODS: Sera were collected from male blood donors attending Hamad Medical Corporation 2013-2015. A total of 2,077 sera were tested for anti-HSV-1 antibodies using HerpeSelect® 1 ELISA IgG kits (Focus Diagnostics, USA)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812996/reliable-detection-of-herpes-simplex-virus-sequence-variation-by-high-throughput-resequencing
#4
Alison M Morse, Kaitlyn R Calabro, Justin M Fear, David C Bloom, Lauren M McIntyre
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has resulted in data for a number of herpes simplex virus (HSV) laboratory strains and clinical isolates. The knowledge of these sequences has been critical for investigating viral pathogenicity. However, the assembly of complete herpesviral genomes, including HSV, is complicated due to the existence of large repeat regions and arrays of smaller reiterated sequences that are commonly found in these genomes. In addition, the inherent genetic variation in populations of isolates for viruses and other microorganisms presents an additional challenge to many existing HTS sequence assembly pipelines...
August 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811345/inhibitors-of-the-histone-methyltransferases-ezh2-1-induce-a-potent-antiviral-state-and-suppress-infection-by-diverse-viral-pathogens
#5
Jesse H Arbuckle, Paul J Gardina, David N Gordon, Heather D Hickman, Jonathan W Yewdell, Theodore C Pierson, Timothy G Myers, Thomas M Kristie
Epigenetic regulation is based on a network of complexes that modulate the chromatin character and structure of the genome to impact gene expression, cell fate, and development. Thus, epigenetic modulators represent novel therapeutic targets used to treat a range of diseases, including malignancies. Infectious pathogens such as herpesviruses are also regulated by cellular epigenetic machinery, and epigenetic therapeutics represent a novel approach used to control infection, persistence, and the resulting recurrent disease...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809154/interaction-between-herpesvirus-entry-mediator-and-hsv-2-glycoproteins-mediates-hiv-1-entry-of-hsv-2-infected-epithelial-cells
#6
Kai Hu, Siyi He, Juhua Xiao, Mei Li, Sukun Luo, Mudan Zhang, Qinxue Hu
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and transmission via unclear mechanisms. Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), an HSV-2 entry receptor, is highly expressed on HIV-1 target cells (CD4+ T cells) and may be incorporated into HIV-1 virions, while HSV-2 glycoproteins can be present on the infected cell surface. Since HVEM-gD interaction together with gB/gH/gL is essential for HSV-2 entry, HVEM-bearing HIV-1 (HIV-1/HVEM) may enter HSV-2-infected cells through such interactions...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807852/extracts-of-equisetum-giganteum-l-and-copaifera-reticulate-ducke-show-strong-antiviral-activity-against-the-sexually-transmitted-pathogen-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2
#7
Marianela Patzi Churqui, Liza Lind, Karolina Thörn, Alexandra Svensson, Otto Savolainen, Katty Terrazas Aranda, Kristina Eriksson
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke have been traditionally used by women of the Tacana tribe in the Bolivian Amazonas for genital hygiene and for treatment of genital infection/inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the ability of extracts from Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke to block genital viral infection by herpes simplex virus type 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke were collected from the Amazon region of La Paz, Bolivia...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802185/diagnostic-yield-and-clinical-impact-of-routine-cell-culture-for-respiratory-viruses-among-children-with-a-negative-multiplex-rt-pcr-result
#8
M AlGhounaim, Y Xiao, C Caya, J Papenburg
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the reference standard for respiratory virus testing. However, cell culture may still have added value in identifying viruses not detected by PCR. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the yield and clinical impact of routine respiratory virus culture among children with a negative PCR result. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was performed from Jan. 2013 to Sept. 2015. Respiratory samples from hospitalized or immunocompromised patients <18years old were routinely inoculated on traditional tube cell culture monolayers if they tested negative by a PCR assay for 12 respiratory viruses...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801835/fabrication-of-acyclovir-loaded-flexible-membrane-vesicles-fmvs-evidence-of-preclinical-efficacy-of-antiviral-activity-in-murine-model-of-cutaneous-hsv-1-infection
#9
Gajanand Sharma, Kanika Thakur, Arvind Setia, Basant Amarji, Mini P Singh, Kaisar Raza, Om Prakash Katare
The present investigation focuses on the development and evaluation of acyclovir-loaded flexible membrane vesicles (ACY-FMVs) and evaluates their targeting potential to localize the drug into skin layers. The drug-loaded FMVs were prepared by thin-film hydration method and characterized for various attributes including micromeritics, entrapment efficiency, vesicle shape, size, and degree of deformability. The values of particle size and zeta potential of the developed carrier system were found to be 453.7 nm and - 11...
