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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738611/influence-of-graviceptors-stimulation-initiated-by-off-vertical-axis-rotation-on-ventilation
#1
O Kuldavletova, S Marie, P Denise, H Normand
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? It is known that respiration is affected by graviceptors, but it remains unclear to what extent labyrinthine and non-labyrinthine graviceptors are involved in this process. What is the main finding and its importance? Our results suggest that the respiration modulation is not a result of a simple reflex arc, but that it involves a higher integration of different types of receptors with variable contribution of either type of graviceptors among subjects...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733246/treating-tobacco-use-in-patients-with-incurable-malignancies-should-we-even-start-the-conversation
#2
Susan Trout, Adam O Goldstein, Lawrence Marks, Carol Ripley-Moffitt
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines recommend that all medical providers address tobacco use with patients, as the long-term health benefits of becoming tobacco free are well documented. What happens, though, when a patient has an incurable malignancy and, therefore, will not reap the long-term benefits? Clinical Consideration: Our case study encourages providers to consider the relevance of tobacco use treatment for those with incurable diseases. DISCUSSION: Although long-term benefits will not provide realistic motivation, other equally important rewards (e...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724123/evidence-supporting-clinical-use-of-proportional-assist-ventilation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#3
Bharath Kumar Tirupakuzhi Vijayaraghavan, Shatha Hamed, Aditi Jain, Timothy Chimunda, Irene Telias, Jan O Friedrich, Karen E A Burns
BACKGROUND: While proportional assist ventilation (PAV), generates pressure in proportion to effort without a preselected target, proportional assist ventilation plus (PAV+) measures compliance and resistance, calculates work of breathing, and adjusts support to a preset assistance level. OBJECTIVE: To summarize randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing invasive or noninvasive PAV or PAV+ in critically ill patients. DATA SOURCES: We searched multiple databases to April 2017 without language restrictions and conference proceedings from 5 meetings to identify randomized parallel-group and crossover RCTs that compared invasive or noninvasive PAV or PAV+ to another mode in critically ill adults or children and reported at least 1 clinically important outcome...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688034/non-invasive-diagnosis-of-type-2-diabetes-in-helicobacter-pylori-infected-patients-using-isotope-specific-infrared-absorption-measurements
#4
Suman Som, Gourab Dutta Banik, Abhijit Maity, Chiranjit Ghosh, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
Helicobacter pylori causes several gastrointestinal diseases and may also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several studies suggest that there might be a potential link between H. pylori infection and T2D, but it still remains the subject of debate. Here, we first report the cumulative effect of H. pylori infection and T2D by exploiting the excretion kinetics of 13 C/12 C and 18 O/16 O isotope ratios of exhaled breath CO2 in response to an oral dose of 13 C-enriched glucose in individuals with T2D and non-diabetic controls (NDC) harbouring the H...
April 24, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687665/effect-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-breathing-variability-in-early-preterm-lung-disease
#5
Emanuela Zannin, Chiara Veneroni, Raffaele L Dellacà, Roberta Corbetta, Bela Suki, Paolo E Tagliabue, Maria L Ventura
OBJECTIVES: In preterm infants, the application of nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP) improves lung function through several mechanisms and may interact with the control of breathing. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of increasing/decreasing nCPAP on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and its variability in preterm infants. METHODS: Fifeteen infants with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied on the first day of life. Infants had a mean (SD) gestational age of 30 + 4 (3 + 4) weeks + day and body weight of 1405 (606) g...
April 23, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671866/isocapnic-hyperventilation-provides-early-extubation-after-head-and-neck-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#6
K Hallén, P Jildenstål, O Stenqvist, J Oras, S-E Ricksten, S Lindgren
BACKGROUND: Isocapnic hyperventilation (IHV) shortens recovery time after inhalation anaesthesia by increasing ventilation while maintaining a normal airway carbon dioxide (CO2 )-level. One way of performing IHV is to infuse CO2 to the inspiratory limb of a breathing circuit during mechanical hyperventilation (HV). In a prospective randomized study, we compared this IHV technique to a standard emergence procedure (control). METHODS: Thirty-one adult ASA I-III patients undergoing long-duration (>3 hours) sevoflurane anaesthesia for major head and neck surgery were included and randomized to IHV-treatment (n = 16) or control (n = 15)...
