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respiratory neurobiology

Sheldon H Preskorn
This column is the fifth in a series examining the advances being made in central nervous system drug development because of advances in molecular pharmacology and an improved understanding of the neurobiology underlying disturbances in brain function including psychiatric illnesses. This column covers the special animal and human studies conducted as part of the development of suvorexant, which is the first in the class of dual orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonists to be approved; it has an indication for the treatment of disturbances in sleep onset and maintenance...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Scott D Adams, Abbas Z Kouzani, Susannah J Tye, Kevin E Bennet, Michael Berk
Dynamic feedback based closed-loop medical devices offer a number of advantages for treatment of heterogeneous neurological conditions. Closed-loop devices integrate a level of neurobiological feedback, which allows for real-time adjustments to be made with the overarching aim of improving treatment efficacy and minimizing risks for adverse events. One target which has not been extensively explored as a potential feedback component in closed-loop therapies is mitochondrial function. Several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, Major Depressive disorder and Bipolar disorder have been linked to perturbations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Atul Malhotra, Alan R Schwartz, Hartmut Schneider, Robert L Owens, Pamela DeYoung, MeiLan K Han, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Nadia N Hansel, Michelle R Zeidler, Kevin C Wilson, M Safwan Badr
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions; the co-occurrence of these diseases, called the overlap syndrome (OVS), has been associated with poor health outcomes. PURPOSE: The purpose of this Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement is to describe pathophysiology, epidemiology, outcomes, diagnostic metrics, and treatment of OVS, as well as to identify important gaps in knowledge and make recommendations for future research...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Najib T Ayas, Cheryl R Laratta, John M Coleman, Anthony G Doufas, Matthias Eikermann, Peter C Gay, Daniel J Gottlieb, Indira Gurubhagavatula, David R Hillman, Roop Kaw, Atul Malhotra, Babak Mokhlesi, Timothy I Morgenthaler, Sairam Parthasarathy, Satya Krishna Ramachandran, Kingman P Strohl, Patrick J Strollo, Michael J Twery, Phyllis C Zee, Frances F Chung
The purpose of this workshop was to identify knowledge gaps in the perioperative management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). A single-day meeting was held at the American Thoracic Society Conference in May, 2016, with representation from many specialties, including anesthesiology, perioperative medicine, sleep, and respiratory medicine. Further research is urgently needed as we look to improve health outcomes for these patients and reduce health care costs. There is currently insufficient evidence to guide screening and optimization of OSA and OHS in the perioperative setting to achieve these objectives...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ryan J Giuliano, Leslie E Roos, Jessica D Farrar, Elizabeth A Skowron
A child's cumulative risk for early exposure to stress has been linked to alterations of self-regulation outcomes, including neurobiological correlates of inhibitory control (IC). We examined whether children's ability to engage the parasympathetic nervous system impacts how risk affects IC. Children ages 3-5 years completed two laboratory measures of IC while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured, indexing parasympathetic activity. Children with greater risk demonstrated lower IC; risk also moderated associations between RSA reactivity and IC...
January 18, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Hesong Liu, Samina Salim
Air pollution resulting from exhaust emissions of vehicles has risen in the recent years, reportedly causing major adverse effects on the heart, lungs and the brain. Though respiratory and cardiovascular effects of these emissions are well identified, psychological and neurobiological complications of prolonged exposure to vehicle emissions remain unknown. Pro-oxidants are considered as major constituents of vehicle emissions. This is important considering causal link between oxidative stress and behavioral and cognitive impairments...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicholas D Thomson, Luna C M Centifanti
This study aimed to assess whether groups of aggressive children differed on psychopathic traits, and neuropsychological and neurobiological measures of prefrontal functioning consistent with the objectives of their aggression-reactive or proactive. Including 110 typically developing children (9-11 years), a latent class analysis identified a low aggression group, a high reactive aggression group, and a mixed (high reactive and proactive) aggression group. Results show high callous-unemotional traits and low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia increased the likelihood of children being in the mixed aggression group, when compared to the reactive and low aggression groups...
July 5, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Teruki Hagiwara, Shigeru Yoshida, Yuji Hidaka
PURPOSE: The concentration-sensitive sodium channel (NaC) is expressed in alveolar type II epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in mouse lungs. We recently reported that NaC contributes to amiloride-insensitive sodium transport in mouse lungs (Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 2016). However, details regarding its physiological role in the lung remain unknown. To examine whether NaC is involved in alveolar fluid clearance during an acute lung injury (ALI), we analyzed the relationship between NaC gene expression in the lung and the development of pulmonary edema in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
Kristin A Buss, Elizabeth L Davis, Nilam Ram, Michael Coccia
Behavioral inhibition indicates increased risk for development of social anxiety. Recent work has identified a pattern of dysregulated fear (DF), characterized by high fear in low-threat situations, that provides a more precise marker of developmental risk through early childhood. This study tested a new longitudinal sample of children (n = 124) from ages 24 to 48 months. Replicating prior findings, at 24 months, we identified a pattern of fearful behavior across contexts marked by higher fear to putatively low-threat situations...
