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Periodization endurance

Pratik Kadekar, Rita Chaouni, Emily Clark, Anna Kazanets, Richard Roy
BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans can endure long periods of environmental stress by altering their development to execute a quiescent state called "dauer". Previous work has implicated LKB1 - the causative gene in the autosomal dominant, cancer pre-disposing disease called Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), and its downstream target AMPK, in the establishment of germline stem cell (GSC) quiescence during the dauer stage. Loss of function mutations in both LKB1/par-4 and AMPK/aak(0) result in untimely GSC proliferation during the onset of the dauer stage, although the molecular mechanism through which these factors regulate quiescence remains unclear...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Matti Santtila, Kai Pihlainen, Harri Koski, Tommi Ojanen, Heikki Kyröläinen
Introduction: The physical fitness of male conscripts has decreased, and body mass increased during the last few decades, especially in Nordic countries. However, limited research-based reports are available concerning the physical fitness profiles of female recruits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate changes in physical fitness and body composition of female recruits entering voluntary Finnish military service between the years 2005 and 2015. Materials and methods: Data were collected from the initial fitness tests performed in military units during the first 2 weeks of military service...
June 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Julian Eigendorf, Marcus May, Jan Friedrich, Stefan Engeli, Norbert Maassen, Gerolf Gros, Joachim D Meissner
We present here a longitudinal study determining the effects of two 3 week-periods of high intensity high volume interval training (HIHVT) (90 intervals of 6 s cycling at 250% maximum power, Pmax /24 s) on a cycle ergometer. HIHVT was evaluated by comparing performance tests before and after the entire training (baseline, BSL, and endpoint, END) and between the two training sets (intermediate, INT). The mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and markers of energy metabolism were analyzed in M...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hsuan-Yu Wan, Jonathon L Stickford, Emily Dawkins, Alice K Lindeman, Joel M Stager
We investigated the influence of immediate post-exercise dietary supplementation on the subsequent food consumption pattern and endurance exercise performance in physically trained individuals. On two occasions, trained male cyclists performed a glycogen-depleting exercise bout followed by a 2-hour nutritional supplementation period, 28 hours of free-living recovery, and a subsequent 40-km cycling time trial. During the 2-hour post-exercise supplementation, subjects consumed equal volumes of reduced-fat chocolate milk (CM) or a sports beverage (SB) in a single-blind, randomized design...
June 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Claire Vinel, Ophélie Pereira, Aude Dupuy, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Dalila Laoudj-Chenivesse, Yves Rolland, Daniel Rivière, Philippe Valet, Cédric Dray, Fabien Pillard
Introduction: Production of isoprostanes (IsoPs) is enhanced after acute, intense, and prolonged exercise, in untrained subjects. This effect is greater in older subjects. The present study aims to delineate the profile of acute-exercise-induced IsoPs levels in young and older endurance-trained subjects. Methods: All included subjects were male, young (n = 6; 29 yrs ± 5.7) or older (n = 6; 63.7 yrs ± 2.3), and competitors. The kinetics of F2 -IsoPs in blood-sera was assessed at rest, for the maximal aerobic exercise power (MAP) corresponding to the cardio-respiratory fitness index and after a 30-min recovery period...
June 2018: Biochimie Open
Olivia K Faull, Pete J Cox, Kyle T S Pattinson
Athletes regularly endure large increases in ventilation and accompanying perceptions of breathlessness. Whilst breathing perceptions often correlate poorly with objective measures of lung function in both health and clinical populations, we have previously demonstrated closer matching between subjective breathlessness and changes in ventilation in endurance athletes, suggesting that athletes may be more accurate during respiratory interoception. To better understand the link between exercise and breathlessness, we sought to identify the mechanisms by which the brain processing of respiratory perception might be optimised in athletes...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Céleste-Élise Stephany, Xiaokuang Ma, Hilary M Dorton, Jie Wu, Alexander M Solomon, Michael G Frantz, Shenfeng Qiu, Aaron W McGee
Degrading vision by one eye during a developmental critical period yields enduring deficits in both eye dominance and visual acuity. A predominant model is that "reactivating" ocular dominance (OD) plasticity after the critical period is required to improve acuity in amblyopic adults. However, here we demonstrate that plasticity of eye dominance and acuity are independent and restricted by the nogo-66 receptor (ngr1) in distinct neuronal populations. Ngr1 mutant mice display greater excitatory synaptic input onto both inhibitory and excitatory neurons with restoration of normal vision...
