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Raghad A Abdaljaleel, Morouj Al-Ajeeli, Yasser Jameel, Mohammed M Hashim, Christopher A Bailey
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether or not the use of a prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) affects threonine requirements in starter broilers. Two hundred and forty 1-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were distributed among 2 Petersime battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds per pen). Different threonine to lysine ratios (0.60, 0.65, and 0.70 to 1.0) with 1.22% available lysine with and without YCW at 250 ppm was fed to the chickens in order to evaluate performance and intestinal morphology over a 21-d trial...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Hongbo Yi, Guangda Yang, Yunxia Xiong, Xiaolu Wen, Zhilin Wang, Xuefen Yang, Kaiguo Gao, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, a new strain isolated from the feces of weaned pigs, on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. A total of 144 weaned pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 21 d of age) with an initial BW of 6.49 ± 0.02 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens, each of per treatment and 6 pigs. Pigs were fed a basal diet (CON, controls), the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 75 mg/kg aureomycin (OA) or the basal diet supplemented with 5×1010 cfu/kg L...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Diogo Casal, Eduarda Mota-Silva, Inês Iria, Sara Alves, Ana Farinho, Cláudia Pen, Nuno Lourenço-Silva, Luís Mascarenhas-Lemos, José Silva-Ferreira, Mário Ferraz-Oliveira, Valentina Vassilenko, Paula Alexandra Videira, João Goyri-O'Neill, Diogo Pais
The aim of this study was to evaluate in the Wistar rat the efficacy of various autologous nerve conduits with various forms of blood supply in reconstructing a 10-mm-long gap in the median nerve (MN) under conditions of local ischemia. A 10-mm-long median nerve defect was created in the right arm. A loose silicone tube was placed around the nerve gap zone, in order to simulate a local ischemic environment. Rats were divided in the following experimental groups (each with 20 rats): the nerve Graft (NG) group, in which the excised MN segment was reattached; the conventional nerve flap (CNF) and the arterialized neurovenous flap (ANVF) groups in which the gap was bridged with homonymous median nerve flaps; the prefabricated nerve flap (PNF) group in which the gap was reconstructed with a fabricated flap created by leaving an arteriovenous fistula in contact with the sciatic nerve for 5 weeks; and the two control groups, Sham and Excision groups...
2018: PloS One
Heron Werner, Maene Marcondes, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Bianca Guedes Ribeiro, Renata Nogueira, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare three-dimensional (3D) fetal malformation images obtained using ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the same day during the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: Total 33 fetuses were selected from cases evaluated for malformations. Morphological abnormalities were first scanned using 3DUS . MRI was used to confirm the previous preliminary 3DUS findings, and diagnoses were confirmed postnatally. 3DUS scans were performed transabdominally using an Rab (4-8 L) probe, Voluson 730 Pro/Expert and E8 (General Electric, Healthcare, Zipf, Austria)...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
P G González-Pech, C G Marín-Tun, D A Valladares-González, J Ventura-Cordero, G I Ortiz-Ocampo, R Cámara-Sarmiento, C Sandoval-Castro, J F J Torres-Acosta
Animal habituation is key to obtain reliable data on behavioural studies but detailed procedures to achieve it are scarce. This study designed a set of actions to habituate sheep and goats to human observers. Pelibuey sheep (n = 15) and Criollo goats (n = 10) were classified as (a) avoider, flight from human interaction, or (b) follower, seek human interaction. Habituation was measured by the reduction of flight distance by avoiders, or number of followers in the presence of observers. The habituation protocol consisted of a gradually increased series of five manoeuvres, either challenge (for avoiders) or evasion (for seekers), performed first inside a pen and subsequently in a grass paddock...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
E D Testroet, D C Beitz, M R O'Neil, A L Mueller, H A Ramirez-Ramirez, S Clark
Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to lactating dairy cows has been implicated as a cause of late blowing defects in the production of Swiss-style cheeses. Our objectives were (1) to test the effect of feeding reduced-fat DDGS (RF-DDGS; ∼6% fat) to lactating dairy cows on the composition of milk and on the suitability of the milk for production of baby Swiss cheese and (2) to evaluate the effect of diet on cow lactation performance. Lactating Holstein dairy cows were fed both dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 crossover design...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Richard H Parker, Chenghui Yu, Weicheng Zhong, Brian Estey, Holger Müller
Measurements of the fine-structure constant α require methods from across subfields and are thus powerful tests of the consistency of theory and experiment in physics. Using the recoil frequency of cesium-133 atoms in a matter-wave interferometer, we recorded the most accurate measurement of the fine-structure constant to date: α = 1/137.035999046(27) at 2.0 × 10-10 accuracy. Using multiphoton interactions (Bragg diffraction and Bloch oscillations), we demonstrate the largest phase (12 million radians) of any Ramsey-Bordé interferometer and control systematic effects at a level of 0...
