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respiratory neurobiology

L Wei, Y An, J Wang
Nitric oxide mediates multiple physiological functions, including neurotransmission, immune regulation, angiogenesis, antiplatelet activity, and surfactant maturation or secretion. Mice deficient in the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) gene displayed defective lung vascular development and fatal respiratory distress. Polymorphisms in NOS3 have been reported to be associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The role of NOS3 polymorphisms as a risk factor for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) was evaluated by analyzing the possible functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory and coding regions of NOS3...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Crista A Hopp, Ida Sue Baron
OBJECTIVE: Children delivered at the edge of viability are at greatest risk of medical and neuropsychological disability, their adverse outcomes overshadowing extremely preterm survivors with more optimal outcomes. We aimed to describe an exceptionally early-born extremely preterm (EEEP) preschooler whose neurobiological, familial, and socioeconomic factors likely influenced her unexpected cognitive resilience. METHOD: Baby G was a 3-years 10-months-old, English-speaking, Caucasian, singleton girl born weighing 435 g at 22(5/7) weeks' gestation to well-educated married parents...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
N K Leibold, D L A van den Hove, W Viechtbauer, G F Buchanan, L Goossens, I Lange, I Knuts, K P Lesch, H W M Steinbusch, K R J Schruers
The current diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are being challenged by the heterogeneity and the symptom overlap of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a framework toward a more etiology-based classification has been initiated by the US National Institute of Mental Health, the research domain criteria project. The basic neurobiology of human psychiatric disorders is often studied in rodent models. However, the differences in outcome measurements hamper the translation of knowledge...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Denis E O'Donnell, Amany F Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Donald A Mahler
Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Anna Maria Lavezzi, Stefano Ferrero, Luca Roncati, Luigi Matturri, Teresa Pusiol
OBJECTIVES: As well known, the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of a seemingly healthy infant during sleep, frequently resulted from a deficit in arousal phase. Awakening from sleep requires a fully developed and functioning neuronal respiratory network to modulate the ventilation as needed. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) plays a pivotal role in breathing control, thanks to its interconnections with the widespread serotonin and noradrenaline neurons in the brainstem...
August 2016: Neurological Research
William O Tatum, Emily K Acton, Michael E Langston, Kirsten Yelvington, Cammi Bowman, Jerry J Shih, William P Cheshire
PURPOSE: To assess and compare peak, multimodal ictal vital signs (iVS) during epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). METHODS: Between 4/1/2010 and 4/1/2011, 183 adults had video-EEG monitoring, with 96 consecutive patients meeting inclusion criteria. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SaO2), and blood pressure (BP) were obtained at baseline and during an ictus. The motor semiology of each ES and PNES was also assessed. Student t-test, Fischer's Test, Wilcoxon Test (p=<0...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Stuart B Mazzone, Bradley J Undem
Vagal sensory neurons constitute the major afferent supply to the airways and lungs. Subsets of afferents are defined by their embryological origin, molecular profile, neurochemistry, functionality, and anatomical organization, and collectively these nerves are essential for the regulation of respiratory physiology and pulmonary defense through local responses and centrally mediated neural pathways. Mechanical and chemical activation of airway afferents depends on a myriad of ionic and receptor-mediated signaling, much of which has yet to be fully explored...
July 2016: Physiological Reviews
Denis E O'Donnell, Katherine A Webb, Ingrid Harle, J Alberto Neder
INTRODUCTION: Activity-related breathlessness is often the dominant symptom in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and usually persists despite optimal medical therapy. Currently, our inability to meaningfully alter the pathophysiology of the underlying disease means that we must focus our attention on relieving this distressing symptom so as to improve exercise tolerance and quality of life. AREAS COVERED: The current review examines the neurobiology of breathlessness and constructs a solid physiological rationale for amelioration of this distressing symptom...
July 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Ramona Lehmann, Nicole Schöbel, Hanns Hatt, Christoph van Thriel
Peripheral nerves innervating the mucosae of the nose, mouth, and throat protect the organism against chemical hazards. Upon their stimulation, characteristic perceptions (e.g., stinging and burning) and various reflexes are triggered (e.g., sneezing and cough). The potency of a chemical to cause sensory irritation can be estimated by a mouse bioassay assessing the concentration-dependent decrease in the respiratory rate (50 % decrease: RD50). The involvement of the N. trigeminus and its sensory neurons in the irritant-induced decrease in respiratory rates are not well understood to date...
June 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Ayaka Ando, David Smallwood, Marcus McMahon, Louis Irving, Stuart B Mazzone, Michael J Farrell
INTRODUCTION: Chronic non-productive coughing is a major complication of pulmonary disease and can also occur in many individuals without identifiable underlying pathology. The common clinical link in patients with cough is an enhanced sensitivity of the respiratory system to stimuli that subsequently evoke excessive coughing. The aetiology of this 'cough hypersensitivity syndrome' is unclear but believed to involve hypersensitivity of the sensory neural pathways that innervate the airways and lungs...
