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Diabetes spect pet

Andreas Jodal, Roger Schibli, Martin Béhé
β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Tessa Brabander, Jaap Teunissen, Dik Kwekkeboom
PURPOSE: Physiological uptake in the uncinate process or pancreatic head has been described with Ga-labeled PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging. In-DTPA-octreotide is the only registered radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. We studied the uptake in this region of the pancreatic head on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using In-DTPA-octreotide in a large group of patients. Furthermore, known physiological and clinical characteristics are discussed in an attempt to elucidate this phenomenon...
January 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
E Dall'Ara, M Boudiffa, C Taylor, D Schug, E Fiegle, A J Kennerley, C Damianou, G M Tozer, F Kiessling, R Müller
Several non-invasive imaging techniques are used to investigate the effect of pathologies and treatments over time in mouse models. Each preclinical in vivo technique provides longitudinal and quantitative measurements of changes in tissues and organs, which are fundamental for the evaluation of alterations in phenotype due to pathologies, interventions and treatments. However, it is still unclear how these imaging modalities can be used to study ageing with mice models. Almost all age related pathologies in mice such as osteoporosis, arthritis, diabetes, cancer, thrombi, dementia, to name a few, can be imaged in vivo by at least one longitudinal imaging modality...
August 13, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Christopher J Palestro
There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis...
September 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Anneli Rydén, Görel Nyman, Lovisa Nalin, Susanne Andreasson, Olle Korsgren, Olof Eriksson, Marianne Jensen-Waern
INTRODUCTION: Radiolabeled Exendin-4, a synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, is used as a tracer for diagnostic purposes of β-cells and in experimental animal research. Exendin-4 can be radiolabeled with (68)Ga, (111)In or (99m)Tc and used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging to diagnose insulinomas, visualization of pancreatic β-cell mass and transplanted Islets of Langerhans. In humans, Exendin-4 is widely used as a therapeutic agent for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
July 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Kenichiro Sato, Ayumi Hida, Masashi Kameyama, Miyako Morooka, Sousuke Takeuchi
We report a 64-year-old man with diabetic chorea whom we investigated with dopamine transporter SPECT, F FDG PET, Tc ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT, and I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Dopamine transporter SPECT revealed reduced I ioflupane binding in the bilateral striatum. F FDG PET showed metabolic dysfunction in the bilateral striatum, as shown in earlier studies. Tc ECD SPECT revealed reduced brain perfusion in the bilateral caudate nucleus and putamen. I MIBG scintigraphy revealed no cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction...
June 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Inés González-Suárez, Javier Arpa, Juan José Ríos-Blanco
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction is associated with arterial stiffness, a factor that is increasingly recognised as an important determinant of cardiovascular risk. High-flow organs such as the brain and kidneys are particularly sensitive to excessive pressure and flow pulsatility. High, local blood flow is associated with low microvascular impedance, which facilitates the penetration of excessive pulsatile energy into the microvascular bed leading to tissue damage. Systemic endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness have been demonstrated in peripheral vessels in associated vasculitis (AAV)...
2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Rachael O Forsythe, Robert J Hinchliffe
Assessment of foot perfusion is a vital step in the management of patients with diabetic foot ulceration, in order to understand the risk of amputation and likelihood of wound healing. Underlying peripheral artery disease is a common finding in patients with foot ulceration and is associated with poor outcomes. Assessment of foot perfusion should therefore focus on identifying the presence of peripheral artery disease and to subsequently estimate the effect this may have on wound healing. Assessment of perfusion can be difficult because of the often complex, diffuse and distal nature of peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes, as well as poor collateralisation and heavy vascular calcification...
January 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Corinne Berclaz, Christophe Pache, Arno Bouwens, Daniel Szlag, Antonio Lopez, Lieke Joosten, Selen Ekim, Maarten Brom, Martin Gotthardt, Anne Grapin-Botton, Theo Lasser
The identification of a beta-cell tracer is a major quest in diabetes research. However, since MRI, PET and SPECT cannot resolve individual islets, optical techniques are required to assess the specificity of these tracers. We propose to combine Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) with fluorescence detection in a single optical platform to facilitate these initial screening steps from cell culture up to living rodents. OCM can image islets and vascularization without any labeling. Thereby, it alleviates the need of both genetically modified mice to detect islets and injection of external dye to reveal vascularization...
2015: Scientific Reports
A W J M Glaudemans, I Uçkay, B A Lipsky
Diagnosing the presence of infection in the foot of a patient with diabetes can sometimes be a difficult task. Because open wounds are always colonized with microorganisms, most agree that infection should be diagnosed by the presence of systemic or local signs of inflammation. Determining whether or not infection is present in bone can be especially difficult. Diagnosis begins with a history and physical examination in which both classic and 'secondary' findings suggesting invasion of microorganisms or a host response are sought...
June 2015: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Raita Fukasawa, Haruo Hanyu, Soichiro Shimizu, Hidekazu Kanetaka, Hirofumi Sakurai, Kenji Ishii
AIMS: We attempted to identify a dementia subgroup with characteristics associated with diabetes mellitus (DM)-related metabolic abnormalities, referred to as diabetes-related dementia, using longitudinal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: We classified 175 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease (AD) and DM into 4 subgroups based on brain imaging in a 2013 study...