April 13, 2018: Science
Prasanta Paul, Cari Sänger-van de Griend, Erwin Adams, Ann Van Schepdael
A simple and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method was developed and validated for the determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate, ampicillin, phenoxymethyl penicillin (Pen V) as well as flucloxacillin. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was employed as detection Mode that Makes CE a simple and economic tool for Money-constrained laboratories. The developed Method is straightforward and user-friendly. It offers good sensitivity and sufficient selectivity for the routine assay of the selected penicillins...
April 12, 2018: Electrophoresis
Nicola D Ridgers, Anna Timperio, Helen Brown, Kylie Ball, Susie Macfarlane, Samuel K Lai, Kara Richards, Kelly A Mackintosh, Melitta A McNarry, Megan Foster, Jo Salmon
BACKGROUND: Wearable activity trackers have the potential to be integrated into physical activity interventions, yet little is known about how adolescents use these devices or perceive their acceptability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the usability and acceptability of a wearable activity tracker among adolescents. A secondary aim was to determine adolescents' awareness and use of the different functions and features in the wearable activity tracker and accompanying app...
April 11, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Shenfei Long, Yetong Xu, Chunlin Wang, Changlian Li, Dewen Liu, Xiang-Shu Piao
Objective: This study was to evaluate effects of mixed plant oils [identified as mixed oil 1 (MO1) and mixed oil 2 (MO2)] on performance, serum composition, viscera percentages, meat quality, and fatty acid deposition of broilers. Methods: A total of 126 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chicks (weighing 44.91 ± 0.92 g) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments with 7 replicate pens per treatment (6 broilers per pen). Dietary treatments included a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with 3% soybean oil (CTR), basal diet with 3% MO1 (a mixture of 15% corn oil, 10% coconut oil, 15% linseed oil, 20% palm oil, 15% peanut oil and 25% soybean oil; MO1), or basal diet with 3% MO2 (a combination of 50% MO1 and 50% extruded corn; MO2)...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Hwan Ku Kang, Seong Bok Park, Jin Joo Jeon, Hyun Soo Kim, Ki Tae Park, Sang Ho Kim, Eui Chul Hong, Chan Ho Kim
Objective: This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. Methods: A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Yiwu Zheng, Xiaoting Meng, Yaqi Wu, Yibing Zhao, Chuanliu Wu
Disulfide-rich peptides are interesting scaffolds for drug design and discovery. However, peptide scaffolds constrained by disulfide bonds, either naturally occurring or computationally designed, have been suffering from the elusive (oxidative) folding behavior complying with Anfinsen's dogma, which strongly restricts their applicability in bioactive peptide design and discovery; because when primary peptide sequences are extensively manipulated, their disulfide connectivities might become scrambled. Here we present the design of cysteine/penicillamine (C/Pen)-mixed peptide frameworks that are capable of folding into specific regioisomers without dependence on primary amino acid sequences...
