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Joshua M Abzug, Karan Dua, Andrea Sesko Bauer, Roger Cornwall, Theresa O Wyrick
Phalangeal fractures are the most common type of hand fracture that occurs in the pediatric population and account for the second highest number of emergency department visits for fractures in the United States. The incidence of phalangeal fractures is the highest in children aged 10 to 14 years, which coincides with the time that most children begin playing contact sports. Younger children are more likely to sustain a phalangeal fracture in the home setting as a result of crush and laceration injuries. Salter-Harris type II fractures of the proximal phalanx are the most common type of finger fracture...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Satoru Koyanagi, Naoki Kusunose, Marie Taniguchi, Takahiro Akamine, Yuki Kanado, Yui Ozono, Takahiro Masuda, Yuta Kohro, Naoya Matsunaga, Makoto Tsuda, Michael W Salter, Kazuhide Inoue, Shigehiro Ohdo
Diurnal variations in pain hypersensitivity are common in chronic pain disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are enigmatic. Here, we report that mechanical pain hypersensitivity in sciatic nerve-injured mice shows pronounced diurnal alterations, which critically depend on diurnal variations in glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. Diurnal enhancement of pain hypersensitivity is mediated by glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of the extracellular release of ATP in the spinal cord, which stimulates purinergic receptors on microglia in the dorsal horn...
October 14, 2016: Nature Communications
Hai-Yun Xiao, Scott H Watterson, Charles M Langevine, Anurag S Srivastava, Soo S Ko, Yanlei Zhang, Robert Joseph Cherney, Weiwei Guo, John L Gilmore, James E Sheppeck, Dauh-Rurng Wu, Peng Li, Duraisamy Ramasamy, Pirama Nayagam Arunachalam, Arvind Mathur, Tracy L Taylor, David J Shuster, Kim W McIntyre, Ding Ren Shen, Melissa Yarde, Mary Ellen Cvijic, Anthony M Marino, Praveen V Balimane, Zheng Yang, Dana M Banas, Georgia Cornelius, Celia J D Arienzo, Bethanne M Warrack, Lois D Lehman-McKeeman, Luisa M Salter-Cid, Jenny H Xie, Joel C Barrish, Percy H Carter, Alaric J Dyckman, T G Murali Dhar
Fingolimod (1) is the first approved oral therapy for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. While the phosphorylated metabolite of fingolimod was found to be a non-selective S1P receptor agonist, agonism specifically of S1P1 is responsible for the peripheral blood lymphopenia believed to be key to its efficacy. Identification of modulators that maintain activity on S1P1 while sparing activity on other S1P receptors could offer equivalent efficacy with reduced liabilities. We disclose in this paper a ligand based drug design approach that led to the discovery of a series of potent tricyclic agonists of S1P1 with selectivity over S1P3 and were efficacious in a pharmacodynamic model of suppression of circulating lymphocytes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yi Chen, Laurel S Burall, Yan Luo, Ruth Timme, David Melka, Tim Muruvanda, Justin Payne, Charles Wang, George Kastanis, Anna Maounounen-Laasri, Antonio J De Jesus, Phillip E Curry, Robert Stones, Okumu KAluoch, Eileen Liu, Monique Salter, Thomas S Hammack, Peter S Evans, Mickey Parish, Marc W Allard, Atin Datta, Errol A Strain, Eric W Brown
: In 2014, identification of stone fruits contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes led to the subsequent identification of a multistate outbreak. Simultaneous detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes was performed on 105 fruits, each weighing 127 to 145 g, collected from 7 contaminated lots. The results showed that 53.3% of the fruits yielded L. monocytogenes (lower limit of detection, 5 colony-forming units [CFU]/fruit) and the levels ranged from 5 to 2,850 CFU/fruit with a geometric mean of 10...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rebecca C Salter, Pelagia Foka, Thomas S Davies, Hayley Gallagher, Daryn R Michael, Tim G Ashlin, Dipak P Ramji
The anti-atherogenic cytokine TGF-β inhibits macrophage foam cell formation by suppressing the expression of key genes implicated in the uptake of modified lipoproteins. We have previously shown a critical role for p38 MAPK and JNK in the TGF-β-mediated regulation of apolipoprotein E expression in human monocytes. However, the roles of these two MAPK pathways in the control of expression of key genes involved in the uptake of modified lipoproteins in human macrophages is poorly understood and formed the focus of this study...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
G Watson, N Salter, J Ryan
Revised guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothoraces were published by the British Thoracic Society in 2010, however compliance remains poor. A retrospective review was performed on patients diagnosed with a pneumothorax over a 26 month period (January 2012 to March 2014). Of the 57 patients identified, 43 (75%) were diagnosed with spontaneous pneumothorax. 12 patients (21%) had pre-existing lung disease, and 16 patients (28%) admitted to having had a previously documented pneumothorax. 19 patients (33%) were reported as smokers...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Wei Tang, Steven G Smith, Brittany Salter, John Paul Oliveria, Patrick Mitchell, Graeme M Nusca, Karen Howie, Gail M Gauvreau, Paul M O'Byrne, Roma Sehmi
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-25 plays a pivotal role in type 2 immune responses. In a baseline cross-sectional study, we previously showed that IL-25 plasma levels and IL-25 receptor (IL-25R: IL-17RA, IL-17RB, and IL-17RA/RB) expression on mature blood eosinophils are increased in atopic asthmatics compared to normal nonatopic controls. This study investigated allergen-induced changes in IL-25 and IL-25R expression in eosinophils from asthmatics. METHODS: Dual responder atopic asthmatics (n = 14) were enrolled in this randomized diluent-controlled crossover allergen challenge study...
