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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453741/fuel-for-the-work-required-a-theoretical-framework-for-carbohydrate-periodization-and-the-glycogen-threshold-hypothesis
#1
Samuel G Impey, Mark A Hearris, Kelly M Hammond, Jonathan D Bartlett, Julien Louis, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
Deliberately training with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability to enhance endurance-training-induced metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle (i.e. the 'train low, compete high' paradigm) is a hot topic within sport nutrition. Train-low studies involve periodically training (e.g., 30-50% of training sessions) with reduced CHO availability, where train-low models include twice per day training, fasted training, post-exercise CHO restriction and 'sleep low, train low'. When compared with high CHO availability, data suggest that augmented cell signalling (73% of 11 studies), gene expression (75% of 12 studies) and training-induced increases in oxidative enzyme activity/protein content (78% of 9 studies) associated with 'train low' are especially apparent when training sessions are commenced within a specific range of muscle glycogen concentrations...
February 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446245/differential-metabolic-effects-of-constant-moderate-versus-high-intensity-interval-training-in-high-fat-fed-mice-possible-role-of-muscle-adiponectin
#2
Sergio F Martinez-Huenchullan, Babu Raja Maharjan, Paul F Williams, Charmaine S Tam, Susan V Mclennan, Stephen M Twigg
Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444097/the-effects-of-intensified-training-on-resting-metabolic-rate-rmr-body-composition-and-performance-in-trained-cyclists
#3
Amy L Woods, Anthony J Rice, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Alice M Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew McKune, Kevin G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. METHOD: Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a "Baseline" week (100% of regular training load), a "Build" week (~120% of Baseline load), two "Loading" weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two "Recovery" weeks (~80% of Baseline load)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443024/battery-of-behavioral-tests-assessing-general-locomotion-muscular-strength-and-coordination-in-mice
#4
Karlaina Jl Osmon, Meera Vyas, Evan Woodley, Patrick Thompson, Jagdeep S Walia
Behavioral testing is used in pre-clinical trials to assess the phenotypic effects and outcomes that a particular disease or treatment has on the animal's wellbeing and health. There are numerous behavioral tests that may be applied. We selected a test for general locomotion, the open field test (OFT); a test for muscular strength, the mesh test (MT); and a test for coordination, the rotarod test (RR). Testing can be accomplished on a weekly or monthly basis. As a test for general locomotion, the OFT works by objectively monitoring movement parameters while the mouse is in an open field apparatus...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439362/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-walking-ability-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Yi Li, Jingjing Fan, Jingyi Yang, Chengqi He, Shasha Li
BACKGROUND: As a promising technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has gained so much attention in its potential effects on functional recovery of lower limb following stroke. However, individual studies have yielded inconsistent or conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of tDCS for the functional recovery of lower limb following stroke reported in the randomized controlled trials by using a meta-analysis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database was comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials published until April 2017 that investigated the effects of tDCS on lower limb function...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439360/aerobic-rehabilitation-program-for-improving-muscle-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Siria Di Martino, Caterina Tramonti, Elisa Unti, Claudia Del Gamba, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Bruno Rossi, Roberto Ceravolo, Carmelo Chisari
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by progressive and disabling symptoms. An impaired oxidative metabolism efficiency was supposed to be involved in the systemic impairment. Rehabilitative treatment represents a valid tool in promoting skeletal muscle's adaptations, even if no solid studies on muscle metabolic features are still available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in PD patients in comparison with age-matched controls and test the role of an intensive aerobic treatment on muscle oxidative metabolism and its clinical effects...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434751/clinical-optimal-dose-of-solifenacin-succinate-for-nursing-patients-after-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate-during-the-perioperative-period
#7
Baodi Zhang, Jia Wei, Xuan Wu, Lei Wang, Hongdan Huo, Junrong Wang
