Read by QxMD icon Read

control o breathing

Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Tymoteusz Żera, Jacek Przybylski, Tomasz Grygorowicz, Kaja Kasarełło, Martyna Podobińska, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska
Vasopressin (AVP) maintains body homeostasis by regulating water balance, cardiovascular system and stress response. AVP inhibits breathing through central vasopressin 1a receptors (V1aRs). Chemoreceptors within carotid bodies (CBs) detect chemical and hormonal signals in the bloodstream and provide sensory input to respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the brainstem. In the study we investigated if CBs contain V1aRs and how the receptors are involved in the regulation of ventilation by AVP. We first immunostained CBs for V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of chemoreceptor type I (glomus) cells...
March 7, 2018: Peptides
Keamogetswe Molokoane-Mokgoro, Lara Nicole Goldstein, Mike Wells
INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound assessment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) has gained favour in aiding fluid management decisions for controlled, mechanically ventilated patients as well as in non-mechanically ventilated, spontaneously breathing patients. Its utility in spontaneously breathing patients during positive pressure non-invasive ventilation has not yet been determined. The use of the axillary vein, as an alternative option to the IVC due to its ease of accessibility and independence from intra-abdominal pressure, has also not been evaluated...
March 9, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Alvenia Cairncross, Peter B Noble, Peter K McFawn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lung hyperinflation and reduced bronchodilation to deep inspiration (DI) are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hyperinflation might impair the ability of a DI to stretch airway smooth muscle (ASM), as the bronchi operate at a stiff region of the pressure-volume curve. METHODS: Bronchial segments from pig lungs were mounted in an organ bath and equilibrated at either 5 cm H2 O (control) or 20 cm H2 O (hyperinflated) transmural pressure (Ptm )...
February 20, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
P M Spieth, A Güldner, C Uhlig, T Bluth, T Kiss, C Conrad, K Bischlager, A Braune, R Huhle, A Insorsi, F Tarantino, L Ball, M J Schultz, N Abolmaali, T Koch, P Pelosi, M Gama de Abreu
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies showed that controlled variable ventilation (CVV) yielded better pulmonary function compared to non-variable ventilation (CNV) in injured lungs. We hypothesized that CVV improves intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. METHODS: Fifty patients planned for open abdominal surgery lasting >3 h were randomly assigned to receive either CVV or CNV. Mean tidal volumes and PEEP were set at 8 ml kg-1 (predicted body weight) and 5 cm H2 O, respectively...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
S Kjellberg, E Viklund, P D Robinson, O Zetterström, A-C Olin, P Gustafsson
Nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2 MBW) is a sensitive method to identify peripheral airway involvement in asthma, but is a time-consuming test. The N2 vital capacity single breath (VC SBW) test offers greater time efficiency, but concordance with N2 MBW is poorly understood. The prevalence of peripheral airway abnormality was determined by N2 MBW and N2 SBW tests in 194 asthmatic subjects aged 18-1 years. N2 MBW data were related to findings in 400 healthy controls, aged 17-71 years, while N2 SBW data were compared to findings in 224 healthy controls, aged 15-65 years, to derive equipment-specific reference values...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Aude Salvadé, Philippe Ryvlin, Andrea O Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can induce a sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), which in turn can worsen seizure control and represents a cardiovascular risk factor. Epidemiology of VNS-induced SAS has received little attention to date. The purpose of this study was to estimate the VNS-induced SAS prevalence and to explore clinical variables potentially correlating with its development. METHODS: We analyzed the computerized medical records of 18 consecutive adults treated for refractory epilepsy with VNS, implanted between May 2008 and October 2015...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Katharina Kranzer, Grace McHugh, Elizabeth L Corbett, Hilda Mujuru, Mark P Nicol, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Andrea M Rehman, Tore J Gutteberg, Trond Flaegstad, Jon O Odland, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation...
December 28, 2017: Trials
Andrew F Cumpstey, Philip J Hennis, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, Bernadette O Fernandez, Matthieu Poudevigne, Alexandra Cobb, Paula Meale, Kay Mitchell, Helen Moyses, Helmut Pöhnl, Monty G Mythen, Michael P W Grocott, Martin Feelisch, Daniel S Martin
Nitric oxide (NO) production plays a central role in conferring tolerance to hypoxia. Tibetan highlanders, successful high-altitude dwellers for millennia, have higher circulating nitrate and exhaled NO (ENO ) levels than native lowlanders. Since nitrate itself can reduce the oxygen cost of exercise in normoxia it may confer additional benefits at high altitude. Xtreme Alps was a double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial to investigate how dietary nitrate supplementation affects physiological responses to hypoxia in 28 healthy adult volunteers resident at 4559 m for 1 week; 14 receiving a beetroot-based high-nitrate supplement and 14 receiving a low-nitrate 'placebo' of matching appearance/taste...