August 11, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801631/rhodoterpenoids-a%C3%A2-c-three-new-rearranged-triterpenoids-from-rhododendron-latoucheae-by-hplc%C3%A2-ms%C3%A2-spe%C3%A2-nmr
#10
Fei Liu, Ya-Nan Wang, Yong Li, Shuang-Gang Ma, Jing Qu, Yun-Bao Liu, Chang-Shan Niu, Zhong-Hai Tang, Tian-Tai Zhang, Yu-Huan Li, Li Li, Shi-Shan Yu
Rhodoterpenoids A‒C (1‒3), three new rearranged triterpenoids, together with one new biogenetically related compound, rhodoterpenoid D (4), were isolated and efficiently elucidated from Rhododendron latoucheae by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance (HPLC‒MS‒SPE‒NMR). Compounds 1 and 2 possess an unprecedented skeleton with a 5/7/6/6/6-fused pentacyclic ring system, while compound 3 contains a unique 6/7/6/6/6-fused pentacyclic carbon backbone...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797967/multipurpose-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-electrospun-fibers-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-1-and-hsv-2-infections-in-vitro
#11
Kevin M Tyo, Hung R Vuong, Danial A Malik, Lee B Sims, Houda Alatassi, Jinghua Duan, Walter H Watson, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. While current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. To address these needs, we created electrospun fibers (EFs) comprised of FDA-approved polymers, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), to provide sustained-release and in vitro protection against HIV-1 and HSV-2...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794045/pseudorabies-virus-dutpase-ul50-induces-lysosomal-degradation-of-type-i-interferon-receptor-1-and-antagonizes-the-alpha-interferon-response
#12
Rui Zhang, Aotian Xu, Chao Qin, Qiong Zhang, Shifan Chen, Yue Lang, Mengdong Wang, Chuang Li, Wenhai Feng, Rui Zhang, Zhengfan Jiang, Jun Tang
Alphaherpesviruses that establish persistent infection partly rely on their ability to evade host anti-viral responses, notably, the type I interferon (IFN) response. However, the mechanisms employed by alphaherpesviruses to avoid this response are not well understood. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an economically important pathogen and a useful model system to study alphaherpesvirus biology. To identify PRV proteins that antagonize type I IFN signaling, we performed a screen using an IFN-stimulated response element reporter in the swine cell line CRL...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794039/the-ul21-tegument-protein-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-is-differentially-required-for-the-syncytial-phenotype
#13
Akua Sarfo, Jason Starkey, Erica Mellinger, Dan Zhang, Pooja Chadha, Jillian Carmichael, John W Wills
The initial goal of this study was to re-examine the requirement of UL21 for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication. Previous studies suggested that UL21 is dispensable for replication in cell cultures, but a recent report on HSV-2 challenges those findings. As was done for the HSV-2 study, a UL21-null virus was made and propagated on complementing cells to discourage selection of compensating mutations. This HSV-1 mutant was able to replicate in non-complementing cells, even at a low MOI, though a reduction in titer was observed...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783746/identification-of-unique-b-virus-macacine-herpesvirus-1-epitopes-of-zoonotic-and-macaque-isolates-using-monoclonal-antibodies
#14
David Katz, Wei Shi, Manjunath S Gowda, Mugdha Vasireddi, Irina Patrusheva, Hyuk-Kyu Seoh, Chadi N Filfili, Martin J Wildes, Jay Oh, Julia K Hilliard
Our overall aim is to develop epitope-based assays for accurate differential diagnosis of B virus zoonotic infections in humans. Antibodies to cross-reacting epitopes on human-simplexviruses continue to confound the interpretation of current assays where abundant antibodies exist from previous infections with HSV types 1 and 2. To find B virus-specific epitopes we cloned ten monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the hybridomas we produced. Our unique collection of rare human sera from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients infected with B virus was key to the evaluation and identification of the mAbs as reagents in competition ELISAs (mAb-CE)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783105/viral-ubiquitin-ligase-stimulates-selective-host-microrna-expression-by-targeting-zeb-transcriptional-repressors
#15
Gabriel Lutz, Igor Jurak, Eui Tae Kim, Ju Youn Kim, Michael Hackenberg, Andrew Leader, Michelle L Stoller, Donna M Fekete, Matthew D Weitzman, Donald M Coen, Angus C Wilson
Infection with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) brings numerous changes in cellular gene expression. Levels of most host mRNAs are reduced, limiting synthesis of host proteins, especially those involved in antiviral defenses. The impact of HSV-1 on host microRNAs (miRNAs), an extensive network of short non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability/translation, remains largely unexplored. Here we show that transcription of the miR-183 cluster (miR-183, miR-96, and miR-182) is selectively induced by HSV-1 during productive infection of primary fibroblasts and neurons...
