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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456884/desiccation-resistance-effect-of-cuticular-hydrocarbons-and-water-content-in-drosophila-melanogaster-adults
#1
Jean-Francois Ferveur, Jérôme Cortot, Karen Rihani, Matthew Cobb, Claude Everaerts
Background: The insect cuticle covers the whole body and all appendages and has bi-directionnal selective permeability: it protects against environmental stress and pathogen infection and also helps to reduce water loss. The adult cuticle is often associated with a superficial layer of fatty acid-derived molecules such as waxes and long chain hydrocarbons that prevent rapid dehydration. The waterproofing properties of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) depend on their chain length and desaturation number...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454826/diagnosis-follow-up-and-management-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#2
Antoine Léotard, Jessica Taytard, Marion Aouate, Michèle Boule, Veronique Forin, Pauline Lallemant-Dudek
OBJECTIVES: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common genetic skeletal disorder. Extraskeletal findings are common but an association with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has never been described. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical features of children with OI and suspected SDB. METHODS: A retrospective study of clinical records, signs of SDB and polysomnographic recordings of children with OI was performed. We paid particular attention to symptoms that could be associated with SDB in this population - scoliosis, kyphosis, vertebral arthrodesis, chest wall deformities, basilar impression, autonomy - as well as data already known to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea such as body mass index and upper airway impairment...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452816/transnasal-humidified-rapid-insufflation-ventilatory-exchange-for-oxygenation-of-children-during-apnoea-a-prospective-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
T Riva, T H Pedersen, S Seiler, N Kasper, L Theiler, R Greif, M Kleine-Brueggeney
BACKGROUND: Transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) comprises the administration of heated, humidified, and blended air/oxygen mixtures via nasal cannula at rates of ≥2 litres kg -1 min -1 . The aim of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the length of the safe apnoea time using THRIVE with two different oxygen concentrations (100% vs 30% oxygen) compared with standard low-flow 100% oxygen administration. METHODS: Sixty patients, aged 1-6 yr, weighing 10-20 kg, undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following oxygen administration methods during apnoea: 1) low-flow 100% oxygen at 0...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448905/restoration-of-sleep-using-a-novel-biomimetic-protocol-for-adult-osa-clinical-case-report
#4
G Dave Singh, Mark Kraver, Oleg Chernyshev
Background A sleep study of a 56-year old male with excessive daytime sleepiness demonstrated an AHI of 16.4hr -1 with 13% of total sleep time in REM sleep and a mean oxygen desaturation (SpO 2 ) of 86%. Clinical presentation On intra-oral examination, it was found that the patient had maxillary hypoplasia and bilateral torus mandibularis. A 3D cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan was taken, and 28 craniofacial parameters were measured. Surgical reduction of the mandibular tori followed by biomimetic oral appliance therapy (BOAT) was initiated...
February 15, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445536/predictors-of-long-term-adherence-to-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-acute-coronary-syndrome
#5
Marina Florés, Montserrat Martinez-Alonso, Alicia Sánchezde-la-Torre, Albina Aldomà, Estefania Galera, Ferran Barbé, Manuel Sánchezde-la-Torre, Mireia Dalmases
Background: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), but an evaluation of CPAP adherence is rarely carried out among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The goals of the study are to analyse long-term adherence and identify the predictors of non-compliance with CPAP treatment for patients with non-sleepy OSA and ACS. Methods: This is an ancillary study of the ISAACC study, which is a multicentre, prospective, open-label, parallel, randomized, and controlled trial (NCT01335087) in patients with hospital admission for ACS...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444807/hypoxic-challenge-testing-fitness-to-fly-in-children-with-complex-congenital-heart-disease
#6
Nitha N Naqvi, Victoria L Doughty, Luke Starling, Rodney C Franklin, Simon Ward, Piers E F Daubeney, Ian M Balfour-Lynn
OBJECTIVE: Commercial airplanes fly with an equivalent cabin fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.15, leading to reduced oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) in passengers. How this affects children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is unknown. We conducted Hypoxic Challenge Testing (HCT) to assess need for inflight supplemental oxygen. METHODS: Children aged <16 years had a standard HCT. They were grouped as (A) normal versus abnormal baseline SpO2 (≥95% vs <95%) and (B) absence versus presence of an actual/potential right-to-left (R-L) shunt...