December 1, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Christoph Benke, Elischa Krause, Alfons O Hamm, Christiane A Pané-Farré
Resistant avoidance behaviors play a crucial role in the maintenance of anxiety disorders and are therefore central targets of therapeutic interventions. In the present study, the development of avoidance behavior was investigated in 24 healthy participants who repeatedly prematurely terminated the exposure to increasing interoceptive threat, i.e., the feeling of dyspnea induced by increasing inspiratory resistive loads that were followed by the ultimate threat, a short breathing occlusion. Physiological responses and subjective anxiety preceding terminations were compared to matched intervals of a matched control group (N=24) who completed the exposure...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
S S Frye, J Fernandez-Mendoza, S L Calhoun, J Gaines, M D Sawyer, F He, D Liao, A N Vgontzas, E O Bixler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with neurocognitive and behavioral problems in young children; however, this association is less studied in adolescents. Evidence suggests that obesity plays a key role in the development of SDB, although its relative association with neurobehavioral functioning remains unclear. We examined whether SDB and obesity are associated with neurocognitive and behavioral problems in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 421 adolescents (17...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Martin T Gaugg, Anna Engler, Yvonne Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Lukas Bregy, Anna S Stöberl, Thomas Gaisl, Tobias Bruderer, Renato Zenobi, Malcolm Kohler, Pablo Martinez-Lozano Sinues
We explore whether real-time breath analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry is suitable to monitor changes at the metabolic level due to inhaling bronchodilator medication. We compared the breath levels of metabolites in a group of patients (n = 50) at baseline and 10 and 30 min after inhalation of 200 μg salbutamol. The same procedure was performed with a group of controls (n = 48) inhaling a placebo spray. A total of 131 mass spectral features were significantly altered as a result of inhaling medication, but not after inhaling placebo...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Justyna Błaut-Jurkowska, Klaudia Knap, Magdalena Kaźnica-Wiatr, Agnieszka Żygadło, Lidia Tomkiewicz-Pająk, Piotr Podolec, Maria Olszowska
Exertional dyspnea is a common manifestation of sarcoidosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a useful tool to evaluate exercise tolerance of sarcoid patients. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate of exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis with regard to duration of the disease. Analysis of differences in physical tolerance between patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and without cardiac sarcoidosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 39 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis were enrolled to our study...
August 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Philipp Moog, O Eren, S Kossegg, K Valda, A Straube, M Grünke, H Schulze-Koops, M Witt
OBJECTIVE: To assess autonomic function by infrared dynamic pupillometry in patients with ANCA-vasculitis (AAV) in correlation to autonomic symptoms, disease specific clinical parameters and cardiovascular reflex tests. METHODS: Patients with AAV and healthy controls underwent pupillometry at rest and after sympathetic stimulation (cold pressor test). Three parasympathetic parameters (amplitude, relative amplitude, maximum constriction velocity) and one sympathetic parameter (late dilatation velocity) were assessed...
December 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Z Zhao, S-Y Peng, M-Y Chang, Y-L Hsu, I Frerichs, H-T Chang, K Möller
BACKGROUND: The study objective was to examine the correlation between regional ventilation distribution measured with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and weaning outcomes during spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). METHODS: Fifteen patients received 100% automatic tube compensation (ATC) during the first and 70% during the second hour. Another 15 patients received external continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 5 and 7.5 cmH2 O during the first and second hours, respectively...
October 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Milena Siciliano Nascimento, Celso Moura Rebello, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade Vale, Érica Santos, Cristiane do Prado
Objective: To assess whether the spontaneous breathing test can predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. Methods: A prospective and observational study that evaluated data of inpatients at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between May 2011 and August 2013, receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours followed by extubation. The patients were classified in two groups: Test Group, with patients extubated after spontaneous breathing test, and Control Group, with patients extubated without spontaneous breathing test...
April 2017: Einstein
Julie Hestnes, Hedda Hoel, Ole J Risa, Hanna O Romstøl, Ola Røksund, Bente Frisk, Einar Thorsen, Thomas Halvorsen, Hege H Clemm
Purpose: Children and adolescents born extremely preterm (EP) have lower dynamic lung volumes and gas transfer capacity than subjects born at term. Most studies also report lower aerobic capacity. We hypothesized that ventilatory efficiency was poorer and that breathing patterns differed in EP-born compared to term-born individuals. Methods: Two area-based cohorts of participants born with gestational age ≤28 weeks or birth weight ≤1000 g in 1982-85 (n = 46) and 1991-92 (n = 35) were compared with individually matched controls born at term...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Casey O Diekman, Peter J Thomas, Christopher G Wilson
How sensory information influences the dynamics of rhythm generation varies across systems, and general principles for understanding this aspect of motor control are lacking. Determining the origin of respiratory rhythm generation is challenging because the mechanisms in a central circuit considered in isolation may be different from those in the intact organism. We analyze a closed-loop respiratory control model incorporating a central pattern generator (CPG), the Butera-Rinzel-Smith (BRS) model, together with lung mechanics, oxygen handling, and chemosensory components...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Peter A Jaques, Lee Portnoff
The risk of workers' exposure to aerosolized particles has increased with the upsurge in the production of engineered nanomaterials. Currently, a whole-body standard test method for measuring particle penetration through protective clothing ensembles is not available. Those available for respirators neglect the most common challenges to ensembles, because they use active vacuum-based filtration, designed to simulate breathing, rather than the positive forces of wind experienced by workers. Thus, a passive method that measures wind-driven particle penetration through ensemble fabric has been developed and evaluated...
December 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
R H Sides, R Kirkpatrick, E Renner, K Gough, L M Katz, D L Evans, W M Bayly
BACKGROUND: The need for a horse to be ridden while wearing a measurement device that allows unrestricted ventilation and gas exchange has hampered accurate measurement of its maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2 max) under field conditions. OBJECTIVES: Design and validate a facemask with the potential to measure V̇O2 max accurately in the field. STUDY DESIGN: Experiment with 6 × 6 Latin square design. METHODS: Two variations of a mask and associated electronic control module (ECM) were designed to enable breath-by-breath measurement of airflows through two 7...
January 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"