March 21, 2017: Child Development
Yu Gao, Yonglin Huang, Xiaobo Li
BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that neurobiological deficits combine with psychosocial risk factors to impact on the development of antisocial behavior. The current study concentrated on the interplay of prenatal maternal stress and autonomic arousal in predicting antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. METHODS: Prenatal maternal stress was assessed by caregiver's retrospective report, and resting heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured in 295 8- to 10-year-old children...
March 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Nathaniel J Blanco, Celeste L Saucedo, F Gonzalez-Lima
This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation on category learning tasks. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation is a new non-invasive form of brain stimulation that shows promise for wide-ranging experimental and neuropsychological applications. It involves using infrared laser to enhance cerebral oxygenation and energy metabolism through upregulation of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, the primary infrared photon acceptor in cells...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Arin M Connell, Glen C Dawson, Sarah Danzo, Hannah N McKillop
Parenting is a complex activity driven, in part, by parental emotional and physiological responses. However, work examining the physiological underpinnings of parenting behavior is still in its infancy, and very few studies have examined such processes beyond early childhood. The current study examines associations between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) indices of parents' physiological reactivity to positive and negative mood states and observed parental affect during a series of discussion tasks with their adolescent child...
February 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Jonathon Holland, Richard Brown
During pregnancy, the developing fetal brain may be exposed to a range of psychotropic medications. The serotonin-noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine is one such drug, when used as a maternal antidepressant. Here we review the discontinuation phenomenon that may follow in exposed neonates following birth. Adults who abruptly stop taking venlafaxine can experience withdrawal symptoms. Venlafaxine and its metabolites cross the placenta and so the newborn can be exposed to this risk, as well as potential toxicity...
March 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Kimberly A Babel, Tijs Jambroes, Sanne Oostermeijer, Peter M van de Ven, Arne Popma, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Theo A H Doreleijers, Lucres M C Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Attenuated activity of stress-regulating systems has consistently been reported in boys with conduct problems. Results in studies of girls are inconsistent, which may result from the high prevalence of comorbid post-trauma symptoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate post-trauma symptoms as a potential mediator in the relation between stress-regulation systems functioning and conduct problems in female adolescents. METHODS: The sample consisted of 78 female adolescents (mean age 15...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
L Wei, Y An, J Wang
Nitric oxide mediates multiple physiological functions, including neurotransmission, immune regulation, angiogenesis, antiplatelet activity, and surfactant maturation or secretion. Mice deficient in the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) gene displayed defective lung vascular development and fatal respiratory distress. Polymorphisms in NOS3 have been reported to be associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The role of NOS3 polymorphisms as a risk factor for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) was evaluated by analyzing the possible functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory and coding regions of NOS3...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Crista A Hopp, Ida Sue Baron
OBJECTIVE: Children delivered at the edge of viability are at greatest risk of medical and neuropsychological disability, their adverse outcomes overshadowing extremely preterm survivors with more optimal outcomes. We aimed to describe an exceptionally early-born extremely preterm (EEEP) preschooler whose neurobiological, familial, and socioeconomic factors likely influenced her unexpected cognitive resilience. METHOD: Baby G was a 3-years 10-months-old, English-speaking, Caucasian, singleton girl born weighing 435 g at 22(5/7) weeks' gestation to well-educated married parents...
February 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
N K Leibold, D L A van den Hove, W Viechtbauer, G F Buchanan, L Goossens, I Lange, I Knuts, K P Lesch, H W M Steinbusch, K R J Schruers
The current diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are being challenged by the heterogeneity and the symptom overlap of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a framework toward a more etiology-based classification has been initiated by the US National Institute of Mental Health, the research domain criteria project. The basic neurobiology of human psychiatric disorders is often studied in rodent models. However, the differences in outcome measurements hamper the translation of knowledge...
September 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Denis E O'Donnell, Amany F Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Donald A Mahler
Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Anna Maria Lavezzi, Stefano Ferrero, Luca Roncati, Luigi Matturri, Teresa Pusiol
OBJECTIVES: As well known, the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of a seemingly healthy infant during sleep, frequently resulted from a deficit in arousal phase. Awakening from sleep requires a fully developed and functioning neuronal respiratory network to modulate the ventilation as needed. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) plays a pivotal role in breathing control, thanks to its interconnections with the widespread serotonin and noradrenaline neurons in the brainstem...
August 2016: Neurological Research
William O Tatum, Emily K Acton, Michael E Langston, Kirsten Yelvington, Cammi Bowman, Jerry J Shih, William P Cheshire
PURPOSE: To assess and compare peak, multimodal ictal vital signs (iVS) during epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). METHODS: Between 4/1/2010 and 4/1/2011, 183 adults had video-EEG monitoring, with 96 consecutive patients meeting inclusion criteria. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SaO2), and blood pressure (BP) were obtained at baseline and during an ictus. The motor semiology of each ES and PNES was also assessed. Student t-test, Fischer's Test, Wilcoxon Test (p=<0...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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