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acute hepatitis

Miriam Fritz, Benjamin Berger, Mathias Schemmerer, Dominique Endres, Jürgen J Wenzel, Oliver Stich, Marcus Panning
There is growing evidence that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can present with extrahepatic manifestations including neurological disorders. Among these, neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) has been reported to occur in some industrialized countries. We investigated 35 patients with NA and a control group for markers of HEV infection. Acute HEV infection was found in NA patients only and was associated with an inflammatory response in the central nervous system. Shedding of HEV RNA into the cerebrospinal fluid and intrathecal production of anti-HEV IgM occurred in one patient suggesting that HEV is neurotropic...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Bastian Ramms, Philip L S M Gordts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a key player in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism and strongly associated with elevated plasma triglyceride levels. Several new studies added important insights on apoC-III and its physiological function confirming its promise as a valid therapeutic target. RECENT FINDINGS: APOC3 is expressed in liver and intestine and regulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) catabolism and anabolism. The transcriptional regulation in both organs requires different regulatory elements...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Vinicius da Motta de Mello, Mariana Leal, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yuehong Li, Binbin Li, Wei Wang, Jiaxuan Lv
The aim of the present study was to analyze the risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients who have received a liver transplant. A total of 190 patients who underwent liver transplantation between March 2001 and January 2015 were followed up, and analyzed retrospectively. Sex, age, primary disease, preoperative laboratory findings (hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine and glomerular filtration rate), surgical approach, blood loss during the surgery and transfusion volume, postoperative complications, and the average levels of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) (from liver transplantation to the onset of CKD) were analyzed...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xueliang Yang, Yunru Chen, Jian Zhang, Tiantian Tang, Ying Kong, Feng Ye, Xi Zhang, Xiaojing Liu, Shumei Lin
The present study aimed to evaluate whether thymosin α1 (Tα1) increases survival rates through the improvement of immunofunction and inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). A total of 25 rats were randomly divided into the control group (CG), the model group (MG) and the treatment group (TG). The CG received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (2 ml). The ALF rat model was established by the intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (700 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (10 µg/kg)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Helena S Gouveia, Sílvia O Lopes, Ana Luísa Faria
Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a rare oncological emergency in solid tumours. Because it is associated with bad short-term prognosis, early recognition and treatment are mandatory. This case refers to a middle-aged woman who presented with stage IV colon cancer, with massive hepatic involvement. After three cycles of first-line FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin), she developed acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia that did not respond to standard measures. High suspicion of TLS prompted further corroborating investigations and early intensive care unit admission...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Salvatore Sutti, Frank Tacke
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a clinical challenge due to the poorly predictable outcomes. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been devoted to unravel the risk factors responsible for DILI worsening toward acute liver failure (ALF), liver transplantation (LT), and/or death. From a pathogenic point of view, exhaustion of drug metabolizing pathways, cell death mechanisms, activation of local immune cells, such as Kupffer cells, and recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes including monocytes and lymphocytes are key drivers of DILI progression...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Minghua Zheng, Jie Jiang, Xiao Zhang, Nan Wang, Kaihang Wang, Qiong Li, Tingting Li, Qingshan Lin, Yingbin Wang, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Jun Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is associated with acute hepatitis disease. Numerous truncated HEV capsid proteins have been successfully expressed using different expression systems. Among these, p495, a protein truncated at its N- and C-termini by 111 and 54 amino acids (aa), respectively (HEV ORF2 aa 112-606) can self-assemble into T = 1 virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed by insect cells. A shorter p239 (aa 368-606) protein is a particulate antigen that we have previously used in our commercialized HEV vaccine, Hecolin...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Verònica Gálvez, Adrienne Li, Christina Huggins, Paul Glue, Donel Martin, Andrew A Somogyi, Angelo Alonzo, Anthony Rodgers, Philip B Mitchell, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Ketamine research in depression has mostly used intravenous, weight-based approaches, which are difficult to translate clinically. Intranasal (IN) ketamine is a promising alternative but no controlled data has been published on the feasibility, safety and potential efficacy of repeated IN ketamine treatments. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study compared a 4-week course of eight treatments of 100 mg ketamine or 4.5 mg midazolam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Carlos Fritzsche, M Loebermann, E C Reisinger
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against hepatitis A virus infection is recommended for men who have sex with men and other risk groups. The protection offered by the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is comparable to that offered by the monovalent hepatitis A vaccine. CASE: A 38-year-old HIV-positive patient presented with right upper abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Serological work-up and detection of hepatitis A RNA in stool sample revealed an acute hepatitis A infection despite a previous complete vaccination with the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine...
