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Multienzymatic system

Rosanna Palumbo, Marta Gogliettino, Ennio Cocca, Roberta Iannitti, Annamaria Sandomenico, Menotti Ruvo, Marco Balestrieri, Mosè Rossi, Gianna Palmieri
The proteasome is a multienzymatic complex that controls the half-life of the majority of intracellular proteins, including those involved in apoptosis and cell-cycle progression. Recently, proteasome inhibition has been shown to be an effective anticancer strategy, although its downregulation is often accompanied by severe undesired side effects. We previously reported that the inhibition of acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) by the peptide SsCEI 4 can significantly affect the proteasome activity in A375 melanoma or Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cell lines, thus shedding new light on therapeutic strategies based on downstream regulation of proteasome functions...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Frederic Tort, Xènia Ferrer-Cortes, Antonia Ribes
Lipoic acid (LA) is an essential cofactor required for the activity of five multienzymatic complexes that play a central role in the mitochondrial energy metabolism: four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes [pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-KGDH), and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (2-OADH)] and the glycine cleavage system (GCS). LA is synthesized in a complex multistep process that requires appropriate function of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) and the biogenesis of iron-sulphur (Fe-S) clusters...
November 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Julien Diharce, Jérôme Golebiowski, Sébastien Fiorucci, Serge Antonczak
In the course of metabolite formation, some multienzymatic edifices, the so-called metabolon, are formed and lead to a more efficient production of these natural compounds. One of the major features of these enzyme complexes is the facilitation of direct transfer of the metabolite between enzyme active sites by substrate channelling. Biophysical insights into substrate channelling remain scarce because the transient nature of these macromolecular complexes prevents the observation of high resolution structures...
April 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jesús Fernández-Lucas
Living cells are most perfect synthetic factory. The surprising synthetic efficiency of biological systems is allowed by the combination of multiple processes catalyzed by enzymes working sequentially. In this sense, biocatalysis tries to reproduce nature's synthetic strategies to perform the synthesis of different organic compounds using natural catalysts such as cells or enzymes. Nowadays, the use of multienzymatic systems in biocatalysis is becoming a habitual strategy for the synthesis of organic compounds that leads to the realization of complex synthetic schemes...
June 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Leticia S Guidolin, Susana M Morrone Seijo, Francisco F Guaimas, Diego J Comerci, Andrés E Ciocchini
UNLABELLED: Cyclic β-1,2-glucans (CβG) are periplasmic homopolysaccharides that play an important role in the virulence and interaction of Brucella with the host. Once synthesized in the cytoplasm by the CβG synthase (Cgs), CβG are transported to the periplasm by the CβG transporter (Cgt) and succinylated by the CβG modifier enzyme (Cgm). Here, we used a bacterial two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation techniques to study the interaction network between these three integral inner membrane proteins...
May 2015: Journal of Bacteriology
Cheau Yuaan Tan, Hidehiko Hirakawa, Teruyuki Nagamune
Diverse applications of the versatile bacterial cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are hampered by their requirement for the auxiliary proteins, ferredoxin reductases and ferredoxins, that transfer electrons to P450s. Notably, this limits the use of P450s as immobilized enzymes for industrial purposes. Herein, we demonstrate the immobilization of a bacterial P450 and its redox protein partners by supramolecular complex formation using a self-assembled heterotrimeric protein. Employment of homodimeric phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH) for cross-linking "proliferating cell nuclear antigen-utilized protein complex of P450 and its two electron transfer-related proteins" (PUPPET) yielded a gelling PUPPET-PTDH system capable of regenerating NADH for electron supply owing to its phosphite oxidation activity...
2015: Scientific Reports
Fabio Parmeggiani, Sarah L Lovelock, Nicholas J Weise, Syed T Ahmed, Nicholas J Turner
The synthesis of substituted D-phenylalanines in high yield and excellent optical purity, starting from inexpensive cinnamic acids, has been achieved with a novel one-pot approach by coupling phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) amination with a chemoenzymatic deracemization (based on stereoselective oxidation and nonselective reduction). A simple high-throughput solid-phase screening method has also been developed to identify PALs with higher rates of formation of non-natural D-phenylalanines. The best variants were exploited in the chemoenzymatic cascade, thus increasing the yield and ee value of the D-configured product...
