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Shu-Shan Gao, Nathchar Naowarojna, Ronghai Cheng, Xueting Liu, Pinghua Liu
Covering: up to 2018α-Ketoglutarate (αKG, also known as 2-oxoglutarate)-dependent mononuclear non-haem iron (αKG-NHFe) enzymes catalyze a wide range of biochemical reactions, including hydroxylation, ring fragmentation, C-C bond cleavage, epimerization, desaturation, endoperoxidation and heterocycle formation. These enzymes utilize iron(ii) as the metallo-cofactor and αKG as the co-substrate. Herein, we summarize several novel αKG-NHFe enzymes involved in natural product biosyntheses discovered in recent years, including halogenation reactions, amino acid modifications and tailoring reactions in the biosynthesis of terpenes, lipids, fatty acids and phosphonates...
June 22, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Giovanna Scartabelli, Giorgia Querci, Letizia Marconi, Giovanni Ceccarini, Paolo Piaggi, Paola Fierabracci, Guido Salvetti, Giovanni Cizza, Salvatore Mazzeo, Jacopo Vitti, Slava Berger, Antonio Palla, Ferruccio Santini
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is frequently present in patients with severe obesity, but its prevalence especially in women is not well defined. OSAHS and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are common conditions, frequently associated in patients with central obesity and metabolic syndrome and are both the result of the accumulation of ectopic fat mass. Identifying predictors of risk of OSAHS may be useful to select the subjects requiring instrumental sleep evaluation. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the potential role of hepatic left lobe volume (HLLV) in predicting the presence of OSAHS...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
B Bohnhorst, K Seidel, C Böhne, C Peter, S Pirr
AIM: This study compiled percentiles for cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy term neonates during quiet sleep. METHODS: We enrolled 215 healthy term neonates born at Hannover Medical School, Germany, between October 2011 and March 2013. They were prospectively observed on the maternity ward at a median age of two days using six-hour recordings of pulse oximeter plethysmography, oxygen saturation, thoracic breathing movements and electrocardiogram during sleep in a supine position...
June 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Po-Hsun Hou, Geng-Ruei Chang, Chin-Pin Chen, Yen-Ling Lin, I-Shuan Chao, Ting-Ting Shen, Frank Chiahung Mao
Objectives: Weight gain and metabolic disturbances such as dyslipidemia, are frequent side effects of second-generation antipsychotics, including olanzapine. This study examined the metabolic effects of chronic olanzapine exposure. In addition, we investigated the hepatic fatty acid effects of olanzapine in female C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet. Materials and Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice orally received olanzapine or normal saline for 7 weeks. The effects of long-term olanzapine exposure on body weight changes, food efficiency, blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), insulin, and leptin levels were observed...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Akshay Chauhan, Saket Agarwal, Utsav Gupta, Nayem Raja, Muhammad Abid Geelani, Vijay Trehan
A case of the right pulmonary artery-to- left atrial fistula with atrial septal defect (ASD) is presented. The fistula was detected after the patient developed desaturation following surgical closure of the ASD. It was managed with a transcatheter (trans-RPA route) closure of the fistula using a 12-mm Amplatzer ventricular septal defect closure device.
