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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106157/tlr4-antagonist-fp7-inhibits-lps-induced-cytokine-production-and-glycolytic-reprogramming-in-dendritic-cells-and-protects-mice-from-lethal-influenza-infection
#1
Laure Perrin-Cocon, Anne Aublin-Gex, Stefania E Sestito, Kari Ann Shirey, Mira C Patel, Patrice André, Jorge C Blanco, Stefanie N Vogel, Francesco Peri, Vincent Lotteau
Dysregulated Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 activation is involved in acute systemic sepsis, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and in viral infections, such as influenza infection. Thus, therapeutic control of the TLR4 signalling pathway is of major interest. Here we tested the activity of the small-molecule synthetic TLR4 antagonist, FP7, in vitro on human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and in vivo during influenza virus infection of mice. Our results indicate that FP7 antagonized the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and MIP-1β) by monocytes and DCs (IC50 < 1 μM) and prevented DC maturation upon TLR4 activation by ultrapure lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098883/developmental-expression-of-toll%C3%A2-like-receptors-in-the-guinea-pig-lung
#2
Lingjie Ma, Jiali Yang, Li Yang, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Yong Li, Xiaoming Liu
The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096300/enhanced-suppression-of-polyclonal-cd8-25-regulatory-t-cells-via-exosomal-arming-of-antigen-specific-peptide-mhc-complexes
#3
Chuanyong Mu, Xueshu Zhang, Lu Wang, Aizhang Xu, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Xueqin Pang, Rajni Chibbar, Andrew Freywald, Jianan Huang, Yehan Zhu, Jim Xiang
Compared with CD4(+)25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), the mechanisms for natural, polyclonal CD8(+)25(+) Treg immune suppression have been significantly less studied. We previously showed that polyclonal T cells can acquire antigen-specific targeting activity through arming with exosomal peptide-MHC (pMHC). In this study, we assessed the suppressive effect of CD8(+)25(+) Tregs or CD8(+)25(+) Tregs armed with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific exosomes on other immune cells and OVA-specific dendritic cell (DCOVA)-stimulated antitumor immunity...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088526/subcutaneous-immunization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-gapdh-confers-effective-protection-in-mice-via-tlr2-and-tlr4
#4
Xiaoyu Sun, Jichao Wang, Jie Zhou, Hong Wang, Xiaofang Wang, Jingwen Wu, Yujuan He, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu
The surface localized Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is best known as housekeeping protein. Currently, GAPDH has been recognized as moonlighting protein and virulent factor. Therefore, we investigate whether GAPDH can act as a suitable vaccine candidate protein to prevent pneumococcal infection. In this study, mice received subcutaneous vaccination with recombinant GAPDH followed by challenge with D39 and 19F showing higher survival rate and lower bacterial loads in nasal washes and lung homogenates than control...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078802/evaluation-of-pva-biodegradable-electric-conductive-membranes-for-nerve-regeneration-in-axonotmesis-injuries-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-animal-model
#5
J Ribeiro, A R Caseiro, T Pereira, Pas Armada-da-Silva, I Pires, J Prada, I Amorim, I Leal Reis, S Amado, J D Santos, S Bompasso, S Raimondo, Asp Varejão, S Geuna, A L Luís, A C Maurício
The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5±0.5x10(-6) S/m, 579±0.6x10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5±0.7 x10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067624/modelling-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-mice-how-much-oxygen-is-enough
#6
Claudio Nardiello, Ivana Mižíková, Diogo M Silva, Jordi Ruiz-Camp, Konstantin Mayer, István Vadász, Susanne Herold, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty
Progress in developing new therapies for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is sometimes complicated by the lack of a standardised animal model. Our objective was to develop a robust hyperoxia‑based mouse model of BPD that recapitulated the pathological perturbations to lung structure noted in infants with BPD. Newborn mouse pups were exposed to a varying fraction of oxygen in the inspired air (FiO2) and a varying window of hyperoxia exposure, after which lung structure was assessed by design‑based stereology with systemic uniform random sampling...
