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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637971/esculentoside-a-ameliorates-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-rats
#1
Guodong Sun, Wei Yang, Yang Zhang, Mingyan Zhao
Esculentoside A (EsA), a saponin isolated from Phytolacca esculenta, can attenuate acute liver and lung injury. However, whether EsA has a protective effect against sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been reported. In this study, EsA (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg) was given to rats with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that EsA improved the survival of septic rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EsA lowered the kidney tubular damage score and decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine...
June 22, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634421/the-role-of-von-willebrand-factor-in-vascular-inflammation-from-pathogenesis-to-targeted-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Felice Gragnano, Simona Sperlongano, Enrica Golia, Francesco Natale, Renatomaria Bianchi, Mario Crisci, Fabio Fimiani, Ivana Pariggiano, Vincenzo Diana, Andreina Carbone, Arturo Cesaro, Claudia Concilio, Giuseppe Limongelli, Mariagiovanna Russo, Paolo Calabrò
Beyond its role in hemostasis, von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an emerging mediator of vascular inflammation. Recent studies highlight the involvement of VWF and its regulator, ADAMTS13, in mechanisms that underlie vascular inflammation and immunothrombosis, like leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and extravasation; vascular permeability; ischemia/reperfusion injury; complements activation; and NETosis. The VWF/ADAMTS13 axis is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, promoting plaque formation and inflammation through macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in inflamed lesions...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628607/host-gene-expression-analysis-in-sri-lankan-melioidosis-patients
#3
Shivankari Krishnananthasivam, Nimanthi Jayathilaka, Harindra Darshana Sathkumara, Enoka Corea, Mohan Natesan, Aruna Dharshan De Silva
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a life threatening infectious disease caused by the gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei predominantly found in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Studying the host transcription profiles in response to infection is crucial for understanding disease pathogenesis and correlates of disease severity, which may help improve therapeutic intervention and survival. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression levels of human host factors in melioidosis patients and establish useful correlation with disease biomarkers, compared to healthy individuals and patients with sepsis caused by other pathogens...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625271/-advances-in-immunotherapeutic-research-of-sepsis
#4
Lihua Dong, Juan Lyu, Lili Ding, Zhongmin Liu
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host responses to infection. Despite decades of research, it remains the leading cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs). None of the current treatment, including antibiotics, organ protection and liquid resuscitation, is specifically effective for sepsis. Immunosuppression is one of the currently accepted pathogenesis and immunotherapy is one of the hot spot of current sepsis research. Immune related treatments include restricting the release of pathogen toxin and its removal, controlling the excessive inflammatory reaction and apoptosis inhibition, etc...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625245/-effects-of-different-sedation-regimens-on-sedation-and-inflammatory-response-in-critically-ill-children-with-multiple-trauma
#5
Wenjia Tong, Conglei Song, Danqun Jin, Jingmin Sun, Yating Wang, Daliang Xu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the sedation and anti-inflammatory effects of dexmedetomidine and midazolam on critical ill children with multiple trauma. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty-five critical ill children with multiple trauma admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Anhui Province Children's Hospital from January 2014 to September 2016 were enrolled, who were randomly divided into dexmedetomidine group (33 cases) and midazolam group (32 cases)...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623379/cathelicidin-deficient-mice-exhibit-increased-survival-and-upregulation-of-key-inflammatory-response-genes-following-cecal-ligation-and-puncture
#6
Patricia Severino, Suely Kubo Ariga, Hermes Vieira Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Elisangela de Paula Silva, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, Victor Nizet, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva
Antimicrobial peptides possess a myriad of molecular properties including bacterial killing and the regulation of many aspects of innate immunity. Cathelicidins are a group of antimicrobial peptides widely investigated by the scientific community. Many studies have focused on the bactericidal and pro-inflammatory roles of cathelicidins. Because the role of endogenous cathelicidin expression remains obscure in deep-seated systemic infections, we induced sepsis in cathelicidin knockout and wild-type (WT) mice by cecal ligation and puncture, performing transcriptome screening by DNA microarray in conjunction with other immunologic assays...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623282/a-nationwide-study-of-severe-and-protracted-diarrhoea-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#7
Wen-I Lee, Chien-Chang Chen, Tang-Her Jaing, Liang-Shiou Ou, Chuen Hsueh, Jing-Long Huang
Diarrhoea lasting longer than 14 days and failing to respond to conventional management is defined as severe and protracted diarrhoea (SD). In this study, we investigated the prevalence, pathogens and prognosis of SD in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Among 246 patients with predominantly paediatric-onset PIDs from 2003-2015, 21 [Btk (six), IL2RG (four), WASP, CD40L, gp91 (three each), gp47, RAG2 (one each)] and five [CVID (four), SCID (one)] without identified mutations had SD before prophylactic treatment...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620220/coupling-killing-to-neutralization-combined-therapy-with-ceftriaxone-pep19-2-5-counteracts-sepsis-in-rabbits
#8
Sergio Bárcena-Varela, Guillermo Martínez-de-Tejada, Lukas Martin, Tobias Schuerholz, Ana Gloria Gil-Royo, Satoshi Fukuoka, Torsten Goldmann, Daniel Droemann, Wilmar Correa, Thomas Gutsmann, Klaus Brandenburg, Lena Heinbockel
Sepsis, which is induced by severe bacterial infections, is a major cause of death worldwide, and therapies combating the disease are urgently needed. Because many drugs have failed in clinical trials despite their efficacy in mouse models, the development of reliable animal models of sepsis is in great demand. Several studies have suggested that rabbits reflect sepsis-related symptoms more accurately than mice. In this study, we evaluated a rabbit model of acute sepsis caused by the intravenous inoculation of Salmonella enterica...