May 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Ary Serpa Neto, Luiz Guilherme V da Costa, Sabrine N T Hemmes, Jaume Canet, Göran Hedenstierna, Samir Jaber, Michael Hiesmayr, Markus W Hollmann, Gary H Mills, Marcos F Vidal Melo, Rupert Pearse, Christian Putensen, Werner Schmid, Paolo Severgnini, Hermann Wrigge, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Marcus J Schultz
BACKGROUND: Currently used pre-operative prediction scores for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) use patient data and expected surgery characteristics exclusively. However, intra-operative events are also associated with the development of PPCs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a new prediction score for PPCs that uses both pre-operative and intra-operative data. DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of the LAS VEGAS study, a large international, multicentre, prospective study...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Tamara S Hannon, Sara E Watson, Hasnaa E Jalou, Sangeeta Chakravorty, Kieren J Mather, Silva A Arslanian
Background: It is not known if dysglycemia and sleep-disordered breathing are linked in adolescents, as in adults. Objective: To perform a pilot study evaluating measures of sleep-disordered breathing across the spectrum of glucose tolerance in obese adolescents. We hypothesized that dysglycemia would be associated with sleep-disordered breathing. Participants/methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional clinical pilot study that included 57 adolescents [body mass index (BMI) 38...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
I García-Talavera, J M Figueira-Gonçalves, N Gurbani, L Pérez-Méndez, A Pedrero-García
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced desaturation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently has prognostic implications. Desaturation within the first minute of the walk 6-minute walk test will probably also occur in daily life activities and translate into hypoxaemic respiratory failure at rest in later years. This study aimed at comparing these patients with those who desaturate after the first minute and determine potential markers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study collecting data on respiratory function tests, cardiovascular comorbidity, body mass index, pack-year index, 6-minute walk test outcomes, BODE index, and Charlson comorbidity index...
June 14, 2018: Pulmonology
Krishna Kumar Mohanan Nair, Arun Gopalakrishnan, Ajitkumar Valaparambil
A 28-year-old lady with rheumatic heart disease presented with dyspnoea and overt right heart failure and was admitted for stabilization. She had respirophasic desaturation predominantly during inspiration. Trans-oesophageal echocardiography revealed the aetiology of the same and dictated the management strategy.
June 17, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
Etieno U Umobong, Paul H Mayo
Critical care airway management is associated with a variety of complications, including severe oxygen desaturation, life-threatening hypotension, and death. This article reviews aspects of airway management that are relevant to intensivists and emergency medicine clinicians tasked with improving the quality of urgent endotracheal intubation in the critically ill patient.
July 2018: Critical Care Clinics
Mei Yi, Junjun Li, Shengnan Chen, Jing Cai, Yuanyuan Ban, Qian Peng, Ying Zhou, Zhaoyang Zeng, Shuping Peng, Xiaoling Li, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Bo Xiang
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) represent a small population of cancer cells with self-renewal and tumor-initiating properties. Unlike the bulk of tumor cells, CSCs or TICs are refractory to traditional therapy and are responsible for relapse or disease recurrence in cancer patients. Stem cells have distinct metabolic properties compared to differentiated cells, and metabolic rewiring contributes to self-renewal and stemness maintenance in CSCs. MAIN BODY: Recent advances in metabolomic detection, particularly in hyperspectral-stimulated raman scattering microscopy, have expanded our knowledge of the contribution of lipid metabolism to the generation and maintenance of CSCs...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Bo Wang, Peter Tontonoz
Liver X receptors α and β (LXRα and LXRβ) are nuclear receptors with pivotal roles in the transcriptional control of lipid metabolism. Transcriptional activity of LXRs is induced in response to elevated cellular levels of cholesterol. LXRs bind to and regulate the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in cholesterol absorption, transport, efflux, excretion and conversion to bile acids. The coordinated, tissue-specific actions of the LXR pathway maintain systemic cholesterol homeostasis and regulate immune and inflammatory responses...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Baptiste Chéhère, Valérie Bougault, Cécile Chenivesse, Jean-Marie Grosbois, Benoit Wallaert
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves performance in the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in a subset of patients with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (f-IIP); however, a large proportion of patients do not respond to PR. AIM: To investigate the effects of a PR program on cardiorespiratory responses during a 6MWT and to identify the characteristics of patients who do not show improved performance after PR. DESIGN: An observational study...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Renato B Pereira, Agostinho A Almeida, David M Pereira, Olga Silva, Paula B Andrade, Edgar Pinto, Patrícia Valentão
The profile of essential and non-essential elements was traced in the edible sea hares Aplysia depilans Gmelin, Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier. Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) were identified as the major essential elements. Risk assessment evidenced that the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) did not exceed the maximum limit value established by the European Regulation, the contents of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) being also below the levels established by the FDA guide...