Transurethral plasma kinetic resection is an efficient and safe surgery for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Solifenacin succinate (SOL) is safe and clinically efficient for patients who endure transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) during the perioperative period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical optimal dose of SOL for nursing patients after TURP during the perioperative period. Patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: SOL (3 mg), SOL (6 mg), and SOL (10 mg)...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431546/the-trainability-of-adolescent-soccer-players-to-brief-periodized-complex-training
#8
Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Konstantinos Michaloglou, Alexandra Avloniti, Diamanda Leontsini, Chariklia K Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sotirios Arsenis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Craig A Williams, Ioannis G Fatouros
PURPOSE: Τo investigate the effect of a complex, short-term strength/power training protocol on performance and body composition of elite early-adolescent soccer players. METHODS: Twenty-two players (14-15 years) were randomly assigned to (a) an experimental (EG, n=12, participated in a 5-week training protocol with traditional multi-joint power resistance exercises, Olympic-style lifts, plyometric drills and speed work, four times/week) or (b) a control group (CG, n=10)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431536/multi-day-pomegranate-extract-supplementation-decreases-oxygen-uptake-during-submaximal-cycling-exercise-but-co-supplementation-with-n-acetylcysteine-negates-the-effect
#9
Emma M Crum, Matthew J Barnes, Stephen R Stannard
Pomegranate extract (POMx) has been suggested as an ergogenic aid, due to its rich concentration of polyphenols, which are proposed to enhance nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, thereby improving the efficiency of oxygen usage and consequently, endurance exercise performance. Although acute POMx supplementation improves aerobic exercise performance in untrained individuals, trained athletes appear to require chronic supplementation for a similar effect. Further, the combination of POMx with a thiol antioxidant may prove more effective than POMx alone, due to the protective effects of thiols on NO...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430413/an-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-antidiabetic-medication-on-treatment-satisfaction-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-of-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Richa Chaturvedi, Chetna Desai, Prakruti Patel, Asha Shah, Ram K Dikshit
Aims: This study aims to measure the quality of life (QOL), treatment satisfaction, and tolerability of antidiabetic drugs in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: The prospective, observational study was conducted in consenting patients of type 2 DM attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Western India. The QOL instrument for Indian diabetes (QOLID) patients questionnaire and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire were administered to all patients at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of treatment...
January 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428599/maternal-high-fructose-diet-and-neonatal-immune-challenge-alter-offspring-anxiety-like-behavior-and-inflammation-across-the-lifespan
#11
Syed Hussain F Bukhari, Olivia E Clark, Lauren L Williamson
AIMS: This study examined the interaction between maternal high fructose diet and neonatal inflammation in neonates (P7), juveniles (P26-34) and adults on measures of anxiety-like behavior and cognition. The study aimed to assess the potential synergistic effects of these two forms of early-life inflammation. MAIN METHODS: We fed Sprague-Dawley dams with high fructose (60%) diet or normal chow. Each litter was treated with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal day (P)3 and P5 and two pups were tested for USVs after maternal separation on P7...
February 8, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428505/optimising-training-adaptations-and-performance-in-military-environment
#12
REVIEW
Heikki Kyröläinen, Kai Pihlainen, Jani P Vaara, Tommi Ojanen, Matti Santtila
OBJECTIVES: Worldwide decreases in physical fitness and increases in body fat among youth have set challenges for armed forces to recruit physically capable soldiers. Therefore, knowledge of optimizing physical adaptation and performance through physical training is vital. In addition, maintaining or improving physical performance among professional soldiers in various military environments is crucial for overall military readiness. The present review focuses on the effects of military training on physical performance by searching for optimal methods to do it...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426359/twenty-weeks-of-isometric-handgrip-home-training-to-lower-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-older-adults-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Martin Grønbech Jørgensen, Jesper Ryg, Mathias Brix Danielsen, Pascal Madeleine, Stig Andersen
BACKGROUND: Hypertension markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and overall mortality. Lifestyle modifications, such as increased levels of physical activity, are recommended as the first line of anti-hypertensive treatment. A recent systematic review showed that isometric handgrip (IHG) training was superior to traditional endurance and strength training in lowering resting systolic blood pressure (SBP). The average length of previous IHG training studies is approximately 7...