March 14, 2018: Infection
Amey Dilip Sonavane, Sanjiv Saigal, Abhishek Kathuria, Narendra S Choudhary, Neeraj Saraf
Extrahepatic syndromes are uncommon manifestations of acute and chronic hepatitis B. The pathogenesis likely involves an aberrant immunologic response to extrahepatic viral proteins. Antiviral therapy reduces the availability of these viral protein antigens and thus halts immune activation. Approximately 1% of all cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are associated with hepatitis B. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a remarkably clinically diverse disorder with distinctive variants characterised by an immune-mediated attack to components of the peripheral nervous system...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Wen-Han Yu, Cormac Cosgrove, Christoph T Berger, Patrick C Cheney, Marina Krykbaeva, Arthur Y Kim, Lia Lewis-Ximenez, Georg M Lauer, Galit Alter
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Hasan Yuksekkaya, Meltem Gumus, Aylin Yucel, Meltem Energin, Serafettin Demirci
BACKGROUND: Mistaken ingestion of all manner of toxic matter is common in childhood, but poisoning with fireworks and matchsticks is rare. Fireworks usually contain 10% yellow phosphorus and 50% potassium chlorate. Potassium chlorate is an extremely reactive and toxic agent that is used in fireworks and matchstick heads. METHODS: Eleven cases (7 females and 5 males; median age, 36 months [ranging from 24 to 48 months]) of poisoning after ingestion of fireworks and matchstick(s), between February 2008 and June 2014, were reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Luděk Eyer, Radim Nencka, Erik de Clercq, Katherine Seley-Radtke, Daniel Růžek
Nucleoside analogs represent the largest class of small molecule-based antivirals, which currently form the backbone of chemotherapy of chronic infections caused by HIV, hepatitis B or C viruses, and herpes viruses. High antiviral potency and favorable pharmacokinetics parameters make some nucleoside analogs suitable also for the treatment of acute infections caused by other medically important RNA and DNA viruses. This review summarizes available information on antiviral research of nucleoside analogs against arthropod-borne members of the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae, being primarily focused on description of nucleoside inhibitors of flaviviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, methyltransferase, and helicase/NTPase...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Simin Dashti-Khavidaki, Hossein Khalili, Mohsen Nasiri-Toosi
There was no report of nephrotoxicity during clinical trials assessed sofosbuvir for treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. This may be due to excluding patients with severe kidney dysfunction, as a main population at risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity from these studies. There are some reports of acute kidney injury (AKI) possibly related to sofosbuvir-containing treatments from real-life experiences. Areas covered: Available data on epidemiology, type, and possible risk factors for nephrotoxicity of sofosbuvir-containing treatment are reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Lucy Meunier, Jose Ursic-Bedoya, Georges-Philippe Pageaux, Dominique Larrey
BACKGROUND: Although very rare, pantoprazole can result in acute hepatitis. It has yet to be reported, however, that it can also cause chronic autoimmune hepatitis. AIM, METHOD, AND RESULTS: We report the case of a patient in whom pantoprazole administration for two months was followed by acute liver injury with severe jaundice and features of autoimmunity. A liver biopsy revealed acute hepatocellular lesions associated with cholestasis, acute cholangitis, and polymorphous inflammatory infiltration suggestive of drug-induced liver injury...
March 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
S M Dehghani, I Shahramian, M Afshari, M Bahmanyar, M Ataollahi, A Sargazi
Background: Acute cellular rejection (ACR), a reversible process, can affect the graft survival. Objective: To evaluate the relation between ACR and clinical factors in recipients of allograft liver transplantation. Methods: 47 recipients of liver were consecutively enrolled in a retrospective study. Their information were retrieved from their medical records and analyzed. Results: Of the 47 recipients, 38 (81%) experienced acute rejection during 24 months of the transplantation...
2018: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
M Nasiri, B Geramizadeh, S H Nabavizadeh, S A Male-Hosseini, M H Karimi, I Saadat
Background: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) can play a critical role in the regulation of many facets of innate and adaptive immune responses through transcriptional activation of type I interferons, other proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. However, their roles in transplantation immunity still remain to be elucidated. Objective: To evaluate the time course of mRNA expression of all 9 members of IRFs family of transcription factors during liver allograft acute rejection...
2018: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Horng-Ren Yang, Ashok Thorat, Long-Bin Jeng, Shih-Chao Hsu, Ping-Chun Li, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Te-Hung Chen, Kin-SHing Poon
BACKGROUND The prognosis of the patients of acute liver failure (ALF) with onset of hepatic coma is often dismal. ALF is a well-accepted indication for liver transplantation (LT) and has markedly improved the prognosis of these patients. However, its role in ALF patients with onset of hepatic coma has never been elucidated before. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome in patients of ALF with hepatic coma who underwent LT. MATERIAL AND METHODS From January 2002 to December 2015, a total of 726 liver transplantations were done at China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
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