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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814807/psychological-impact-of-vehicle-exhaust-exposure-insights-from-an-animal-model
#1
Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Hesong Liu, Samina Salim
Air pollution resulting from exhaust emissions of vehicles has risen in the recent years, reportedly causing major adverse effects on the heart, lungs and the brain. Though respiratory and cardiovascular effects of these emissions are well identified, psychological and neurobiological complications of prolonged exposure to vehicle emissions remain unknown. Pro-oxidants are considered as major constituents of vehicle emissions. This is important considering causal link between oxidative stress and behavioral and cognitive impairments...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681106/proactive-and-reactive-aggression-subgroups-in-typically-developing-children-the-role-of-executive-functioning-psychophysiology-and-psychopathy
#2
Nicholas D Thomson, Luna C M Centifanti
This study aimed to assess whether groups of aggressive children differed on psychopathic traits, and neuropsychological and neurobiological measures of prefrontal functioning consistent with the objectives of their aggression-reactive or proactive. Including 110 typically developing children (9-11 years), a latent class analysis identified a low aggression group, a high reactive aggression group, and a mixed (high reactive and proactive) aggression group. Results show high callous-unemotional traits and low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia increased the likelihood of children being in the mixed aggression group, when compared to the reactive and low aggression groups...
July 5, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557567/gene-expression-of-the-concentration-sensitive-sodium-channel-is-suppressed-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#3
Teruki Hagiwara, Shigeru Yoshida, Yuji Hidaka
PURPOSE: The concentration-sensitive sodium channel (NaC) is expressed in alveolar type II epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in mouse lungs. We recently reported that NaC contributes to amiloride-insensitive sodium transport in mouse lungs (Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 2016). However, details regarding its physiological role in the lung remain unknown. To examine whether NaC is involved in alveolar fluid clearance during an acute lung injury (ALI), we analyzed the relationship between NaC gene expression in the lung and the development of pulmonary edema in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326533/dysregulated-fear-social-inhibition-and-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-a%C3%A2-replication-and-extension
#4
Kristin A Buss, Elizabeth L Davis, Nilam Ram, Michael Coccia
Behavioral inhibition indicates increased risk for development of social anxiety. Recent work has identified a pattern of dysregulated fear (DF), characterized by high fear in low-threat situations, that provides a more precise marker of developmental risk through early childhood. This study tested a new longitudinal sample of children (n = 124) from ages 24 to 48 months. Replicating prior findings, at 24 months, we identified a pattern of fearful behavior across contexts marked by higher fear to putatively low-threat situations...
March 21, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286370/interaction-between-prenatal-maternal-stress-and-autonomic-arousal-in-predicting-conduct-problems-and-psychopathic-traits-in-children
#5
Yu Gao, Yonglin Huang, Xiaobo Li
BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that neurobiological deficits combine with psychosocial risk factors to impact on the development of antisocial behavior. The current study concentrated on the interplay of prenatal maternal stress and autonomic arousal in predicting antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. METHODS: Prenatal maternal stress was assessed by caregiver's retrospective report, and resting heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured in 295 8- to 10-year-old children...
March 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039085/transcranial-infrared-laser-stimulation-improves-rule-based-but-not-information-integration-category-learning-in-humans
#6
Nathaniel J Blanco, Celeste L Saucedo, F Gonzalez-Lima
This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation on category learning tasks. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation is a new non-invasive form of brain stimulation that shows promise for wide-ranging experimental and neuropsychological applications. It involves using infrared laser to enhance cerebral oxygenation and energy metabolism through upregulation of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, the primary infrared photon acceptor in cells...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991809/the-psychophysiology-of-parenting-individual-differences-in-autonomic-reactivity-to-positive-and-negative-mood-inductions-and-observed-parental-affect-during-dyadic-interactions-with-children
#7
Arin M Connell, Glen C Dawson, Sarah Danzo, Hannah N McKillop
Parenting is a complex activity driven, in part, by parental emotional and physiological responses. However, work examining the physiological underpinnings of parenting behavior is still in its infancy, and very few studies have examined such processes beyond early childhood. The current study examines associations between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) indices of parents' physiological reactivity to positive and negative mood states and observed parental affect during a series of discussion tasks with their adolescent child...
