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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676218/vaunting-the-independent-amateur-scientific-american-and-the-representation-of-lay-scientists
#1
Sean F Johnston
This paper traces how media representations encouraged enthusiasts, youth and skilled volunteers to participate actively in science and technology during the twentieth century. It assesses how distinctive discourses about scientific amateurs positioned them with respect to professionals in shifting political and cultural environments. In particular, the account assesses the seminal role of a periodical, Scientific American magazine, in shaping and championing an enduring vision of autonomous scientific enthusiasms...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670343/effect-of-6-month-community-based-exercise-interventions-on-gait-and-functional-fitness-of-an-older-population-a-quasi-experimental-study
#2
Fátima Ramalho, Rita Santos-Rocha, Marco Branco, Vera Moniz-Pereira, Helô-Isa André, António P Veloso, Filomena Carnide
Background: Gait ability in older adults has been associated with independent living, increased survival rates, fall prevention, and quality of life. There are inconsistent findings regarding the effects of exercise interventions in the maintenance of gait parameters. Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of a community-based periodized exercise intervention on the improvement of gait parameters and functional fitness in an older adult group compared with a non-periodized program...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666584/differences-in-muscle-metabolism-between-triathletes-and-normally-active-volunteers-investigated-using-multinuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-7t
#3
Radka Klepochová, Ladislav Valkovič, Thomas Hochwartner, Christoph Triska, Norbert Bachl, Harald Tschan, Siegfried Trattnig, Michael Krebs, Martin Krššák
Purpose: The influence of endurance training on skeletal muscle metabolism can currently be studied only by invasive sampling or through a few related parameters that are investigated by either proton (1 H) or phosphorus (31 P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic differences between endurance-trained triathletes and healthy volunteers using multi-parametric data acquired by both, 31 P- and 1 H-MRS, at ultra-high field (7T) in a single experimental protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665389/application-of-pectin%C3%A2-zinc-oxide-hybrid-nanocomposite-in-the-delivery-of-a-hydrophilic-drug-and-a-study-of-its-isotherm-kinetics-and-release-mechanism
#4
Arun K Kodoth, Vivek M Ghate, Shaila A Lewis, B Vishalakshi
Pectin-based gel and its nanocomposite with zinc oxide have been compared for their capacity to release Donepezil for the possible use as an implantable drug delivery platform for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Adsorption capacities of the samples were determined as a function of pH, temperatures, concentrations of the drug, and the mass of the adsorbent. The nanocomposite exhibited significant adsorption compared to the parent gel. Adsorption data for the nanocomposite system fits well with Langmuir model and followed pseudo-first order kinetics, while that of the parent polymeric system followed pseudo-second-order kinetics...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655762/amateur-endurance-triathletes-performance-is-improved-independently-of-volume-or-intensity-based-training
#5
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Rosa Delgado-Moreno, Beatriz González, Javier Ortega, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo
The aim of the present research was to compare the effects in swimming and running performance, horizontal jump test, autonomic modulation, and body composition of four training weeks with emphasis on volume versus intensity in moderate trained triathletes. Thirty-two amateur triathletes (20 males and 12 females) were randomly divided in three different groups that performed 6 training session per week: Intensity (INT): training focused on performs intensity training Volume (VOL): training focused on performs volume training; and Control (CON): physical active group with no periodized training...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655371/platelet-derived-growth-factor-predicts-prolonged-relapse-free-period-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Ennio Iezzi, Girolama A Marfia, Ilaria Simonelli, Alessandra Musella, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Fresegna, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Roberto Furlan, Annamaria Finardi, Giorgia Mataluni, Doriana Landi, Luana Gilio, Diego Centonze, Fabio Buttari
BACKGROUND: In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624539/tinnitus-depression-anxiety-and-suicide-in-recent-veterans-a-retrospective-analysis
#7
Erin Martz, Chennettée Jelleberg, Deborah D Dougherty, Charles Wolters, Aaron Schneiderman
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this project was to investigate whether there is an association between tinnitus diagnosis and suicide and whether depression and anxiety strengthen that association. Given that tinnitus is the top service-connected disability among U.S. Veterans (Veterans Benefits Administration, 2016) and that suicide among Veterans has been occurring at a higher frequency as compared with community suicide rates (Hoffmire et al., 2015), the possible associations between tinnitus and suicide will be explored...
