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Jonathan Green
At the outset of the French Revolution John Adams penned a series of Discourses of Davila, philosophical ruminations on the sixteenth-century French Wars of Religion. Recent historians have read these Discourses in terms of Adams's Machiavellianism-his conviction that men's passions lead to violence, if unrestrained. But this reading overlooks the extent to which Adams intended his Discourses as a particular investigation into the French nation's character, and into whether the revolutionaries could lay claim to a native, French tradition of mixed constitutional government...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Fabio Marchetti, Jessica Palmucci, Claudio Pettinari, Riccardo Pettinari, Mirko Marangoni, Stefano Ferraro, Rita Giovannetti, Stefania Scuri, Iolanda Grappasonni, Mario Cocchioni, Francisco José Maldonado Hodar, Roberto Gunnella
Novel composite materials PEn (n = 1-9) have been prepared by an easily up-scalable embedding procedure of three different families of Ag(I) acylpyrazolonato complexes in polyethylene (PE) matrix. In details, PE1-PE3 composites contain polynuclear [Ag(Q(R))]n complexes, PE4-PE6 contain mononuclear [Ag(Q(R))(L)m] complexes and PE7-PE9 are loaded with mononuclear [Ag(Q(R)) (PPh3)2] complexes, respectively (where L = 1-methylimidazole or 2-ethylimidazole, m = 1 or 2, and HQ(R) = 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-RC(═O)-5-pyrazolone, where in detail HQ(fb), R = -CF2CF2CF3; HQ(cy), R = -cyclo-C6H11; HQ(be), R = -C(H)═C(CH3)2)...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
K Pichová, B Bilčík, L' Košt'ál
Plumage damage represents one of the animal-based measures of laying hens welfare. Damage occurs predominantly due to age, environment and damaging pecking. IR thermography, due to its non-invasiveness, objectivity and repeatability is a promising alternative to feather damage scoring systems such as the system included in the Welfare Quality ® assessment protocol for poultry. The aim of this study was to apply IR thermography for the assessment of feather damage in laying hens kept in two housing systems and to compare the results with feather scoring...
October 20, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Bas P Hartel, Martijn J H Agterberg, Ad F Snik, Henricus P M Kunst, A John V Opstal, Arjan J Bosman, Ronald J E Pennings
OBJECTIVES: Usher syndrome is the leading cause of hereditary deaf-blindness. Most patients with Usher syndrome type IIa start using hearing aids from a young age. A serious complaint refers to interference between sound localization abilities and adaptive sound processing (compression), as present in today's hearing aids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of advanced signal processing on binaural hearing, including sound localization. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective study, patients were fitted with hearing aids with a nonlinear (compression) and linear amplification program...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
A Farsang, R Lévai, T Barna, K Fábián, S Blome, K Belák, Á Bálint, F Koenen, G Kulcsár
Maternally Derived Antibodies (MDA) can have a negative effect on the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF). For this reason, a marker vaccine candidate CP7_E2alf was tested for its efficacy in the presence of MDA. Pregnant sows were vaccinated four weeks before farrowing with CSF virus (CSFV) strain "Thiverval". A total of 40 piglets with MDAs were included in this study. At six weeks of age the piglets were allocated into three treatment groups using generalized randomized block design (GRBD) blocking on serological status and pen location...
October 15, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
San-Lang Wang, Hsin-Ting Li, Li-Jie Zhang, Zhi-Hu Lin, Yao-Haur Kuo
The culture supernatant of Paenibacillus sp. TKU036, a bacterium isolated from Taiwanese soils, showed high antioxidant activity (85%) when cultured in a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium at 37 °C for three days. Homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA) was isolated and found to be the major antioxidant in the culture supernatant of the SPP-containing medium fermented by Paenibacillus sp. TKU036. Tryptophan was also present in the culture supernatant. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed that HGA and tryptophan were produced via fermentation but did not pre-exist in the unfermented SPP-containing medium...
October 12, 2016: Marine Drugs
A M Api, D Belsito, S Bhatia, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, P Calow, M L Dagli, W Dekant, A D Fryer, L Kromidas, S L A Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, R Parakhia, T M Penning, V T Politano, G Ritacco, D Salvito, T W Schultz, J Shen, I G Sipes, B Wall, D K Wilcox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
S M Sinn, W R Gibbons, M L Brown, J M DeRouchey, C L Levesque
An experimental, microbially enhanced soybean product (MEPRO) was evaluated as a replacement for fishmeal (FM). Assessment of feedstuffs should include estimation of digestibility as well as pig performance and in combination with dietary additives. Digestibility values determined in growing pigs may not apply to nursery pigs; thus, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in MEPRO and FM were determined using 30±1.6 kg BW ileal-cannulated barrows (n=6) and 9.8±1.2 kg BW barrows (n=37; serial slaughter)...
October 18, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Qing-Hua Liu, Sixto Arias, Ko-Pen Wang
The invaluable role of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) in the diagnosis and staging of mediastinal adenopathy and lung cancer has been well established. Different lymph nodes regional nomenclatures and maps had been described over the years. The international association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) and Wang's maps complement each other benefiting patients with lung cancer. In this article we briefly reviewed the roles of IALSC, Wang's maps and ROSE in TBNA.
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Sabitha Papineni, Dale W Fletcher, Gary L Cromwell, Ricardo D Ekmay
Broiler chickens are fast growing monogastric animals considered a sensitive test species to evaluate the safety and nutritional equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety evaluation process. DAS-44406-6 soybean expresses three herbicide-tolerant proteins: the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which provides tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicides, the double-mutant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) enzyme encoded by a modified version of the epsps gene from maize (Zea mays), which provides tolerance to glyphosate herbicides, and the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes, which provides tolerance to glufosinate herbicides...