April 7, 2015: Angewandte Chemie
Magdalena Kotowska, Krzysztof Pawlik
A large number of antibiotics and other industrially important microbial secondary metabolites are synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). These multienzymatic complexes provide an enormous flexibility in formation of diverse chemical structures from simple substrates, such as carboxylic acids and amino acids. Modular PKSs and NRPSs, often referred to as megasynthases, have brought about a special interest due to the colinearity between enzymatic domains in the proteins working as an "assembly line" and the chain elongation and modification steps...
September 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Iris Mangas, Eugenio Vilanova, Jorge Estévez
Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) is a protease and esterase inhibitor that causes protection, or potentiation/"promotion," of organophosphorus delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), depending on whether it is dosed before or after an inducer of delayed neuropathy, such as mipafox. The molecular target of the potentiation/promotion of OPIDN has not yet been identified. The kinetic data of phenyl valerate esterase inhibition by PMSF were obtained with membrane chicken brain fractions, the animal model and tissue in which neuropathy target esterase (NTE) was first described...
February 2014: Archives of Toxicology
Inés Ardao, Ee Taek Hwang, An-Ping Zeng
: In vitro multienzymatic bioreaction systems are attracting increasing attention for the development of bioproduction systems. The de-coupling of the biocatalytic pathway from the cellular machinery aimed at growth and survival allows achievement of high product yields and thus reduces byproduct or waste generation. Additionally, the use of several enzymes allows the realization of much more complex synthetic schemes, thus expanding the chemical diversity of synthetic compounds with new chemical properties or bioactivities...
2013: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Milja Pešić, Carmen López, Josep López-Santín, Gregorio Alvaro
In this work, the successful coupling of enzymatic oxidation and aldol addition reactions for the synthesis of a Cbz-aminopolyol from a Cbz-amino alcohol was achieved for the first time in a multienzymatic one-pot system. The two-step cascade reaction consisted of the oxidation of Cbz-ethanolamine to Cbz-glycinal catalyzed by chloroperoxidase from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago and aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to Cbz-glycinal catalyzed by rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase expressed as a recombinant enzyme in Escherichia coli, yielding (3R,4S)-5-{[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino}-5-deoxy-1-O-phosphonopent-2-ulose...
August 2013: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Elisabetta Brenna, Francesco G Gatti, Luciana Malpezzi, Daniela Monti, Fabio Parmeggiani, Alessandro Sacchetti
A stereoselective synthesis of bicyclic primary or secondary amines, based on tetralin or chroman structural moieties, is reported. These amines are precursors of important active pharmaceutical ingredients such as rotigotine (Neupro), robalzotan, and ebalzotan. The key step is based on a multienzymatic reduction of an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde or ketone to give the saturated primary or secondary alcohol, in a high yield and with a high ee. The catalytic system consists of the combination of an ene-reductase (ER; i...
May 17, 2013: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ildefonso M De la Fuente, Jesus M Cortes, David A Pelta, Juan Veguillas
BACKGROUND: The experimental observations and numerical studies with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that cellular enzymatic activity self-organizes spontaneously leading to the emergence of a Systemic Metabolic Structure in the cell, characterized by a set of different enzymatic reactions always locked into active states (metabolic core) while the rest of the catalytic processes are only intermittently active. This global metabolic structure was verified for Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it seems to be a common key feature to all cellular organisms...
2013: PloS One
Mohammad Javad Fattahi, Abbas Mirshafiey
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, autoimmune, and complex inflammatory disease leading to bone and cartilage destruction, whose cause remains obscure. Accumulation of genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and dysregulated immune responses are necessary for mounting this self-reacting disease. Inflamed joints are infiltrated by a heterogeneous population of cellular and soluble mediators of the immune system, such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, cytokines, and prostaglandins (PGs). Prostaglandins are lipid inflammatory mediators derived from the arachidonic acid by multienzymatic reactions...