May 24, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Steven C Martino, Claude M Setodji, Rebecca L Collins, Elizabeth J D'Amico, William G Shadel, Anagha Tolpadi, Kirsten M Becker
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the persistence of immediate changes in adolescents' alcohol-related beliefs associated with exposure to alcohol advertising. METHOD: Middle school students (N = 606) carried handheld devices for 14 days and logged all of their exposures to alcohol advertisements as they naturally occurred. Perceptions of the typical person one's age who drinks ("prototype perceptions") and perceived norms regarding alcohol use were assessed after each exposure to advertising and at random prompts issued daily throughout the assessment period...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Sharon Goldfeld, Meredith O'Connor, Elodie O'Connor, Shiau Chong, Hannah Badland, Sue Woolfenden, Gerry Redmond, Katrina Williams, Francisco Azpitarte, Dan Cloney, Fiona Mensah
Background: Disadvantage rarely manifests as a single event, but rather is the enduring context in which a child's development unfolds. We aimed to characterize patterns of stability and change in multiple aspects of disadvantage over the childhood period, in order to inform more precise and nuanced policy development. Methods: Participants were from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children birth cohort (n = 5107). Four lenses of disadvantage (sociodemographic, geographic environment, health conditions and risk factors), and a composite of these representing average exposure across all lenses, were assessed longitudinally from 0 to 9 years of age...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Alice Reid, Eilidh Garrett
This paper provides an examination into some of the most enduring debates regarding tuberculosis mortality during the nineteenth century: those related to gender, geographic and temporal variations. We use populations reconstructed from individual census and civil register data for the period 1861 to 1901, comparing a growing urban area with a declining rural area, both with around 20,000 inhabitants in 1861. Our analysis shows that among young adults tuberculosis was linked to excess female mortality in the urban area and excess male mortality in the rural area...
2018: Historical life course studies
Guro S Solli, Øyvind Sandbakk
This case-study investigated the training characteristics, physiological capacity, and body composition of the world's most successful cross country skier during the 40-week pregnancy, and the 61-week postpartum. Training data was systemized by training form (endurance, strength, and speed), intensity [low- (LIT), moderate- (MIT), and high-intensity training (HIT)], and mode (running, cycling, and skiing/roller skiing). The training volume [mean ± standard deviation (median)] during pregnancy was 12.9 ± 7...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pim Knuiman, Maria T E Hopman, Roland Hangelbroek, Marco Mensink
Carbohydrate availability is proposed as a potential regulator of cytokine responses. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a preresistance exercise carbohydrate meal versus fat meal on plasma cytokine responses to resistance exercise after an endurance exercise earlier that day. Thirteen young, healthy, recreationally active males performed two experimental days with endurance exercise in the morning and resistance exercise in the afternoon. Either a carbohydrate (110 g carbohydrate, 52 g protein, 9 g fat; ~750 kcal) or an isocaloric fat meal (20 gr carbohydrate, 52 g protein, 51 g fat) was provided 2 h before resistance exercise...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Bertil Lundborg, Wilhelmus Ja Grooten
BACKGROUND: Many professional musicians report performance- related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Evidence shows that resistance training programs are preventive for musculoskeletal disorders, but only a few studies have been performed among musicians. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a functional resistance training program can increase isometric back endurance and isometric strength in the neck, shoulder, and wrist for professional string musicians and affect their perceived performance during instrumental play, as well as their muscle and joint mobility and the occurrence and intensity of pain...