December 14, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059112/meprin-%C3%AE-contributes-to-collagen-deposition-in-lung-fibrosis
#7
V Biasin, M Wygrecka, L M Marsh, C Becker-Pauly, L Brcic, B Ghanim, W Klepetko, A Olschewski, G Kwapiszewska
Lung fibrosis is a severe disease characterized by epithelial cell injury, inflammation and collagen deposition. The metalloproteases meprinα and meprinβ have been shown to enhance collagen maturation and inflammatory cell infiltration via cleavage of cell-cell contact molecules; therefore we hypothesized that meprins could play a role in lung fibrosis. An exhaustive characterization of bleomycin-treated meprinα, meprinβ and the double meprinsαβ knock-out (KO) with respective wt-littermates was performed by using several different methods...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057521/biodegradable-nanoparticle-delivery-of-inactivated-swine-influenza-virus-vaccine-provides-heterologous-cell-mediated-immune-response-in-pigs
#8
Santosh Dhakal, Jagadish Hiremath, Kathryn Bondra, Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa, Duan-Liang Shyu, Kang Ouyang, Kyung-Il Kang, Basavaraj Binjawadagi, Jonathan Goodman, Kairat Tabynov, Steven Krakowka, Balaji Narasimhan, Chang-Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Swine influenza virus (SwIV) is one of the important zoonotic pathogens. Current flu vaccines have failed to provide cross-protection against evolving viruses in the field. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is a biodegradable FDA approved polymer and widely used in drug and vaccine delivery. In this study, inactivated SwIV H1N2 antigens (KAg) encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-KAg) were prepared, which were spherical in shape with 200 to 300nm diameter, and induced maturation of antigen presenting cells in vitro...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#9
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032341/nlrp3-inflammasome-mediates-il-1%C3%AE-production-in-immune-cells-in-response-to-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-contributes-to-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#10
Min-Jung Kang, Sung-Gang Jo, Dong-Jae Kim, Jong-Hwan Park
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria, and infection with this organism is one of the major causes of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammasomes are multiprotein oligomers that include caspase-1, and their activation is required for maturation of IL-1β. Inflammasome signaling is involved in host defenses against various microbial infection, but the precise mechanism by which A. baumannii activates inflammasomes and the roles of relevant signals in host defense against pulmonary A...
December 29, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017340/feline-respiratory-extramedullary-plasmacytoma-with-lymph-node-metastasis-and-intrahistiocytic-amyloid
#11
S E Sykes, V Byfield, L Sullivan, S J Bender, P F Moore, M D Sánchez
A 14-year-old domestic longhaired cat presented with a 2-year history of nasal discharge and a recent onset of inappetence and submandibular lymphadenopathy. The cat was humanely destroyed after developing severe respiratory distress. Necropsy examination revealed thickened nasal turbinates and soft palate, and friable red-tan material within the frontal sinus, nasal cavity and nasopharynx. The lungs contained multifocal irregular friable tan nodules. Multiple lymph nodes were enlarged, friable and red-tan in colour...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003304/genomic-profiling-of-patient-derived-xenografts-for-lung-cancer-identifies-b2m-inactivation-impairing-immunorecognition
#12
Carolina Pereira, Pol Gimenez-Xavier, Eva Pros, Maria J Pajares, Massimo Moro, Antonio Gomez, Alejandro Navarro, Enric Condom, Sebastian Moran, Gonzalo Gómez-López, Osvaldo Graña, Miriam Rubio-Camarillo, Alex Martinez-Martí, Jun Yokota, Julian Carretero, Jose M Galbis, Ernest Nadal, David G Pisano, Gabriella Sozzi, Enriqueta Felip, Luis M Montuenga, Luca Roz, Alberto Villanueva, Montse Sanchez-Cespedes
PURPOSE: We aimed to maximize the performance of detecting genetic alterations in lung cancer (LC) using high-throughput sequencing for patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We undertook an integrated RNA and whole-exome sequencing of 14 PDXs. We focused on the genetic and functional analysis of B2-microglobulin (B2M), a component of the HLA class-I complex. RESULTS: We identified alterations in genes involved in various functions, such as B2M involved in immunosurveillance...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002532/stillbirth-in-dichorionic-twins-discordant-for-major-and-minor-anomaly-followed-by-asynchronous-delivery-a-rare-occurrence-case-presentation
#13
George Lucian Zorilă, Marius Cristian Marinaş, Maria Florea, Ciprian LaurenŢiu Pătru, Roxana Cristina Drăguşin, Răzvan Grigoraş Căpitănescu, Marian Valentin Zorilă, Roxana Eugenia Zăvoi, Cristiana Eugenia Simionescu, Dominic Gabriel Iliescu, Ştefania Tudorache
The single stillbirth long-term intrauterine retention in dichorionic twin pregnancy is rarely reported. Also, the birth of a fetus is followed in most cases by immediate expulsion of the second twin. We hereby present an unusual case of asynchronous delivery of dichorionic twins, associating discordance for major and minor anomaly. The intrauterine death of the twin A, presenting a large sacrococcygeal tumor, occurred in the second trimester. The deceased twin A was born at 29 weeks' gestational age (GA). The twin B was extracted by Caesarean section at 31 weeks and had a good outcome...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995616/b-cell-subsets-are-modulated-during-allergic-airway-inflammation-but-are-not-required-for-the-development-of-respiratory-tolerance-in-a-murine-model
#14
Anika Habener, Ann-Kathrin Behrendt, Jelena Skuljec, Adan Chari Jirmo, Almut Meyer-Bahlburg, Gesine Hansen
