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kidney or glomerulonephritis

J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Jiannan Dai, Lei Xing, Haibo Jia, Yinchun Zhu, Shaotao Zhang, Sining Hu, Lin Lin, Lijia Ma, Huimin Liu, Maoen Xu, Xuefeng Ren, Huai Yu, Lulu Li, Yanan Zou, Shaosong Zhang, Gary S Mintz, Jingbo Hou, Bo Yu
Aims: Plaque erosion is a significant substrate of acute coronary thrombosis. This study sought to determine in vivo predictors of plaque erosion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results: A prospective series of 822 STEMI patients underwent pre-intervention optical coherence tomography. Using established diagnostic criteria, 209 had plaque erosion (25.4%) and 564 had plaque rupture (68.6%). Plaque erosion was more frequent in women <50 years when compared with those ≥50 years of age (P = 0...
March 13, 2018: European Heart Journal
Michael Z L Zhu, Andrew Martin, Andrew D Cochrane, Julian A Smith, Amanda G Thrift, Gerard K Harrop, Jennifer P Ngo, Roger G Evans
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after cardiac surgery and profoundly affects postoperative mortality and morbidity. There are no validated methods to assess risk of AKI intraoperatively. Methods: We determined the association between postoperative AKI and intraoperative urinary oxygen tension (PO2), measured via a fiber optic probe in the tip of the urinary catheter, in 65 patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)...
March 14, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
Claudia Kruger, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Trang-Tiffany Nguyen, J Michael Salbaum, Krisztian Stadler
Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes...
March 6, 2018: Redox Biology
Tushar Issar, Ria Arnold, Natalie C G Kwai, Bruce A Pussell, Zoltan H Endre, Ann M Poynten, Matthew C Kiernan, Arun V Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate construct validity of the Total Neuropathy Score (TNS) in assessing peripheral neuropathy in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: 113 subjects with CKD and 40 matched controls were assessed for peripheral neuropathy using the TNS. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity of the TNS was tested by comparing scores between case and control groups...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jianjun Chang, Yan Ding, Zhiyu Zhou, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Transepithelial fluid and salt re-absorption in epithelial tissues play an important role in fluid and salt homeostasis. In absorptive epithelium, fluid and salt flux is controlled by machinery mainly composed of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), aquaporin, and sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase). Dysregulation of fluid and salt transport across epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as pulmonary edema and cystic fibrosis...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Kyle L Brown, Billy G Hudson, Paul A Voziyan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in understanding the molecular assembly of basement membranes, as exemplified by the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of the kidney filtration apparatus. In particular, an essential role of halogens in the basement membrane formation has been discovered. RECENT FINDINGS: Extracellular chloride triggers a molecular switch within non collagenous domains of collagen IV that induces protomer oligomerization and scaffold assembly outside the cell...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Junichi Tokuda, Laurent Chauvin, Brian Ninni, Takahisa Kato, Franklin King, Kemal Tuncali, Nobuhiko Hata
Patient-mounted needle guide devices for&#13; percutaneous ablations are vulnerable to patient motion. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a software system for MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device that can adaptively compensate for the displacement of the device due to the patient motion using a novel image-based automatic device-to-image registration.&#13; &#13; Materials and Methods. We developed a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device for percutaneous ablations...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Thomas Tängdén, Pier Giorgio Cojutti, Jason A Roberts, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Valganciclovir is used as oral prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplant recipients. However, limited pharmacokinetic data exist to guide dosing in this patient group. This study aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients and predict optimal dosing based on Monte Carlo simulations. METHODS: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data from adult kidney transplant recipients who received valganciclovir prophylaxis during a 10-year study period were collected retrospectively...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Neta Blau, Eyal Klang, Nahum Kiryati, Marianne Amitai, Orith Portnoy, Arnaldo Mayer
PURPOSE: Simple renal cysts are a common benign finding in abdominal CT scans. However, since they may evolve in time, simple cysts need to be reported. With an ever-growing number of slices per CT scan, cysts are easily overlooked by the overloaded radiologist. In this paper, we address the detection of simple renal cysts as an incidental finding in a real clinical setting. METHODS: We propose a fully automatic framework for renal cyst detection, supported by a robust segmentation of the kidneys performed by a fully convolutional neural network...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Andrew R Christiansen, Rami M Shorti, Cory D Smith, William C Prows, Jay T Bishoff