April 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624466/degradation-of-polyethylene-microplastics-in-seawater-insights-into-the-environmental-degradation-of-polymers
#8
João P Da Costa, Ana R Nunes, Patrícia S M Santos, Ana V Girão, Armando C Duarte, Teresa Rocha-Santos
Microplastic contamination of aquatic environments has become an increasingly alarming problem. These, defined as particles <5 mm, are mostly formed due to the cracking and embrittlement of larger plastic particles. Recent reports show that the increasing presence of microplastics in the environment could have significant deleterious consequences over the health of marine organisms, but also across the food chain. Herein, we have studied the effects of artificial seawater on polyethylene (PE)-based beads by exposing them up to eight weeks to saltwater in stirred batch reactors in the dark and examined the structural and morphological changes these endured...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619283/humanitarian-needs-in-government-controlled-areas-of-syria
#9
Shannon Doocy, Emily Lyles
Background: Five years of conflict in Syria have led to 13.5 million people in need of humanitarian assistance and 6.6 million internally displaced people. Humanitarian needs are ever-increasing as an inability to maintain humanitarian corridors and ceasefires continue. In light of the protracted nature of the conflict, immense needs, and dearth of large-scale data, we undertook this assessment to inform humanitarian response. Methods: A survey of accessible areas, which were largely urban and government controlled, was undertaken from April - June 2016 to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618981/influence-of-endurance-training-during-childhood-on-total-hemoglobin-mass
#10
Nicole Prommer, Nadine Wachsmuth, Ina Thieme, Christian Wachsmuth, Erica M Mancera-Soto, Andreas Hohmann, Walter F J Schmidt
Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613997/neuromuscular-dysfunction-and-cortical-impairment-in-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#11
Mathieu Marillier, Mathieu Gruet, Sébastien Baillieul, Thibault Le Roux Mallouf, Bernard Wuyam, Renaud Tamisier, Patrick Levy, Jean-Louis Pepin, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: Lower muscle strength and endurance have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Increased intracortical inhibition previously reported at rest in OSA suggests central neuromuscular impairments in these patients. We hypothesized that (i) OSA patients demonstrate reduced knee extensor strength and endurance due to central impairments and (ii) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment improves neuromuscular function in these patients. METHODS: Twelve OSA patients and 11 healthy controls performed intermittent knee extensions until task failure before and after 8 weeks of CPAP treatment or control period...
April 27, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604547/major-obstetric-hemorrhage-patients-perspective-on-the-quality-of-care
#12
Suzan M de Visser, Christian A Kirchner, Bianca G J van der Velden, Alexander C de Wit, Anneke Dijkman, Anjoke J M Huisjes, Johanna M Middeldorp, Desirée Moonen-Delarue, Jeroen van Dillen, Frank P H A Vandenbussche, Marlies E Hulscher, Hubertina C J Scheepers, Mallory D Woiski, Rosella P M G Hermens
OBJECTIVES: Major obstetric hemorrhage (MOH) is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality, and can have a significant impact on a woman's life. This study aims to gain insight into the patients reported experiences (PREs) and outcomes (PROs) after a major obstetric hemorrhage, and to investigate which patients are most at risk for negative experiences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) based questionnaire was developed covering items on the PREs and PROs, and send to all patients with blood loss exceeding 2500 ml in six hospitals over the period of 2008-2012...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597346/porosity-prediction-through-hydrogen-bonding-in-covalent-organic-frameworks
#13
Suvendu Karak, Sushil Kumar, Pradip Pachfule, Rahul Banerjee
Easy and bulk-scale syntheses of two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) represent an enduring challenge in material science. Concomitantly, the most critical aspect is to precisely control the porosity and crystallinity of these robust structures. Disparate complementary approaches like solvothermal synthesis have emerged recently, and are fuelled in part by the usage of different modulators and acids that have enriched the COF library. Yet, the fundamental understanding of the integral processes of 2D COF assembly, including their growth from nucleating sites and the origin of periodicity, are intriguing chemical questions that need to be answered...