June 2018: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Van Kinh Nguyen, César Parra-Rojas, Esteban A Hernandez-Vargas
From August to November 2017, Madagascar endured an outbreak of plague. A total of 2417 cases of plague were confirmed, causing a death toll of 209. Public health intervention efforts were introduced and successfully stopped the epidemic at the end of November. The plague, however, is endemic in the region and occurs annually, posing the risk of future outbreaks. To understand the plague transmission, we collected real-time data from official reports, described the outbreak's characteristics, and estimated transmission parameters using statistical and mathematical models...
June 1, 2018: Epidemics
Rosimeire Marcos Felisberto, Cassia Fabiane de Barros, Kelly Cristina Albanezi Nucci, Andre Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Elaine Paulin, Christina May Moran de Brito, Wellington Pereira Yamaguti
Background: The 6-minute pegboard and ring test (6-PBRT) is a useful test for assessing the functional capacity of upper limbs in patients with stable COPD. Although 6-PBRT has been validated in stable patients, the possibility of a high floor effect could compromise the validity of the test in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to verify the convergent validity of 6-PBRT in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary hospital...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Vanessa Sanders Curi, Aline Nogueira Haas, José Alves-Vilaça, Helder Miguel Fernandes
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Pilates-based mat exercises on functional autonomy and life satisfaction among elderly women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Caxias do Sul, Brazil in 2015, in which 61 healthy older women were randomized into two groups (experimental group, EG = 31 participants with 64.25 mean years of age, SD = 0.14, and a control group, CG = 30 participants, 63.75 mean years of age; SD = 0.08). The EG participants performed the mat Pilates twice per week, 60-min per session...
April 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Guilherme Costa Alvarenga, Emiliano Esterci Ramalho, Fabrício Beggiato Baccaro, Daniel Gomes da Rocha, Jefferson Ferreira-Ferreira, Paulo Estefano Dineli Bobrowiec
Várzea forests account for 17% of the Amazon basin and endure an annual inundation that can reach 14 m deep during 6-8 months. This flood pulse in combination with topography directly influences the várzea vegetation cover. Assemblages of several taxa differ significantly between unflooded terra firme and flooded várzea forests, but little is known about the distribution of medium and large sized terrestrial mammals in várzea habitats. Therefore, our goal was to understand how those habitats influence mammalian species distribution during the dry season...
2018: PloS One
Kandauda A S Wickrama, Catherine Walker O'Neal, Tricia K Neppl
Background and Objectives: The current study assesses the unique influences of family economic hardship (FEH) in early and late midlife on husbands' and wives' body mass index (BMI) and the influence of BMI on the onset of cardiometabolic (CM) disease in later adulthood. The protective role of marital integration is also considered in relation to the stress-response link between FEH and BMI. Research Design and Methods: Analyses were performed using structural equation modeling with prospective data from 257 husbands and wives in enduring marriages over a period of 25 years beginning when they were approximately 40 years old...
May 25, 2018: Gerontologist
Zoe A Schafer, John L Perry, Natalie Vanicek
BACKGROUND: Lower limb amputees (LLAs) are at increased risk of falling due to the inherent asymmetry resulting from their limb loss, muscle weakness and other neuro-musculoskeletal limitations. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a personalised exercise programme on falls prevention and gait parameters in LLAs. METHODS: Fifteen LLAs, recruited from their local prosthetic services centre, were block randomised, by age and level of amputation, into two groups: exercise group (transfemoral, n = 5; transtibial, n = 2) and control group (transfemoral, n = 5; transtibial, n = 3)...
April 30, 2018: Gait & Posture
Henrik Petré, Pontus Löfving, Niklas Psilander
The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT) are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO2max ) or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO2max ), on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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