February 9, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421417/positional-changes-of-an-endurant-endograft-leading-to-simultaneous-ipsilateral-iliac-limb-obstruction-and-contralateral-type-iiia-endoleak
#14
Nikolaos Schoretsanitis, Christos Argyriou, Alexandrina S Nikova, Christina D Valsamidou, Efstratios I Georgakarakos, Miltos K Lazarides, George S Georgiadis
We report the case of a 79-year-old man who was admitted to our department with acute limb ischemia due to the occlusion of the left iliac limb of an Endurant endograft. The admission computed tomography angiography revealed also a type IIIa endoleak due to modular disconnection of the iliac extensions from the right iliac limb of the endograft main body. Intrestingly, during the four year post-EVAR period, an increased kinking of the right limb has been observed leading to an almost cross-limb configuration of the limbs at the time of complications...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417745/effect-of-speed-endurance-training-and-reduced-training-volume-on-running-economy-and-single-muscle-fiber-adaptations-in-trained-runners
#15
Casper Skovgaard, Danny Christiansen, Peter M Christensen, Nicki W Almquist, Martin Thomassen, Jens Bangsbo
The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416570/endurance-training-remodels-sperm-borne-small-rna-expression-and-methylation-at-neurological-gene-hotspots
#16
Lars R Ingerslev, Ida Donkin, Odile Fabre, Soetkin Versteyhe, Mie Mechta, Pattarawan Pattamaprapanont, Brynjulf Mortensen, Nikolaj Thure Krarup, Romain Barrès
Remodeling of the sperm epigenome by lifestyle factors before conception could account for altered metabolism in the next generation offspring. Here, we hypothesized that endurance training changes the epigenome of human spermatozoa. Using small RNA (sRNA) sequencing and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), we, respectively, investigated sRNA expression and DNA methylation in pure fractions of motile spermatozoa collected from young healthy individuals before, after 6 weeks of endurance training and after 3 months without exercise...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414988/laboratory-and-community-based-health-outcomes-in-people-with-transtibial-amputation-using-crossover-and-energy-storing-prosthetic-feet-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#17
Sara J Morgan, Cody L McDonald, Elizabeth G Halsne, Sarah M Cheever, Rana Salem, Patricia A Kramer, Brian J Hafner
Contemporary prosthetic feet are generally optimized for either daily or high-level activities. Prosthesis users, therefore, often require multiple prostheses to participate in activities that span a range of mobility. Crossover feet (XF) are designed to increase the range of activities that can be performed with a single prosthesis. However, little evidence exists to guide clinical prescription of XF relative to traditional energy storing feet (ESF). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of XF and ESF on health outcomes in people with transtibial amputation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413821/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-diagnosis-and-gender-are-associated-with-accelerated-weight-gain-trajectories-in-veterans-during-the-post-deployment-period
#18
Eugenia Buta, Robin Masheb, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Harini Bathulapalli, Cynthia A Brandt, Joseph L Goulet
BACKGROUND: Veterans are disproportionately affected by overweight/obesity and growing evidence suggests that post-deployment is a critical period of accelerated weight gain. OBJECTIVE: We explored the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, gender, and post-deployment weight trajectories among U.S. Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, and New Dawn veterans. DESIGN: We used Veterans Affairs electronic health record data from 248,089 veterans (87% men) who, after their last deployment, had at least one medical visit between October 2001 and January 2009 and more than one BMI recorded through September 2010...
January 30, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408567/influence-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-ventilatory-efficiency-in-trained-athletes
#19
Eduardo Salazar-Martínez, Alfredo Santalla, José Naranjo Orellana, Jochen Strobl, Martin Burtscher, Verena Menz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 3 weeks high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) in endurance athletes. Sixteen male well-trained (67.72 ml kg min-1) athletes participated in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exercise test with gas analysis (i.e. VE, VO2) and a 400 m running field test (T400m) before and after the 3 weeks intervention period. HIIT group (HIITG) performed 11 HIIT sessions consisting of four 4-min interval bouts at an exercise intensity of 90-95% of the VO2max, separated by 4-min active recovery periods (work/rest ratio = 1:1)...
January 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394209/dynamic-handgrip-strength-endurance-a-reliable-measurement-in-older-women
#20
Konstantina Karatrantou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dynamic handgrip strength endurance is essential for daily activities that require repetitive gripping movements for a sustained period. At this time, there is no information about the reliability of measurement of dynamic handgrip strength endurance in older individuals. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of dynamic handgrip strength endurance in older women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
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