April 19, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604403/slow-loaded-breathing-training-improves-blood-pressure-lung-capacity-and-arm-exercise-endurance-for-older-people-with-treated-and-stable-isolated-systolic-hypertension
#7
Chulee Ublosakka-Jones, Phailin Tongdee, Orathai Pachirat, David A Jones
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and reduced lung function are important features of aging. Slow loaded breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the question is whether this can also improve lung function. METHODS: Thirty-two people (67 ± 5 years, 16 male) with controlled isolated systolic hypertension undertook an eight weeks randomised controlled training trial with an inspiratory load of 25% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) at 6 breaths per minute (slow loaded breathing; SLB) or deep breathing control (CON)...
March 28, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600849/isomerization-reaction-of-mer-to-fac-tris-2-phenylpyridinato-n-c2-iridium-iii-monitored-by-using-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#8
Bo-Han Wu, Min-Jie Huang, Cheng-Chang Lai, Chien-Hong Cheng, I-Chia Chen
We developed a new method by enclosing the complex tris(2-phenylpyridinato-N,C2')Iridium(III), Ir(ppy)3 with surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CATB), coated with a thin layer of silica then bonded to the surface of silver nanoparticle. These samples were used to acquire surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra. The thickness of silica layer was controlled to have efficient phosphorescence quenching and Raman enhancement by metal nanoparticle. The SERS spectra of fac- and mer-Ir(ppy)3 , recorded at 633 nm excitation, display distinct ring breathing mode features because the total symmetric vibrational bands were enhanced...
March 30, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576128/non-invasive-positive-pressure-ventilation-with-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-counteracts-inward-air-leaks-during-preoxygenation-a-randomised-crossover-controlled-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#9
J-L Hanouz, F Le Gall, J-L Gérard, N Terzi, H Normand
BACKGROUND: During preoxygenation, the lack of tight fit between the mask and the patient's face results in inward air leak preventing effective preoxygenation. We hypothesized that non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) could counteract inward air leak. METHODS: Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to preoxygenated through spontaneous breathing without leak (SB), spontaneous breathing with a calibrated air leak (T-shaped piece between the mouth and the breathing system; SB-leak), or non-invasive positive inspiratory pressure ventilation (inspiratory support +6 cm H2 O; PEEP +5 cm H2 O) with calibrated leak (PPV-leak)...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543134/inspiratory-muscle-training-reduces-diaphragm-activation-and-dyspnea-during-exercise-in-copd
#10
Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524562/vasopressin-v1a-receptors-are-present-in-the-carotid-body-and-contribute-to-the-control-of-breathing-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Tymoteusz Żera, Jacek Przybylski, Tomasz Grygorowicz, Kaja Kasarełło, Martyna Podobińska, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska
Vasopressin (AVP) maintains body homeostasis by regulating water balance, cardiovascular system and stress response. AVP inhibits breathing through central vasopressin 1a receptors (V1aRs). Chemoreceptors within carotid bodies (CBs) detect chemical and hormonal signals in the bloodstream and provide sensory input to respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the brainstem. In the study we investigated if CBs contain V1aRs and how the receptors are involved in the regulation of ventilation by AVP. We first immunostained CBs for V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of chemoreceptor type I (glomus) cells...
April 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523722/ultrasound-evaluation-of-the-respiratory-changes-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-and-axillary-vein-diameter-at-rest-and-during-positive-pressure-ventilation-in-spontaneously-breathing-healthy-volunteers
#12
Keamogetswe Molokoane-Mokgoro, Lara Nicole Goldstein, Mike Wells
INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound assessment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) has gained favour in aiding fluid management decisions for controlled, mechanically ventilated patients as well as in non-mechanically ventilated, spontaneously breathing patients. Its utility in spontaneously breathing patients during positive pressure non-invasive ventilation has not yet been determined. The use of the axillary vein, as an alternative option to the IVC due to its ease of accessibility and independence from intra-abdominal pressure, has also not been evaluated...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462842/hyperinflation-of-bronchi-in-vitro-impairs-bronchodilation-to-simulated-breathing-and-increases-sensitivity-to-contractile-activation
#13
Alvenia Cairncross, Peter B Noble, Peter K McFawn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lung hyperinflation and reduced bronchodilation to deep inspiration (DI) are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hyperinflation might impair the ability of a DI to stretch airway smooth muscle (ASM), as the bronchi operate at a stiff region of the pressure-volume curve. METHODS: Bronchial segments from pig lungs were mounted in an organ bath and equilibrated at either 5 cm H2 O (control) or 20 cm H2 O (hyperinflated) transmural pressure (Ptm )...