PURPOSE: Despite the increasing use of advanced 3D imaging techniques and 3D printing, these techniques have not yet been comprehensively compared in a surgical setting. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of five different advanced imaging modalities during a complex renal surgical procedure. METHODS: A patient with a horseshoe kidney and multiple large, symptomatic stones that had failed Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy treatment was used for this evaluation...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
D Czock, V Schwenger, D Kindgen-Milles, M Joannidis, S John, M Schmitz, A Jörres, A Zarbock, M Oppert, J T Kielstein, C Willam
BACKGROUND: Many anti-infective drugs require dose adjustments in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and renal replacement therapy, in order to achieve adequate therapeutic drug concentrations. OBJECTIVES: The fundamental pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles of drug dose adjustment are presented. Recommendations on anti-infective drug dosage in intensive care are provided. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established dose recommendations of selected anti-infective drugs based on information in the summary of product characteristics, published studies and recommendations, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations, and the experience and expert opinion of the authors...
March 15, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
V Schwenger, D Kindgen-Milles, C Willam, A Jörres, W Druml, D Czock, S J Klein, M Oppert, M Schmitz, J T Kielstein, A Zarbock, M Joannidis, S John
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The incidence of AKI in ICU patients exceeds 50% and the associated morbidity and mortality rates increase with severity of AKI. In addition, long-term consequences of AKI are underestimated and several studies show impaired long-term outcome after AKI. In about 5-25% of ICU patients with AKI renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. OBJECTIVES: To assist in indication, timing, modality and application of renal replacement therapy of adult patients, current recommendations from the renal sections of the DGIIN (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin), ÖGIAIN (Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Internistische und Allgemeine Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin) and DIVI (Deutschen Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin) are stated...
March 15, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Nicola Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Family Practice
Mona Elhendawi, Jamie A Davies
Here, we present a detailed protocol on setting up embryonic renal organ cultures using a culture method that we have optimised for anatomical maturation and imaging. Our culture method places kidney rudiments on glass in a thin film of medium, which results in very flat cultures with all tubules in the same image plane. For reasons not yet understood, this technique results in improved renal maturation compared to traditional techniques. Typically, this protocol will result in an organ formed with distinct cortical and medullary regions as well as elongated, correctly positioned loops of Henle...
February 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
Mohamed A Mohamed, Rohit Abraham, Tareq I Maraqa, Samir Elian
Aortic dissection is a rare and fatal complication of cocaine-induced hypertension. The injury mechanism is through shear stress that penetrates the intimal vessel layer, allowing blood flow to separate intimal and medial layers. Due to its scarcity and the paucity of related literature, our knowledge of this condition is limited. We present a rare case of a cocaine-induced aortic dissection, which extended continuously from the aortic root to the common iliacs, along with a literature review of similar cases...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Mohamed A Mohamed, Kewan A Hamid
Acute aortic dissection (AAD) classically manifests with sudden, severe chest pain radiating to the back or abdomen, often described as ripping or tearing sensation. Considering its abrupt onset, the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion prompting immediate imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast. However, the use of contrast is a relative contraindication in the patients with renal compromise and acute care physicians are often deterred from contrast use in these patients. Herein, we present an unusual case of hematuria as the presenting symptom of a developing the Stanford type-A AAD...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Yuehong Li, Binbin Li, Wei Wang, Jiaxuan Lv
The aim of the present study was to analyze the risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients who have received a liver transplant. A total of 190 patients who underwent liver transplantation between March 2001 and January 2015 were followed up, and analyzed retrospectively. Sex, age, primary disease, preoperative laboratory findings (hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine and glomerular filtration rate), surgical approach, blood loss during the surgery and transfusion volume, postoperative complications, and the average levels of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) (from liver transplantation to the onset of CKD) were analyzed...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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