February 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931774/neonatal-venlafaxine-discontinuation-syndrome-a-mini-review
#8
REVIEW
Jonathon Holland, Richard Brown
During pregnancy, the developing fetal brain may be exposed to a range of psychotropic medications. The serotonin-noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine is one such drug, when used as a maternal antidepressant. Here we review the discontinuation phenomenon that may follow in exposed neonates following birth. Adults who abruptly stop taking venlafaxine can experience withdrawal symptoms. Venlafaxine and its metabolites cross the placenta and so the newborn can be exposed to this risk, as well as potential toxicity...
March 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822302/do-post-trauma-symptoms-mediate-the-relation-between-neurobiological-stress-parameters-and-conduct-problems-in-girls
#9
Kimberly A Babel, Tijs Jambroes, Sanne Oostermeijer, Peter M van de Ven, Arne Popma, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Theo A H Doreleijers, Lucres M C Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Attenuated activity of stress-regulating systems has consistently been reported in boys with conduct problems. Results in studies of girls are inconsistent, which may result from the high prevalence of comorbid post-trauma symptoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate post-trauma symptoms as a potential mediator in the relation between stress-regulation systems functioning and conduct problems in female adolescents. METHODS: The sample consisted of 78 female adolescents (mean age 15...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706723/association-between-functional-polymorphisms-in-the-nitric-oxide-synthase-3-gene-and-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#10
L Wei, Y An, J Wang
Nitric oxide mediates multiple physiological functions, including neurotransmission, immune regulation, angiogenesis, antiplatelet activity, and surfactant maturation or secretion. Mice deficient in the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) gene displayed defective lung vascular development and fatal respiratory distress. Polymorphisms in NOS3 have been reported to be associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The role of NOS3 polymorphisms as a risk factor for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) was evaluated by analyzing the possible functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory and coding regions of NOS3...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705181/birth-at-22-gestational-weeks-case-report-of-cognitive-resilience
#11
Crista A Hopp, Ida Sue Baron
OBJECTIVE: Children delivered at the edge of viability are at greatest risk of medical and neuropsychological disability, their adverse outcomes overshadowing extremely preterm survivors with more optimal outcomes. We aimed to describe an exceptionally early-born extremely preterm (EEEP) preschooler whose neurobiological, familial, and socioeconomic factors likely influenced her unexpected cognitive resilience. METHOD: Baby G was a 3-years 10-months-old, English-speaking, Caucasian, singleton girl born weighing 435 g at 22(5/7) weeks' gestation to well-educated married parents...
February 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598969/co2-exposure-as-translational-cross-species-experimental-model-for-panic
#12
N K Leibold, D L A van den Hove, W Viechtbauer, G F Buchanan, L Goossens, I Lange, I Knuts, K P Lesch, H W M Steinbusch, K R J Schruers
The current diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are being challenged by the heterogeneity and the symptom overlap of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a framework toward a more etiology-based classification has been initiated by the US National Institute of Mental Health, the research domain criteria project. The basic neurobiology of human psychiatric disorders is often studied in rodent models. However, the differences in outcome measurements hamper the translation of knowledge...
September 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581832/exertional-dyspnoea-in-copd-the-clinical-utility-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#13
REVIEW
Denis E O'Donnell, Amany F Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Donald A Mahler
Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353953/impaired-orexin-receptor-expression-in-the-k%C3%A3-lliker-fuse-nucleus-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-possible-involvement-of-this-nucleus-in-arousal-pathophysiology
#14
Anna Maria Lavezzi, Stefano Ferrero, Luca Roncati, Luigi Matturri, Teresa Pusiol
OBJECTIVES: As well known, the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of a seemingly healthy infant during sleep, frequently resulted from a deficit in arousal phase. Awakening from sleep requires a fully developed and functioning neuronal respiratory network to modulate the ventilation as needed. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) plays a pivotal role in breathing control, thanks to its interconnections with the widespread serotonin and noradrenaline neurons in the brainstem...