March 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594355/high-intensity-intermittent-5-10-15-running-reduces-body-fat-and-increases-lean-body-mass-bone-mineral-density-and-performance-in-untrained-subjects
#14
Tanja Ravnholt, Jonas Tybirk, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Jens Bangsbo
The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10, and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P < 0.01), and lean body mass and bone mineral density was 1.1 and 0.9% higher (P < 0.01), respectively, after compared to before the intervention period (INT)...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590200/retrospective-harm-benefit-analysis-of-pre-clinical-animal-research-for-six-treatment-interventions
#15
Pandora Pound, Christine J Nicol
BACKGROUND: The harm benefit analysis (HBA) is the cornerstone of animal research regulation and is considered to be a key ethical safeguard for animals. The HBA involves weighing the anticipated benefits of animal research against its predicted harms to animals but there are doubts about how objective and accountable this process is. OBJECTIVES: i. To explore the harms to animals involved in pre-clinical animal studies and to assess these against the benefits for humans accruing from these studies; ii...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581653/effects-of-mechanical-bed-massage-on-exercise-induced-back-fatigue-in-athletes
#16
Houyong Zhong, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Xingze Wang, Uraiwon Chatchawan, Sawitri Wanpen, Orawan Buranruk
[Purpose] The study aimed to preliminarily investigate the effects of mechanical-bed massage on exercise-induced back fatigue in athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve male college athletes, randomly allocated to experimental or control groups, were instructed to perform reverse sit-up for 8 sessions until they became fatigued. The experimental group received a 20-min mechanical-bed massage session, while the control group rested on a bed for the same period of time. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) on perceived back muscle fatigue, back muscle endurance, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters including stress index (SI), HRV index, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, LF, HF, and LF/HF were analyzed...
March 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575680/salinity-tolerances-and-use-of-saline-environments-by-freshwater-turtles-implications-of-sea-level-rise
#17
Mickey Agha, Joshua R Ennen, Deborah S Bower, A Justin Nowakowski, Sarah C Sweat, Brian D Todd
The projected rise in global mean sea levels places many freshwater turtle species at risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. Freshwater turtles are disproportionately more threatened than other taxa; thus, understanding the role of salinity in determining their contemporary distribution and evolution should be a research priority. Freshwater turtles are a slowly evolving lineage; however, they can adapt physiologically or behaviourally to various levels of salinity and, therefore, temporarily occur in marine or brackish environments...
March 25, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569564/pilot-study-effectiveness-of-a-training-program-about-autonomy-in-elderly-patients-hospitalized-after-an-acute-episode
#18
Antoine Vignoles, Sophie Watelet, Thomas Gilbert, Mahdi Harchaoui, Marine Haution-Bitker, Joanna Jacoud, Claire Falandry, Marc Bonnefoy
Patients hospitalized in rehabilitation after an acute episode is at high risk of functional impairment and require active measures to prevent loss of autonomy. Resistance training has been proved beneficial to improve physical performances of aged subjects in the community. However, the feasibility and effects of training programs has never been assessed among hospitalized patients after an acute medical episode. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate a personalized training program of adapted physical education teacher combining muscular reinforcement and endurance training among patients over 65 year-old hospitalized in a geriatric rehabilitation care setting...
March 1, 2018: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564400/heterogeneous-antimicrobial-susceptibility-characteristics-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#19
Xuan Qin, Chuan Zhou, Danielle M Zerr, Amanda Adler, Amin Addetia, Shuhua Yuan, Alexander L Greninger
Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are known to differ from those associated with non-CF hosts by colony morphology, drug susceptibility patterns, and genomic hypermutability. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from CF patients have long been recognized for their overall reduced rate of antimicrobial susceptibility, but their intraclonal MIC heterogeneity has long been overlooked. Using two distinct cohorts of clinical strains ( n = 224 from 56 CF patients, n = 130 from 68 non-CF patients) isolated in 2013, we demonstrated profound Etest MIC heterogeneity in CF P...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563164/deployed-military-general-internal-physician-s-toolkit-the-recent-past-and-near-future
#20
Iain Parsons, E J Hutley, I Gibb, J Lentaigne, D Wilson, A T Cox
INTRODUCTION: The role of the military physician in Deployed Hospital Care involves the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of disease states. Broad clinical skills need to be complemented by judicious use of a limited array of investigations. No study has specifically quantified what investigations physicians use on operations. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to ascertain what investigations were undertaken on all patients managed by the General Internal Medicine teams over a 14 month period during a recent enduring operation in Afghanistan...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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