February 20, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452815/variable-versus-conventional-lung-protective-mechanical-ventilation-during-open-abdominal-surgery-provar-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
P M Spieth, A Güldner, C Uhlig, T Bluth, T Kiss, C Conrad, K Bischlager, A Braune, R Huhle, A Insorsi, F Tarantino, L Ball, M J Schultz, N Abolmaali, T Koch, P Pelosi, M Gama de Abreu
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies showed that controlled variable ventilation (CVV) yielded better pulmonary function compared to non-variable ventilation (CNV) in injured lungs. We hypothesized that CVV improves intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. METHODS: Fifty patients planned for open abdominal surgery lasting >3 h were randomly assigned to receive either CVV or CNV. Mean tidal volumes and PEEP were set at 8 ml kg-1 (predicted body weight) and 5 cm H2 O, respectively...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368419/utility-of-single-versus-multiple-breath-washout-in-adult-asthma
#15
S Kjellberg, E Viklund, P D Robinson, O Zetterström, A-C Olin, P Gustafsson
Nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2 MBW) is a sensitive method to identify peripheral airway involvement in asthma, but is a time-consuming test. The N2 vital capacity single breath (VC SBW) test offers greater time efficiency, but concordance with N2 MBW is poorly understood. The prevalence of peripheral airway abnormality was determined by N2 MBW and N2 SBW tests in 194 asthmatic subjects aged 18-1 years. N2 MBW data were related to findings in 400 healthy controls, aged 17-71 years, while N2 SBW data were compared to findings in 224 healthy controls, aged 15-65 years, to derive equipment-specific reference values...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287215/impact-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-sleep-related-breathing-disorders-in-adults-with-epilepsy
#16
Aude Salvadé, Philippe Ryvlin, Andrea O Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can induce a sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), which in turn can worsen seizure control and represents a cardiovascular risk factor. Epidemiology of VNS-induced SAS has received little attention to date. The purpose of this study was to estimate the VNS-induced SAS prevalence and to explore clinical variables potentially correlating with its development. METHODS: We analyzed the computerized medical records of 18 consecutive adults treated for refractory epilepsy with VNS, implanted between May 2008 and October 2015...
February 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282143/azithromycin-versus-placebo-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-breathe-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Katharina Kranzer, Grace McHugh, Elizabeth L Corbett, Hilda Mujuru, Mark P Nicol, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Andrea M Rehman, Tore J Gutteberg, Trond Flaegstad, Jon O Odland, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation...
December 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042272/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-on-respiratory-physiology-at-high-altitude-results-from-the-xtreme-alps-study
#18
Andrew F Cumpstey, Philip J Hennis, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, Bernadette O Fernandez, Matthieu Poudevigne, Alexandra Cobb, Paula Meale, Kay Mitchell, Helen Moyses, Helmut Pöhnl, Monty G Mythen, Michael P W Grocott, Martin Feelisch, Daniel S Martin
Nitric oxide (NO) production plays a central role in conferring tolerance to hypoxia. Tibetan highlanders, successful high-altitude dwellers for millennia, have higher circulating nitrate and exhaled NO (ENO ) levels than native lowlanders. Since nitrate itself can reduce the oxygen cost of exercise in normoxia it may confer additional benefits at high altitude. Xtreme Alps was a double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial to investigate how dietary nitrate supplementation affects physiological responses to hypoxia in 28 healthy adult volunteers resident at 4559 m for 1 week; 14 receiving a beetroot-based high-nitrate supplement and 14 receiving a low-nitrate 'placebo' of matching appearance/taste...
December 1, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947266/dynamics-of-defensive-response-mobilization-during-repeated-terminations-of-exposure-to-increasing-interoceptive-threat
#19
Christoph Benke, Elischa Krause, Alfons O Hamm, Christiane A Pané-Farré
Resistant avoidance behaviors play a crucial role in the maintenance of anxiety disorders and are therefore central targets of therapeutic interventions. In the present study, the development of avoidance behavior was investigated in 24 healthy participants who repeatedly prematurely terminated the exposure to increasing interoceptive threat, i.e., the feeling of dyspnea induced by increasing inspiratory resistive loads that were followed by the ultimate threat, a short breathing occlusion. Physiological responses and subjective anxiety preceding terminations were compared to matched intervals of a matched control group (N=24) who completed the exposure...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924264/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-functioning-in-adolescents-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-a-population-based-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-study
#20
S S Frye, J Fernandez-Mendoza, S L Calhoun, J Gaines, M D Sawyer, F He, D Liao, A N Vgontzas, E O Bixler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with neurocognitive and behavioral problems in young children; however, this association is less studied in adolescents. Evidence suggests that obesity plays a key role in the development of SDB, although its relative association with neurobehavioral functioning remains unclear. We examined whether SDB and obesity are associated with neurocognitive and behavioral problems in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 421 adolescents (17...
January 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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