September 30, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Jamilia J Blake, Verna M Keith, Wen Luo, Huong Le, Phia Salter
African American female students' elevated suspension risk has received national attention. Despite a number of studies documenting racial/ethnic disparities in African American females' school suspension risk, few investigations have attempted to explain why these disparities occur. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of colorism in explaining suspension risk using a nationally representative sample of adolescent females. Controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics associated with school discipline such as student-teacher relationships, prior discipline history, school size and type, the results indicate that colorism was a significant predictor of school suspension risk...
September 29, 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
Guoqiao Wang, Gary R Cutter, Stacey S Cofield, Fred Lublin, Jerry S Wolinsky, Tarah Gustafson, Stephen Krieger, Amber Salter
BACKGROUND: In randomized clinical trials, when treatments do not work equally effectively across stratifications of participants, observed event rates may differ from those hypothesized leading to deviations in estimated power. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of distributions of baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) proportions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) on the trial outcome, confirmed disability progression rate (CDPR), and power...
September 28, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Ilhan A Bayhan, Kubilay Beng, Timur Yildirim, Evren Akpinar, Cagri Ozcan, Firat Yagmurlu
The aim of this study was to compare the midterm clinical and radiological outcomes of the Salter osteotomy (SO) and Tonnis lateral acetabuloplasty (TLA) with concomitant open reduction for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Twenty-five hips of 20 patients who underwent SO with open reduction and 26 hips of 23 patients who underwent TLA with open reduction were evaluated retrospectively. The average age of the patients at the time of the operation was 35.6 months in the SO and 36.6 months in the TLA group, without a statistically significant difference (P=0...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
Wayne M Getz, Colin Carlson, Eric Dougherty, Travis C Porco Francis, Richard Salter
The winter 2014-15 measles outbreak in the US represents a significant crisis in the emergence of a functionally extirpated pathogen. Conclusively linking this outbreak to decreases in the measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccination rate (driven by anti-vaccine sentiment) is critical to motivating MMR vaccination. We used the NOVA modeling platform to build a stochastic, spatially-structured, individual-based SEIR model of outbreaks, under the assumption that R 0 ≈ 7 for measles. We show this implies that herd immunity requires vaccination coverage of greater than approximately 85%...
April 2016: Agent Dir Simul Symp
Candice M Todd, Brittany M Salter, Desmond M Murphy, Richard M Watson, Karen J Howie, Joanne Milot, Jonathan Sadeh, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Paul M O'Byrne, Gail M Gauvreau
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are effector cells recruited to airways in patients with asthma. Migration of neutrophils occurs predominantly through activation of the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors by CXC chemokines, including IL-8 and Gro-α. The dual CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist SCH 527123 has been developed to target neutrophil migration to alleviate airway neutrophilia. This study investigated the effects of SCH 527123 on neutrophil levels within the bone marrow, peripheral blood and airways, and on isolated bone marrow and peripheral blood neutrophil migration from mild allergic asthmatics...