February 14, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441174/comparison-of-propofol-alone-and-in-combination-with-ketamine-or-fentanyl-for-sedation-in-endoscopic-ultrasonography
#7
Shweta A Singh, Kelika Prakash, Sandeep Sharma, Gaurav Dhakate, Vikram Bhatia
Background: We evaluated whether the addition of a small dose of ketamine or fentanyl would lead to a reduction in the total dose of propofol consumed without compromising the safety and recovery of patients having endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). Methods: A total of 210 adult patients undergoing elective EUS under sedation were included in the study. Patients were randomized into three groups. Patients were premedicated intravenously with normal saline in group 1, 50 µg fentanyl in group 2, and 0...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440842/coronary-sinus-atrial-septal-defect-without-persistent-left-superior-vena-cava-three-dimensional-imaging-of-a-rare-defect
#8
Sean Del-Rossi Quadros, Sreeja Pavithran, Ravi Agrawal, Kothandam Sivakumar
Coronary sinus defects refer to interatrial communications that lie out of the confines of the atrial septum and leads from left to right shunt through the ostium of the coronary sinus. When associated with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC), mild systemic desaturation may occur depending on the extent of unroofing of the coronary sinus. Isolated defects without PLSVC are rare. Three-dimensional echocardiographic and surgical images are presented.
January 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436138/the-incidence-of-postoperative-respiratory-complications-a-retrospective-analysis-of-cuffed-vs-uncuffed-tracheal-tubes-in-children-0-7-years-of-age
#9
Michel de Wit, Linda M Peelen, Leo van Wolfswinkel, Jurgen C de Graaff
BACKGROUND: The use of cuffed vs uncuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric anesthesia is widely debated. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of cuffed vs uncuffed tubes is associated with an increased incidence of acute postoperative respiratory complications. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all children aged 0-7 years in which the trachea was intubated between September 28, 2006 and August 26, 2016 in a pediatric university hospital. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between tube design (cuffed vs uncuffed) and the incidence of acute postoperative respiratory complications (stridor, wheezing, or dyspnea; desaturations ≤90%) in need of intervention (epinephrine, dexamethasone, nebulizers, supplementary oxygen, or reintubation), adjusting for potential confounders...
March 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434587/hypoxia-pathway-proteins-as-central-mediators-of-metabolism-in-the-tumor-cells-and-their-microenvironment
#10
REVIEW
Sundary Sormendi, Ben Wielockx
Low oxygen tension or hypoxia is a determining factor in the course of many different processes in animals, including when tissue expansion and cellular metabolism result in high oxygen demands that exceed its supply. This is mainly happening when cells actively proliferate and the proliferating mass becomes distant from the blood vessels, such as in growing tumors. Metabolic alterations in response to hypoxia can be triggered in a direct manner, such as the switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis or inhibition of fatty acid desaturation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432141/structure-and-function-of-the-cytochrome-p450-peroxygenase-enzymes
#11
REVIEW
Andrew W Munro, Kirsty J McLean, Job L Grant, Thomas M Makris
The cytochromes P450 (P450s or CYPs) constitute a large heme enzyme superfamily, members of which catalyze the oxidative transformation of a wide range of organic substrates, and whose functions are crucial to xenobiotic metabolism and steroid transformation in humans and other organisms. The P450 peroxygenases are a subgroup of the P450s that have evolved in microbes to catalyze the oxidative metabolism of fatty acids, using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant rather than NAD(P)H-driven redox partner systems typical of the vast majority of other characterized P450 enzymes...
February 6, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430430/airway-improvement-with-medium-term-compression-duration-after-right-pulmonary-artery-anterior-translocation
#12
Woo Sung Jang, Jae Bum Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Hee Jeong Choi
Left main bronchus compression occasionally occurs in patients with cardiac disease. A 19-month-old female patient weighing 6.7 kg was admitted for recurrent pneumonia and desaturation. She had an a trial septal defect (AS D) with a right aortic arch. Her left main bronchus had been compressed between the enlarged right pulmonary artery (RPA) and the descending thoracic aorta for 14 months. We conducted ASD closure and RPA anterior translocation via sternotomy. The left main bronchus compression was relieved despite the medium-term duration of compression...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429821/obstructive-sleep-apnea-screening-among-surgical-patients-a-quality-improvement-project
#13
Linda Lakdawala, Bryce Dickey, Mohammad Alrawashdeh
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of respiratory depression in surgical patients. This project screened patients for OSA and explored its relationship with respiratory complications. DESIGN: Quality improvement project. METHODS: Neurosurgical patients were preoperatively screened using STOP-Bang questionnaire scores of 5 or greater as high risk and less than 5 as low risk for moderate-to-severe OSA. Postoperative respiratory complications were compared between both OSA groups...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428869/cross-sectional-study-to-assess-the-association-of-color-vision-with-mercury-hair-concentration-in-children-from-brazilian-amazonian-riverine-communities
#14
Joyce Dos Santos Freitas, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito Lacerda, Isabelle Christine Vieira da Silva Martins, Dario Rodrigues, Daniela Maria Oliveira Bonci, Maria Izabel Tentes Cortes, Tereza Cristina Oliveira Corvelo, Dora Fix Ventura, Luiz Carlos de Lima Silveira, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Givago da Silva Souza
BACKGROUND: Mercury exposure in the Brazilian Amazon region has been an important concern since the 1980s, when gold mining activities contaminated many Amazonian river basins and the fish therein. Mercury exposure in humans can lead to changes in neural function. The visual system has been used as a functional indicator of methylmercury (organic) and mercury vapour (inorganic) toxicity. Children are particularly vulnerable to this metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To compare the color vision of children from riverine communities of mercury-exposed (Tapajós basin) and non-exposed Amazonian rivers (Tocantins basin)...