February 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
R Dörr, J Stumpf, J Dalibor, G Simonis, S G Spitzer
Is coronary revascularization required in a patient with chronic stable coronary artery disease or can optimized medical therapy (OMT) alone be a sufficient alternative? This question has been controversially discussed for non-diabetics as well as for diabetics since the COURAGE and BARI 2D trials. According to our present knowledge, a patient will benefit from coronary revascularization only when either a non-invasive test method, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial scintigraphy, stress echocardiography or stress nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, can detect relevant, objective evidence of ischemia >10% of the left ventricular myocardium or when a pathological fractional flow reserve (FFR) <0...
May 2014: Herz
Manon Brundel, L Jaap Kappelle, Geert Jan Biessels
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Brain imaging may provide important clues about underlying processes. This review focuses on the relationship between T2DM and brain abnormalities assessed with different imaging techniques: both structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Compared to people without diabetes, people with T2DM show slightly more global brain atrophy, which increases gradually over time compared with normal aging...
December 2014: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Steven P Rowe, Steve Y Cho
Musculoskeletal infections, particularly those in regions of complex anatomy and at postoperative sites, can be difficult to evaluate clinically, yet accurate diagnosis is essential to treat these infections promptly and correctly. Although anatomical imaging modalities are commonly used to diagnose musculoskeletal infections, the application of functional imaging through nuclear medicine techniques has long played a unique and important role in the evaluation of patients with suspected infections. In addition to the standard nuclear medicine single-photon emitting radiotracers traditionally used by nuclear medicine for planar and single-photon emission computed tomography infection imaging, in recent years we have seen a growth in the application of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT applied to the detection and diagnosis of infection...
April 2014: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
O Israel, L M Sconfienza, B A Lipsky
Diabetes mellitus, a major current epidemic, is frequently complicated by foot infections that are associated with high morbidity. Diagnosing these infections, especially whether or not underlying bone is involved, poses clinical challenges, but is crucial to making proper decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. The most effective means of managing patients with a diabetic foot infection is within the framework of a multidisciplinary team. Present diagnostic efforts are aimed at developing better methods to differentiate uninfected from infected soft tissue wounds, to determine when bone infection is present, and to more clearly define when infection has resolved with treatment...
March 2014: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Naoyuki Sato, Ryuichi Morishita
It is well known that a specific set of genetic and non-genetic risk factors contributes to the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). Non-genetic risk factors include diabetes, hypertension in mid-life, and probably dyslipidemia in mid-life. This review focuses on the vascular and metabolic components of non-genetic risk factors. The mechanisms whereby non-genetic risk factors modify cognitive dysfunction are divided into four components, short- and long-term effects of vascular and metabolic factors. These consist of (1) compromised vascular reactivity, (2) vascular lesions, (3) hypo/hyperglycemia, and (4) exacerbated AD histopathological features, respectively...
2013: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Cristina Karohl, Luis D'Marco, Antonio Bellasi, Paolo Raggi
BACKGROUND: Patient selection and optimal approach to risk stratification prior to kidney transplantation remain uncertain. We sought new predictors of an abnormal myocardial perfusion (MYP) stress test result. METHODS: Retrospective study of 411 consecutive chronic kidney disease stages 4-5D patients awaiting kidney transplantation referred for risk stratification. PET-CT or SPECT-CT was used to assess MYP and quantify coronary artery calcium (CAC) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT)...
December 2013: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
W M Admiraal, H J Verberne, F A Karamat, M R Soeters, J B L Hoekstra, F Holleman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: South Asians have a disproportionately high risk of developing abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been identified as a possible target to fight obesity and protect against metabolic disturbance. We explored whether lower BAT activity in South Asians compared with Europids may contribute to the high risk of metabolic disturbance. METHODS: We studied 20 healthy men (ten Europids/ten South Asians, BMI 19-25 kg/m(2), age 18-32 years)...
October 2013: Diabetologia
Lu Yang, Wei Ji, Yanhong Xue, Liangyi Chen
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells is critical to the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis in animals. Both decrease in pancreatic beta-cell mass and defects in beta-cell function contribute to the onset of diabetes, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Molecular imaging techniques can help beta-cell study in a number of ways. High-resolution fluorescence imaging techniques provide novel insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying GSIS in isolated beta-cells or in situ in pancreatic islets, and dynamic changes of beta-cell mass and function can be noninvasively monitored in vivo by imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography...
August 2013: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
James T Thackeray, Rob S Beanlands, Jean N Dasilva
Diabetes is commonly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Perturbations in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) signaling have been linked to the progression of diabetic heart disease. Glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids contribute to elevated sympathetic nervous activity and norepinephrine release. Reduced left ventricular compliance and impaired cardiac function lead to further SNS activation. Chronic elevation of cardiac norepinephrine culminates in altered expression of pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic signaling elements, changes in calcium regulatory proteins, and abnormal contraction-excitation coupling...
2012: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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