2012: Arthritis
Chun You, Y-H Percival Zhang
Although cell-free biosystems have been used as a tool for investigating fundamental aspects of biological systems for more than 100 years, they are becoming an emerging biomanufacturing platform in the production of low-value biocommodities (e.g., H(2), ethanol, and isobutanol), fine chemicals, and high-value protein and carbohydrate drugs and their precursors. Here we would like to define the cell-free biosystems containing more than three catalytic components in a single reaction vessel, which although different from one-, two-, or three-enzyme biocatalysis can be regarded as a straightforward extension of multienzymatic biocatalysis...
2013: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Iris Mangas, Eugenio Vilanova, Jorge Estévez
Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) is a protease and esterase inhibitor that causes protection or potentiation/promotion of organophosphorus delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) depending on whether it is dosed before or after an inducer of delayed neuropathy. The molecular target of promotion has not yet been identified. Kinetic data of esterase inhibition were first obtained for PMSF with a soluble chicken brain fraction and then analyzed using a kinetic model with a multienzymatic system in which inhibition occurred with the simultaneous chemical hydrolysis of the inhibitor and ongoing inhibition (inhibition during the substrate reaction)...
November 19, 2012: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Luo Liu, Michael Braun, Gabi Gebhardt, Dirk Weuster-Botz, Ralf Gross, Rolf D Schmid
12-ketoursodeoxycholic acid (12-keto-UDCA) is a key intermediate for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), an important therapeutic agent for non-surgical treatment of human cholesterol gallstones and various liver diseases. The goal of this study is to develop a new enzymatic route for the synthesis 12-keto-UDCA based on a combination of NADPH-dependent 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH, EC and NADH-dependent 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSDH, EC In the presence of NADPH and NADH, the combination of these enzymes has the capacity to reduce the 3-carbonyl- and 7-carbonyl-groups of dehydrocholic acid (DHCA), forming 12-keto-UDCA in a single step...
January 2013: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jorge Estévez, José Barril, Eugenio Vilanova
The kinetic analysis of esterase inhibition by acylating compounds (organophosphorus carbamates and sulfonyl fluorides) is sometimes unable to yield consistent results by fitting simple inhibition kinetic models to experimental data of complex systems. In this work, kinetic data were obtained for phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) tested at different concentrations incubated for up to 3 h with soluble fraction of chicken peripheral nerve. PMSF is a protease and esterase inhibitor causing protection or potentiation of the organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy and is unstable in water solution...
May 2012: Archives of Toxicology
Raffaella Cusmai, Diego Martinelli, Romina Moavero, Carlo Dionisi Vici, Federico Vigevano, Cinzia Castana, Mirella Elia, Silvia Bernabei, Elsa Bevivino
Non ketotic hyperglycinemia is a rare inborn error of glycine metabolism due to deficient activity of glycine cleavage system, a multienzymatic complex consisting of four protein subunits: the P-protein, the H-protein, the T-protein and the L-protein. The neonatal form of non ketotic hyperglycinemia presents in the first days of life with encephalopathy, seizures, multifocal myoclonus and characteristic "hiccups". Rapid progression may lead to intractable seizures, coma and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation...
September 2012: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Fernando Javier Arévalo, Andrés González-Techera, María Alicia Zon, Gualberto González-Sapienza, Héctor Fernández
Immunosensors for small analytes have been a great addition to the analytical toolbox due to their high sensitivity and extended analytical range. In these systems the analyte is detected when it competes for binding to the detecting antibody with a tracer compound. In this work we introduce the use of phage particles bearing peptides that mimic the target analyte as surrogates for conventional tracers. As a proof of concept, we developed a magneto-electrochemical immunosensor (EI) for the herbicide molinate and compare its performance with conventional formats...
February 15, 2012: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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