February 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428326/a-modified-definition-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-home-sleep-apnea-testing-after-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack
#15
Namita Patel, Afsaneh Raissi, Sara Elias, Maneesha Kamra, Tetyana Kendzerska, Brian J Murray, Mark I Boulos
BACKGROUND: Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) underestimates obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity. Overnight oxygen desaturation has been shown to be a strong predictor of incident stroke, and may be helpful in determining which patients with lower apnea-hypopnea indices (AHIs) should be offered treatment. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a modified definition for OSA that uses oxygen desaturation (i.e., AHI 5-14.9 per hour and lowest O2 desaturation ≤88%), as compared to an AHI ≥ 15 per hour, would impact: (1) changes in Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores post-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) initiation; (2) CPAP compliance rates; and (3) the accuracy of automated versus manual scoring of HSAT...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428066/utility-of-bispectrum-in-the-screening-of-pediatric-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-using-oximetry-recordings
#16
Fernando Vaquerizo-Villar, Daniel Álvarez, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Gonzalo César Gutiérrez-Tobal, Verónica Barroso-García, Andrea Crespo, Félix Del Campo, David Gozal, Roberto Hornero
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of bispectrum-based oximetry approaches as a complementary tool to traditional techniques in the screening of pediatric sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). METHODS: 298 blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) signals from children ranging 0-13 years of age were recorded during overnight polysomnography (PSG). These recordings were divided into three severity groups according to the PSG-derived apnea hypopnea index (AHI): AHI < 5 events per hour (e/h), 5 ≤ AHI < 10 e/h, AHI ≥ 10 e/h...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425103/approaches-for-calibration-and-validation-of-near-infrared-optical-methods-for-oxygenation-monitoring
#17
REVIEW
Christoph Hornberger, Heidrun Wabnitz
Pulse oximetry for arterial oxygenation monitoring and tissue oximetry for monitoring of cerebral oxygenation or muscle oxygenation are based on quantitative in vivo diffuse optical spectroscopy. However, in both cases the information on absolute or relative concentration of human tissue constituents and especially on hemoglobin oxygenation can often not be retrieved by model-based analysis. An in vivo calibration against an accepted reference measurement can be a practical alternative. Pulse oximeters and most of commercial cerebral tissue oximeters rely on empirical calibration based on invasive controlled human desaturation studies...
February 9, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424015/direct-palladium-catalyzed-%C3%AE-arylation-of-lactams
#18
Ming Chen, Feipeng Liu, Guangbin Dong
A direct and catalytic method is reported here for β-arylation of N-protected lactams with simple aryl iodides. The transformation is enabled by merging soft enolization of lactams, Pd-catalyzed desaturation, Ar-X bond activation and aryl conjugate addition. The reaction is operated under mild conditions, scalable and chemoselective. Application of this method to concise syntheses of pharmaceutically relevant compounds is demonstrated.
February 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420046/multifunctionalization-of-unactivated-cyclic-ketones-via-synergistic-catalysis-of-copper-and-diarylamine-access-to-cyclic-%C3%AE-enaminone
#19
Yang Li, Ran Zhang, Xihe Bi, Junkai Fu
A multifunctionalization of unactivated cyclic ketones via synergistic catalysis of copper and diarylamine for the direct synthesis of cyclic α-enaminone is reported for the first time. This reaction goes through oxidative α-amination, followed by a desaturation, and features mild reaction conditions, a broad substrate scope, and great functional group tolerance.
February 8, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417392/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-decreases-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-treated-with-mandibular-advancement-devices
#20
Moh'd Al-Halawani, Sreelatha Naik, Michael Chan, Iouri Kreinin, Jonathan Meiers, Meir Kryger
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with chronic inflammation triggered by nocturnal hypoxemia. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a measure of subclinical systemic inflammation. We hypothesize that NLR levels would improve as chronic inflammation diminishes in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients treated with mandibular advancement devices (MADs). METHODS: We studied patients with OSA who were treated with MAD as a first-line treatment or because they could not tolerate CPAP...
February 7, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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