August 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780467/in-vitro-schistosomicidal-and-antiviral-activities-of-arctium-lappa-l-asteraceae-against-schistosoma-mansoni-and-herpes-simplex-virus-1
#16
Mirna Meana Dias, Ohana Zuza, Lorena R Riani, Priscila de Faria Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva Pinto, Marcos P Silva, Josué de Moraes, Ana Caroline Z Ataíde, Fernanda de Oliveira Silva, Alzira Batista Cecílio, Ademar A Da Silva Filho
Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H2O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A...
August 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771693/herpes-simplex-virus-1-interferes-with-autophagy-of-murine-dendritic-cells-and-impairs-their-ability-to-stimulate-cd8-t-lymphocytes
#17
Ramachandramouli Budida, Metodi V Stankov, Katinka Döhner, Anna Buch, Diana Panayotova-Dimitrova, Kim A Tappe, Anja Pohlmann, Beate Sodeik, Georg M N Behrens
The MHC class I presentation is responsible for the presentation of viral proteins to CD8(+) T lymphocytes and mainly depends on the classical antigen processing pathway. Recently, a second pathway involving autophagy has been implicated in this process. Here, we show an increase in the capacity of murine dendritic cells to present viral antigens on MHC class I after infection with a mutant herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1-Δ34.5), lacking ICP34.5, when compared to its parental HSV-1 strain. The ICP34.5 protein counteracts host cell translational arrest and suppresses macroautophagy, and the lack of this protein resulted in a low viral protein abundance, which was processed and presented in an efficient way...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768862/crystal-structure-of-the-n-terminal-half-of-the-traffic-controller-ul37-from-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1
#18
Andrea L Koenigsberg, Ekaterina E Heldwein
Inner tegument protein UL37 is conserved among all three subfamilies of herpesviruses. Studies of UL37 homologs from two alphaherpesviruses, Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), have suggested that UL37 plays an essential albeit poorly defined role in intracellular capsid trafficking. At the same time, HSV and PRV homologs cannot be swapped, which suggests that in addition to a conserved function, UL37 homologs may also have divergent virus-specific functions. Accurate dissection of UL37 functions requires detailed maps in the form of atomic-resolution structures...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768727/manipulating-glucose-metabolism-during-different-stages-of-viral-pathogenesis-can-have-either-detrimental-or-beneficial-effects
#19
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Dallas Donohoe, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Barry T Rouse
This report deals with physiological changes and their implication following ocular infection with HSV. This infection usually results in a blinding inflammatory reaction in the cornea, orchestrated mainly by proinflammatory CD4 T cells and constrained in severity by regulatory T cells. In the present report, we make the unexpected finding that blood glucose levels change significantly during the course of infection. Whereas levels remained normal during the early phase of infection when the virus was actively replicating in the cornea, they increased around 2-fold during the time when inflammatory responses to the virus was occurring...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765144/comparing-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-different-aetiologies-of-infectious-necrotising-retinitis
#20
Alessandro Invernizzi, Aniruddha Kishandutt Agarwal, Vittoria Ravera, Chiara Mapelli, Agostino Riva, Giovanni Staurenghi, Peter J McCluskey, Francesco Viola
AIMS: To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of active necrotising infectious retinitis (NIR) due to toxoplasmosis or herpesviruses and to determine distinctive OCT signs for these two causes of infectious retinitis. METHODS: OCT scans from eyes with active NIR due to varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis (TOXO) were reviewed. All images were evaluated for the presence of previously described OCT findings in TOXO-NIR and compared with the viral group...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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