August 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295563/multimodality-peak-lctal-vital-signs-during-video-eeg-monitoring
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
William O Tatum, Emily K Acton, Michael E Langston, Kirsten Yelvington, Cammi Bowman, Jerry J Shih, William P Cheshire
PURPOSE: To assess and compare peak, multimodal ictal vital signs (iVS) during epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). METHODS: Between 4/1/2010 and 4/1/2011, 183 adults had video-EEG monitoring, with 96 consecutive patients meeting inclusion criteria. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SaO2), and blood pressure (BP) were obtained at baseline and during an ictus. The motor semiology of each ES and PNES was also assessed. Student t-test, Fischer's Test, Wilcoxon Test (p=<0...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279650/vagal-afferent-innervation-of-the-airways-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Stuart B Mazzone, Bradley J Undem
Vagal sensory neurons constitute the major afferent supply to the airways and lungs. Subsets of afferents are defined by their embryological origin, molecular profile, neurochemistry, functionality, and anatomical organization, and collectively these nerves are essential for the regulation of respiratory physiology and pulmonary defense through local responses and centrally mediated neural pathways. Mechanical and chemical activation of airway afferents depends on a myriad of ionic and receptor-mediated signaling, much of which has yet to be fully explored...
July 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115291/pharmacological-management-of-breathlessness-in-copd-recent-advances-and-hopes-for-the-future
#17
REVIEW
Denis E O'Donnell, Katherine A Webb, Ingrid Harle, J Alberto Neder
INTRODUCTION: Activity-related breathlessness is often the dominant symptom in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and usually persists despite optimal medical therapy. Currently, our inability to meaningfully alter the pathophysiology of the underlying disease means that we must focus our attention on relieving this distressing symptom so as to improve exercise tolerance and quality of life. AREAS COVERED: The current review examines the neurobiology of breathlessness and constructs a solid physiological rationale for amelioration of this distressing symptom...
July 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037703/the-involvement-of-trp-channels-in-sensory-irritation-a-mechanistic-approach-toward-a-better-understanding-of-the-biological-effects-of-local-irritants
#18
Ramona Lehmann, Nicole Schöbel, Hanns Hatt, Christoph van Thriel
Peripheral nerves innervating the mucosae of the nose, mouth, and throat protect the organism against chemical hazards. Upon their stimulation, characteristic perceptions (e.g., stinging and burning) and various reflexes are triggered (e.g., sneezing and cough). The potency of a chemical to cause sensory irritation can be estimated by a mouse bioassay assessing the concentration-dependent decrease in the respiratory rate (50 % decrease: RD50). The involvement of the N. trigeminus and its sensory neurons in the irritant-induced decrease in respiratory rates are not well understood to date...
June 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860344/neural-correlates-of-cough-hypersensitivity-in-humans-evidence-for-central-sensitisation-and-dysfunctional-inhibitory-control
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ayaka Ando, David Smallwood, Marcus McMahon, Louis Irving, Stuart B Mazzone, Michael J Farrell
INTRODUCTION: Chronic non-productive coughing is a major complication of pulmonary disease and can also occur in many individuals without identifiable underlying pathology. The common clinical link in patients with cough is an enhanced sensitivity of the respiratory system to stimuli that subsequently evoke excessive coughing. The aetiology of this 'cough hypersensitivity syndrome' is unclear but believed to involve hypersensitivity of the sensory neural pathways that innervate the airways and lungs...
April 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26792207/transient-receptor-potential-cation-channel-subfamily-v-member-4-and-airway-sensory-afferent-activation-role-of-adenosine-triphosphate
#20
Sara J Bonvini, Mark A Birrell, Megan S Grace, Sarah A Maher, John J Adcock, Michael A Wortley, Eric Dubuis, Yee-Man Ching, Anthony P Ford, Fisnik Shala, Montserrat Miralpeix, Gema Tarrason, Jaclyn A Smith, Maria G Belvisi
BACKGROUND: Sensory nerves innervating the airways play an important role in regulating various cardiopulmonary functions, maintaining homeostasis under healthy conditions and contributing to pathophysiology in disease states. Hypo-osmotic solutions elicit sensory reflexes, including cough, and are a potent stimulus for airway narrowing in asthmatic patients, but the mechanisms involved are not known. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4) is widely expressed in the respiratory tract, but its role as a peripheral nociceptor has not been explored...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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