June 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Maciej Malinowski, Raphaël Hensienne, Nicolas Kern, Damien Tardieu, Anne Bodlenner, Damien Hazelard, Philippe Compain
We report herein the development of a stereodivergent route towards polyhydroxylated bicyclic azetidine scaffolds, namely 6-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane derivatives. The strategy hinges on a common bicyclic β-lactam precursor, which is forged by way of a rare example of a cationic Dieckmann-type reaction, followed by IBX-mediated desaturation. Substrate-controlled diastereoselective oxidations then allow the divergent preparation of novel iminosugar mimics.
June 12, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Yoshihisa Oishi, Hidenobu Ohta, Takako Hirose, Sachiko Nakaya, Keiji Tsuchiya, Machiko Nakagawa, Isao Kusakawa, Toshihiro Sato, Toshimasa Obonai, Hiroshi Nishida, Hitoshi Yoda
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body position (prone, supine and lateral) together with sleep status (wake and sleep) on the cardiorespiratory stability of near-term infants. A total of 53 infants (gestational age at birth 33.2 ± 3.5 weeks; birth weight 1,682 ± 521 g; gestational age at recording 38.6 ± 2.1 weeks; weight at recording: 2,273 ± 393 g) were monitored for 24 hours for clinically significant apnea (>15 seconds), bradycardia (<100 bpm), and oxygen desaturation (SpO2  < 90%) in alternating body positions (prone, supine and lateral) by cardiorespiratory monitors and 3-orthogonal-axis accelerometers...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
H G Park, J Y Zhang, C Foster, D Sudilovsky, D A Schwed, J Mecenas, S Devapatla, P Lawrence, K S D Kothapalli, J T Brenna
Numerous genetic alterations of HSA 11q13 are found frequently in several cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). The 11q13 locus harbors FADS2 encoding Δ6 desaturation which is not functional in several cancer cell lines, including hormone positive MCF7 BC cells. In vitro, the non-functional FADS2 activity unmasks 18:2n-6 elongation to 20:2n-6 and Δ5 desaturation by FADS1 to yield 5Z,11Z,14Z-20:3 (sciadonic acid) rather than 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-20:4 (arachidonic acid). In this pilot study we aimed to determine whether 5,11,14-20:3 appears in vivo in hormone positive human BC tissue...
July 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Yanpeng Zhao, Yumei Wang, Yi Huang, Yupeng Cui, Jinping Hua
Cottonseed oil accumulated dramatically from 20 days post-anthesis (DPA) to 30 DPA in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). To reveal the gene network of oil accumulation and fatty acid composition in developing embryos, embryos at 10, 20 and 30 DPA in cottonseed were sampled and used for transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 8629, 7891, and 12,555 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparison sets of '20 DPA vs 10 DPA', '30 DPA vs 20 DPA', and '30 DPA vs 10 DPA', respectively...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Linda Dunder, Margareta Halin Lejonklou, Lars Lind, Ulf Risérus, P Monica Lind
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor and also a suggested obesogen and metabolism-disrupting chemical. Accumulating data indicates that the fatty acid (FA) profile and their ratios in plasma and other metabolic tissues are associated with metabolic disorders. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is a key regulator of lipid metabolism and its activity can be estimated by dividing the FA product by its precursor measured in blood or other tissues. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-dose developmental BPA exposure on tissue-specific FA composition including estimated SCD-1 activity, studied in 5- and 52-week (wk)-old Fischer 344 (F344) rat offspring...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Joanna E MacLean, Kristie DeHaan, Tamya Chowdhury, Joy Nehme, Glenda N Bendiak, Lynda Hoey, Linda Horwood, Hans Pasterkamp, Valerie Kirk, Evelyn Constantin, Sherri L Katz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the scope of sleep concerns, clinical features, and polysomnography (PSG) results and to identify factors that predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a cohort of children with obesity. METHODS: The study was a multicenter retrospective chart review. Data were collected from three pediatric sleep laboratories over a two year period for all children of age 8-16 years with a body mass index [BMI] ≥95th centile who were undergoing PSG. Data sources included clinical charts and PSG results...
July 2018: Sleep Medicine
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