Allergic asthma is a widespread chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. The role of different B-cell subsets in developing asthma and respiratory tolerance is not well-known. Especially regulatory B (Breg) cells are proposed to be important in asthma regulation. Using wildtype (WT) and B-cell-deficient (μMT) mice we investigated how B-cells are affected by induction of allergic airway inflammation and respiratory tolerance and whether they are necessary to develop these conditions. WT mice with an asthma-like phenotype, characterized by increased airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and elevated Th2 cytokines, exhibited increased MHCII and CD23 expression on follicular mature B-cells in lung, bronchial lymph nodes (bLN) and spleen, which contributed to allergen-specific T-cell proliferation in vitro...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992577/tolerogenic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-control-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-infection-by-inducting-regulatory-t-cells-in-an-ido-dependent-manner
#15
Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Daniella Helena Medeiros, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Antônio Condino-Neto, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calich, Flávio Vieira Loures
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), considered critical for immunity against viruses, were recently associated with defense mechanisms against fungal infections. However, the immunomodulatory function of pDCs in pulmonary paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM), an endemic fungal infection of Latin America, has been poorly defined. Here, we investigated the role of pDCs in the pathogenesis of PCM caused by the infection of 129Sv mice with 1 x 106 P. brasiliensis-yeasts. In vitro experiments showed that P. brasiliensis infection induces the maturation of pDCs and elevated synthesis of TNF-α and IFN-β...
December 19, 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983632/antimicrobial-and-antitumor-activities-of-novel-peptides-derived-from-the-lipopolysaccharide-and-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-binding-protein-of-the-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai
#16
Bo-Hye Nam, Ji Young Moon, Eun Hee Park, Hee Jeong Kong, Young-Ok Kim, Dong-Gyun Kim, Woo-Jin Kim, Chul Min An, Jung-Kil Seo
Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH), which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence...
December 14, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979969/noncanonical-wnt-5a-signaling-impairs-endogenous-lung-repair-in-copd
#17
Hoeke A Baarsma, Wioletta Skronska-Wasek, Kathrin Mutze, Florian Ciolek, Darcy E Wagner, Gerrit John-Schuster, Katharina Heinzelmann, Andreas Günther, Ken R Bracke, Maylis Dagouassat, Jorge Boczkowski, Guy G Brusselle, Ron Smits, Oliver Eickelberg, Ali Ö Yildirim, Melanie Königshoff
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. One main pathological feature of COPD is the loss of functional alveolar tissue without adequate repair (emphysema), yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Reduced WNT-β-catenin signaling is linked to impaired lung repair in COPD; however, the factors responsible for attenuating this pathway remain to be elucidated. Here, we identify a canonical to noncanonical WNT signaling shift contributing to COPD pathogenesis...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978593/fetal-neurosonogaphy-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-competition
#18
S Tercanli, F Prüfer
Both in routine diagnostics and detailed, highly specialized workups, major advances have been observed in many areas of ultrasound due to an increase in expertise and improved technology in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of fetal neurosonography 1 2 3 4. Malformations of the CNS together with fetal heart defects are among the most common congenital anomalies. From the embryonic phase to the late third trimester, the CNS undergoes extensive development and maturation processes. The diagnosis of CNS anomalies is therefore primarily dependent on the time at which the examination is performed and the experience of the examiner...
December 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965080/influence-of-platelet-rich-plasma-on-the-immune-response-of-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-stimulated-with-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
Kristin Czakai, Marcus Dittrich, Martin Kaltdorf, Tobias Müller, Sven Krappmann, Anette Schedler, Michael Bonin, Sybille Dühring, Stefan Schuster, Cornelia Speth, Günter Rambach, Hermann Einsele, Thomas Dandekar, Jürgen Löffler
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MΦ) are critical for protection against pathogenic fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus. To analyze the role of platelets in the innate immune response, human DCs and MΦs were challenged with A. fumigatus in presence or absence of human platelet rich plasma (PRP). Gene expression analyses and functional investigations were performed. A systems biological approach was used for initial modelling of the DC - A. fumigatus interaction. DCs in a quiescent state together with different corresponding activation states were validated using gene expression data from DCs and MΦ stimulated with A...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960211/the-modern-diagnostic-approach-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults
#20
James D Chalmers
Respiratory tract infections, the majority of which are community acquired, are among the leading causes of death worldwide and a leading indication for hospital admission. The burden of disease demonstrates a "U"-shaped distribution, primarily affecting young children as the immune system matures, and older adults as the process of immunosenescence and accumulation of comorbidities leads to increased susceptibility to infection. Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is traditionally based on demonstration of a new infiltrate on a chest radiograph in a patient presenting with an acute respiratory illness or sepsis...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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