October 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Brian A Simpson, Ravindra Nannapaneni
BACKGROUND: With its relative simplicity and safety, peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNFS; PENS) is contributing to the re-emergence of peripheral nerve stimulation as an effective therapy for neuropathic pain (NPP). CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old woman had developed severe, medically refractory NPP unilaterally in the scalp and face 20 years earlier, following a maxillofacial surgical procedure. PNFS gave substantial relief of the pain and allodynia and was repeated successfully on a further 25 occasions over the subsequent five years...
October 14, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Getahun E Agga, John W Schmidt, Terrance M Arthur
: Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TET(r)) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC(r)) E. coli We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal health, TET(r) E. coli, and 3GC(r) E. coli A "control group" of cattle (n = 150) received no CTC, while a "CTC group" (n = 150) received in-feed CTC (10 mg/lb of body weight/day) from the 5th to the 9th day after feedlot arrival...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Fatma Ali Mahmoud, Adel Elsayed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Improvement of dairy farms economics requires intensification, automatic milking, and artificial rearing methods. The ability to express normal behavior is one of the five freedoms to achieve animal welfare, whereas the display of abnormal behaviors is considered as an indicator of poor welfare. Cross-sucking is defined as sucking any body parts of pen-mate calves, whereas inter-sucking in cows is defined as sucking the udder or udder area. Previous studies showed that self- and cross-sucking during the calf-hood period could be a causal factor of milk sucking in adulthood...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Natalia Servetto, Ricardo Sahade
The pennatulid Malacobelemnon daytoni is one of the dominant species in Potter Cove, Antarctica. Its abundance and range of distribution have increased in recent years probably related to climate change mediated alterations of environmental factors. This work is the second part of a study dealing on the reproductive ecology of Malacobelemnon daytoni, and aims to assess its reproductive seasonality over a two-year period. Sampling was carried out every month during 2009-2010 and samples were examined by histological analysis...
2016: PloS One
Di Ma, Chong-Bo Chen, Jiajian Liang, Zhihao Lu, Haoyu Chen, Mingzhi Zhang
Tono-Pen and TonoVet have been used in rabbits to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) and investigate the effect of IOP lowering therapies. Therefore, their reliability and accuracy are very important and deserve careful evaluation. Our results showed that the with-subject deviation (Sw) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the TonoVet and Tono-Pen were 0.61 mmHg/0.83 mmHg and 0.97/0.94, respectively for intrasession repeatability. For intersession reproducibility, the Sw and ICC of TonoVet and Tono-Pen were 1...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Gilani, G S Howarth, S M Kitessa, C D Tran, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health in chickens. As there is limited literature on in vivo biomarkers to assess increased IP in chickens, the objective of this study was to identify a reliable biomarker of IP using DSS ingestion and fasting models. Male Ross chickens (n = 48) were reared until day 14 on the floor pen in an animal care facility, randomized into the following groups: control, DSS and fasting (each with n = 16), and then placed in metabolism cages. DSS was administered in drinking water at 0...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Eiko Yokota, Yuko Koyanagi, Kiyofumi Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Oi, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
The insular cortex (IC) plays a principal role in the regulation of pain processing. Although opioidergic agonists depress cortical excitatory synaptic transmission, little is known about opioidergic roles in inhibitory synaptic transmission. In the IC, the opioid receptors differentially regulate the excitatory propagation: agonists of the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) exhibit suppressive, facilitative, and little effects, respectively. Thus, we aimed to examine the effects of opioid receptor agonists on unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) in the IC...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Amit Kumar, Sungi Kim, Jwa-Min Nam
The localized surface plasmon resonance of metal nanopar-ticles is the collective oscillation of electrons on particle surface, and is a particle composition, morphology and cou-pling-dependent property. Plasmonic engineering deals with highly precise formation of the targeted nanostructures with targeted plasmonic properties (e.g., electromagnetic field distribution and enhancement) via controlled synthetic, assembling and atomic/molecular tuning strategies. These plasmonically engineered nanostructures (PENs) have a variety of unique and beneficial physical, chemical and bio-logical properties including optical signal enhancement, catalytic property and local temperature-tuning photother-mal property...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Qiu Jue Wu, Yu Qin Wang, Yan Xia Qi
BACKGROUND: A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the protective effect of procyanidin (PCA) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute gut injury by the regulations of oxidative state for a 21-days feeding trial. METHODS: A total of 384 1-days-old broiler chicks were assigned to 8 treatments with 8 replicate of 6 broiler chickens per pen. Broiler chickens fed diets based on 4 levels of dietary PCA (0, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 % of the requirements)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Boris H Kramer, G Sander van Doorn, Franz J Weissing, Ido Pen
The extraordinarily long lifespans of queens (and kings) in eusocial insects and the strikingly large differences in life expectancy between workers and queens challenge our understanding of the evolution of aging and provide unique opportunities for studying the causes underlying adaptive variation in lifespan within species. Here we review the major evolutionary theories of aging, focusing on their scope and limitations when applied to social insects. We show that reproductive division of labor, interactions between kin, caste-specific gene regulation networks, and the integration of colony-level trade-offs with individual-level trade-offs provide challenges to the classical theories We briefly indicate how these challenges could be met in future models of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in lifespan between and within different castes...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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