January 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Paolo Morgagni, Leonardo Solaini, Luca Saragoni, Maria Bencivenga, Uberto Fumagalli Romario, Luigina Graziosi, Elisabetta Marino, Daniele Marrelli, Stefano Rausei, Fausto Rosa, Emanuela Scarpi, Anna Tomezzoli, Domenico Tringali, Carla Vindigni, Giovanni Vittimberga, Franco Roviello
BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of Kodama PenA subtype in influencing survival in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). METHODS: All patients surgically treated for EGC at 7 Italian centers (Forlì, Varese, Siena, Verona, Milan, Rome and Perugia) belonging to the Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer (GIRCG) from January 1982 and December 2009 were included. RESULTS: PenA patients were 230 (21.5%) while other types were 839 (78...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
K Sarjokari, M Hovinen, L Seppä-Lassila, M Norring, T Hurme, O A T Peltoniemi, T Soveri, P J Rajala-Schultz
On-farm death (OFD) of a dairy cow is always a financial loss for a farmer, and potentially a welfare issue that has to be addressed within the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between OFD of dairy cows, housing, and herd management in freestall barns. To achieve the goal, we followed 10,837 cows calving in 2011 in 82 herds. Data were gathered with observations and a structured interview during farm visits and from a national dairy herd improvement database. The hazard of OFD was modeled with a shared frailty survival model, with SAS 9...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, P Calow, M L Dagli, W Dekant, A D Fryer, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
E R Grela, A Czech, G Kusior, A Szczotka-Bochniarz, R Klebaniuk
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of two feeding systems for fattening pigs (wet and dry), taking into account their sex, on performance, nutrient digestibility, and some histological and microbiological parameters of the gut. The study was conducted on 450 fattening pigs, divided into 6 groups (n = 75) and housed in pens with 15 pigs per pen. The first three groups, divided according to sex, i.e. gilts, barrows and boars subjected to immunocastration (B-I), received complete dry feed, while the next three, divided in the same manner according to sex, were fed a fermented liquid diet...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Guro Vasdal, Judit Vas, Ruth C Newberry, Randi Oppermann Moe
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of commercially applied environmental enrichments on behavior and lameness in broilers. Two consecutive flocks of broilers were observed at 16 days and 30 days of age to investigate differences between enriched (peat, bales of lucerne hay, and elevated platforms) and control birds with regards to behavioral activities and lameness. More running (p < .001), worm running (p = .006), play fighting (p = .015), dust bathing (p = .009), and ground pecking while standing (p < ...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
(no author information available yet)
In the nineteenth century, when poetry was more widely read and memorized, Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1833) was hugely popular, and no poem of his was more popular and better known than "Ulysses." Even today many know the rousing call to action, which closes the poem: "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield." Ulysses, the Roman name for Odysseus, has returned home an old man after 20 years of fighting in Troy and wandering, and he faces an existential crisis: the tension between his obligation to his wife Penelope, son Telemachus, and his kingdom and his need to continue a personal journey of discovery...
January 2018: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
Stefano Schiavon, Mirco Dalla Bona, Giuseppe Carcò, Luca Carraro, Lutz Bunger, Luigi Gallo
The hypothesis that pigs placed on diets with reduced indispensable amino acid (AA) content attempts to offset the reduction in the nutrient density with increased feed intake was tested. In the experiment, feeds with a high or a low AA content were administrated to pigs fed ad-libitum or restrictively according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. Ninety-six barrows were housed in 8 pens (12 pigs/pen) equipped with automatic feeders. Within pen, and from 47 body weight (BW) onwards, 6 pigs were fed ad libitum. The others pigs were allowed to consume, as a maximum, the feed amounts indicated by the breeding company feeding plane to optimize the feed efficiency...
2018: PloS One
W Evan Chaney, Rebecca Maloney, Bradley J Johnson, J Chance Brooks, Mindy M Brashears, Guy H Loneragan
Inclusion of distillers' grains (DGs) has been associated with increased prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle housed in research settings. Our objective was to quantify the relationship between inclusion of DGs in commercial feedlot rations and the burden of E. coli O157. A convenience sample of 10 feedlots was enrolled based on DG use in finishing diets; 1 cohort included 5 feedlots in which DGs were greater than 15% of the dietary dry matter and the other cohort consisted of 5 feedlots at a concentration less than 8%...
April 5, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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