September 14, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mark Swingle, Claude-Henry Volmar, S Adrian Saldanha, Peter Chase, Christina Eberhart, Edward A Salter, Brandon D'Arcy, Chad E Schroeder, Jennifer E Golden, Andrzej Wierzbicki, Peter Hodder, Richard E Honkanen
Although there has been substantial success in the development of specific inhibitors for protein kinases, little progress has been made in the identification of specific inhibitors for their protein phosphatase counterparts. Inhibitors of PP1 and PP5 are desired as probes for research and to test their potential for drug development. We developed and miniaturized (1536-well plate format) nearly identical homogeneous, fluorescence intensity (FLINT) enzymatic assays to detect inhibitors of PP1 or PP5. The assays were used in an ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) campaign, testing >315,000 small-molecule compounds...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Jenny L Donovan, Freddie C Hamdy, J Athene Lane, Malcolm Mason, Chris Metcalfe, Eleanor Walsh, Jane M Blazeby, Tim J Peters, Peter Holding, Susan Bonnington, Teresa Lennon, Lynne Bradshaw, Deborah Cooper, Phillipa Herbert, Joanne Howson, Amanda Jones, Norma Lyons, Elizabeth Salter, Pauline Thompson, Sarah Tidball, Jan Blaikie, Catherine Gray, Prasad Bollina, James Catto, Andrew Doble, Alan Doherty, David Gillatt, Roger Kockelbergh, Howard Kynaston, Alan Paul, Philip Powell, Stephen Prescott, Derek J Rosario, Edward Rowe, Michael Davis, Emma L Turner, Richard M Martin, David E Neal
Background Robust data on patient-reported outcome measures comparing treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer are lacking. We investigated the effects of active monitoring, radical prostatectomy, and radical radiotherapy with hormones on patient-reported outcomes. Methods We compared patient-reported outcomes among 1643 men in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial who completed questionnaires before diagnosis, at 6 and 12 months after randomization, and annually thereafter...
October 13, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Phia S Salter, Glenn Adams
A cultural-psychological analysis emphasizes the intentionality of everyday worlds: the idea that material products not only bear psychological traces of culturally constituted beliefs and desires, but also subsequently afford and promote culturally consistent understandings and actions. We applied this conceptual framework of mutual constitution in a research project using quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the dynamic resonance between sociocultural variance in Black History Month (BHM) representations and the reproduction of racial inequality in the U...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kate A Salters, Marina Irick, Aranka Anema, Wendy Zhang, Surita Parashar, Thomas L Patterson, Yalin Chen, Julian Somers, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
People living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) often concurrently cope with mental health disorders that may greatly influence HIV and other health-related outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported mental health disorder diagnosis among a cohort of harder-to-reach HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia, Canada. Between 2007 and 2010, 1000 PHA who had initiated ART were enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigation into Supportive and Ancillary health services (LISA) study...
September 9, 2016: AIDS Care
Elizabeth Scheid, Pierre Major, Alain Bergeron, Olivera J Finn, Russell D Salter, Robin Eady, Bader Yassine-Diab, David Favre, Yoav Peretz, Claire Landry, Sebastien Hotte, Som D Mukherjee, Gregory A Dekaban, Corby Fink, Paula J Foster, Jeffery Gaudet, Jean Gariepy, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Louis Lacombe, Yves Fradet, Ronan Foley
MUC1 is a glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of ductal epithelial cells. Malignant transformation results in loss of polarization and overexpression of hypoglycosylated MUC1 carrying truncated carbohydrates known as T or Tn tumor antigens. Tumor MUC1 bearing Tn carbohydrates (Tn-MUC1) represent a potential target for immunotherapy. We evaluated the Tn-MUC1 glycopeptide in a human phase I/II clinical trial for safety that followed a preclinical study of different glycosylation forms of MUC1 in rhesus macaques, whose MUC1 is highly homologous to human MUC1...
October 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Jillian C Shipherd, Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, Joanne Fordiani
Objective: Although intrusive cognition (IC) is remarkably common in soldiers postdeployment and successful coping with ICs may predict better long-term psychological health, few elements of current programmatic postdeployment trainings have directly addressed adaptive strategies for managing intrusive deployment-related cognitions. The current study explored the efficacy of a brief acceptance-based skills training for coping with ICs relative to a change-based skills training, a psychoeducation-only training, or training as usual...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Andreas M Kist, Dagrun Sagafos, Anthony M Rush, Cristian Neacsu, Esther Eberhardt, Roland Schmidt, Lars Kristian Lunden, Kristin Ørstavik, Luisa Kaluza, Jannis Meents, Zhiping Zhang, Thomas Hedley Carr, Hugh Salter, David Malinowsky, Patrik Wollberg, Johannes Krupp, Inge Petter Kleggetveit, Martin Schmelz, Ellen Jørum, Angelika Lampert, Barbara Namer
Gain-of-function mutations in the tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) Nav1.7 have been identified as a key mechanism underlying chronic pain in inherited erythromelalgia. Mutations in TTX resistant channels, such as Nav1.8 or Nav1.9, were recently connected with inherited chronic pain syndromes. Here, we investigated the effects of the p.M650K mutation in Nav1.8 in a 53 year old patient with erythromelalgia by microneurography and patch-clamp techniques. Recordings of the patient's peripheral nerve fibers showed increased activity dependent slowing (ADS) in CMi and less spontaneous firing compared to a control group of erythromelalgia patients without Nav mutations...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth Snyder, Aylin Tekes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
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