April 2016: Thorax
Sara J Bonvini, Mark A Birrell, Megan S Grace, Sarah A Maher, John J Adcock, Michael A Wortley, Eric Dubuis, Yee-Man Ching, Anthony P Ford, Fisnik Shala, Montserrat Miralpeix, Gema Tarrason, Jaclyn A Smith, Maria G Belvisi
BACKGROUND: Sensory nerves innervating the airways play an important role in regulating various cardiopulmonary functions, maintaining homeostasis under healthy conditions and contributing to pathophysiology in disease states. Hypo-osmotic solutions elicit sensory reflexes, including cough, and are a potent stimulus for airway narrowing in asthmatic patients, but the mechanisms involved are not known. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4) is widely expressed in the respiratory tract, but its role as a peripheral nociceptor has not been explored...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Manyong Park, Sungchul Kim
Saam acupuncture is one of the original therapeutic modalities representing traditional Korean medicine. It was originally described in a manuscript that is estimated to be published at some point between 1644 and 1742, in the middle of the Cho Sun dynasty, by a Korean Buddhist monk whose name is unknown. The principle of combining five shu points is based on the theory of Nan-jing. The treatment and diagnosis concepts in Saam acupuncture were mainly influenced by Dongeuibogam and Chimgoogyeong-heombang. The basic characteristic of combining five shu points in Saam acupuncture is the selection of the tonification and sedation points along the self-meridian and other meridians based on creation and governor relationships...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ana Paula Abdala, Marie A Toward, Mathias Dutschmann, John M Bissonnette, Julian F R Paton
Life threatening breathing irregularity and central apnoeas are highly prevalent in children suffering from Rett syndrome. Abnormalities in inhibitory synaptic transmission have been associated with the physiopathology of this syndrome, and may underlie the respiratory disorder. In a mouse model of Rett syndrome, GABAergic terminal projections are markedly reduced in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF) in the dorsolateral pons, an important centre for control of respiratory rhythm regularity. Administration of a drug that augments endogenous GABA localized to this region of the pons reduced the incidence of apnoea and the respiratory irregularity of Rett female mice...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Alexandria K Driessen, Michael J Farrell, Stuart B Mazzone, Alice E McGovern
The respiratory system is densely innervated by sensory neurons arising from the jugular (superior) and nodose (inferior) vagal ganglia. However, a distinction exists between jugular and nodose neurons as these ganglia developmentally originate from the neural crest and the epibranchial placodes, respectively. This different embryological origin underpins an important source of heterogeneity in vagal afferent biology, and may extend to include fundamentally different central neural circuits that are in receipt of jugular versus nodose afferent inputs...
June 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ruth Feldman
Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years...
November 2015: Development and Psychopathology
Charles Francisco Ferreira, Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi, Diego Carrilho da Silva, Natividade de Sá Couto-Pereira, Carina de Souza Mota, Rachel Krolow, Simone Nardin Weis, Letícia Pettenuzzo, Flávio Kapczinski, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, Carla Dalmaz
Chronic dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency may lead to changes in cortex and hippocampus neuronal membrane phospholipids, and may be linked to impaired central nervous system function. Particularly docosahexaenoic acid deficiency appears to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders. On the other hand, adverse events early in life may also profoundly affect brain development, leading to long-lasting effects on neurophysiology, neurobiology and behavior. This research assessed if neonatal stress and a dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency could interact to produce hippocampal alterations related to mitochondrial functions in adult rats...
September 2015: Neurochemical Research
Rebekah M Ahmed, Rowena E A Newcombe, Amanda J Piper, Simon J Lewis, Brendon J Yee, Matthew C Kiernan, Ron R Grunstein
Sleep disorders in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) present a significant challenge to the management of patients. Issues include the maintenance of adequate ventilatory status through techniques such as non-invasive ventilation, which has the ability to modulate survival and improve patient quality of life. Here, a multidisciplinary approach to the management of these disorders is reviewed, from concepts about the underlying neurobiological basis, through to current management approaches and future directions for research...
April 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
B B Árnason, H Þorsteinsson, K Æ Karlsson
Sleep is not a uniform phenomenon, but is organized in alternating, fundamentally different states, rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have recently emerged as an excellent model for sleep research. Zebrafish are well characterized in terms of development, neurobiology and genetics. Moreover, there are many experimental tools not easily applied in mammalian models that can be readily applied to zebrafish, making them a valuable additional animal model for sleep research...
September 15, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Alessandra Luchetti, Diego Oddi, Valentina Lampis, Eleonora Centofante, Armando Felsani, Marco Battaglia, Francesca R D'Amato
Early life events have a crucial role in programming the individual phenotype and exposure to traumatic experiences during infancy can increase later risk for a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including mood and anxiety disorders. Animal models of postnatal stress have been developed in rodents to explore molecular mechanisms responsible for the observed short and long lasting neurobiological effects of such manipulations. The main aim of this study was to compare the behavioral and hormonal phenotype of young and adult animals exposed to different postnatal treatments...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
N K Leibold, D L A van den Hove, G Esquivel, K De Cort, L Goossens, E Strackx, G F Buchanan, H W M Steinbusch, K P Lesch, K R J Schruers
Panic attacks (PAs), the core feature of panic disorder, represent a common phenomenon in the general adult population and are associated with a considerable decrease in quality of life and high health care costs. To date, the underlying pathophysiology of PAs is not well understood. A unique feature of PAs is that they represent a rare example of a psychopathological phenomenon that can be reliably modeled in the laboratory in panic disorder patients and healthy volunteers. The most effective techniques to experimentally trigger PAs are those that acutely disturb the acid-base homeostasis in the brain: inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2), hyperventilation, and lactate infusion...
June 2015: Progress in Neurobiology
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