June 16, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611397/identification-of-gxxxxg-motif-in-chrysophsin-1-and-its-implication-in-the-design-of-analogs-with-cell-selective-antimicrobial-and-anti-endotoxin-activities
#9
Amit Kumar Tripathi, Tripti Kumari, Munesh Kumar Harioudh, Pranjal Kumar Yadav, Manoj Kathuria, P K Shukla, Kalyan Mitra, Jimut Kanti Ghosh
Marine fish antimicrobial peptide, chrysophsin-1 possesses versatile biological activities but its non-selective nature restricts its therapeutic possibilities. Often small alterations in structural motifs result in significant changes in the properties of concerned proteins/peptides. We have identified GXXXXG motif in chrysophsin-1. Glycine residue(s) of this motif in Chrysophsin-1 was/were replaced with alanine, valine and proline residue(s). Of these, proline-substituted Chrysophsin-1 analogs exhibited significantly reduced cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601359/osteopontin-exacerbates-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-bacteremia-in-mice
#10
Zhenghao Piao, Haiying Yuan
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein involved in various pathophysiological processes. However, the role of OPN in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related sepsis is not yet clear. Here, we found that OPN expression was elevated in plasma and spleen samples from P. aeruginosa-infected mice. To determine the function of OPN in sepsis, we used wild-type (WT) and OPN-knockout (KO) mice with P. aeruginosa-induced bacteremia. We found that OPN-KO mice exhibited reduced mortality compared with WT mice and that OPN exacerbated spleen bleeding and functional impairment...
May 30, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596942/phenol-soluble-modulin-toxins-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus
#11
Fei Da, Hwang-Soo Joo, Gordon Y C Cheung, Amer E Villaruz, Holger Rohde, Xiaoxing Luo, Michael Otto
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are important nosocomial pathogens and the leading cause of sepsis. The second most frequently implicated species, after Staphylococcus epidermidis, is Staphylococcus haemolyticus. However, we have a significant lack of knowledge about what causes virulence of S. haemolyticus, as virulence factors of this pathogen have remained virtually unexplored. In contrast to the aggressive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, toxin production has traditionally not been associated with CoNS...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595959/cudratricusxanthone-a-attenuates-renal-injury-in-septic-mice
#12
Wonhwa Lee, Yuri Lee, Gil-Saeng Jeong, Sae-Kwang Ku, Jong-Sup Bae
As a natural compound extracted from the roots of Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau, Cudratricusxanthone A (CTXA) is known to possess hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. This study was aimed to clarify the role of CTXA in modulating renal functional damage in a mouse model of sepsis and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. We examined the renal protective effects of CTXA on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced renal damage by assessment of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, catalase activity, and superoxide dismutase activity...
June 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592841/lipopolysaccharides-induced-inflammatory-responses-and-electrophysiological-dysfunctions-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#13
Gökhan Yücel, Zhihan Zhao, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Huan Lan, Siegfried Lang, Xin Li, Fanis Buljubasic, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Lukas Cyganek, Jochen Utikal, Ursula Ravens, Thomas Wieland, Martin Borggrefe, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Ibrahim Akin
Severe infections like sepsis lead frequently to cardiomyopathy. The mechanisms are unclear and an optimal therapy for septic cardiomyopathy still lacks. The aim of this study is to establish an endotoxin-induced inflammatory model using human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. hiPSC-CMs were treated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different concentrations for different times. ELISA, FACS, qPCR, and patch-clamp techniques were used for the study...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591158/mitochondrial-function-of-immune-cells-in-septic-shock-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#14
Tobias M Merz, Adriano J Pereira, Roger Schürch, Joerg C Schefold, Stephan M Jakob, Jukka Takala, Siamak Djafarzadeh
BACKGROUND: Reduced cellular ATP synthesis due to impaired mitochondrial function of immune cells may be a factor influencing the immune response in septic shock. We investigate changes in mitochondrial function and bioenergetics of human monocytes and lymphocyte subsets. METHODS: Thirty patients with septic shock were studied at ICU admission, after 24 and 48 hours, and after resolution of shock. Enzymatic activities of citrate synthase and mitochondrial complexes I, IV, and ATP synthase and ATP content of monocytes, T-cells and B-cells and pro-inflammatory (IL-1β and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine plasma concentrations were compared to samples from 20 healthy volunteers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589535/low-hdl-levels-in-sepsis-versus-trauma-patients-in-intensive-care-unit
#15
Sébastien Tanaka, Julien Labreuche, Elodie Drumez, Anatole Harrois, Sophie Hamada, Bernard Vigué, David Couret, Jacques Duranteau, Olivier Meilhac
BACKGROUND: The protective cardiovascular effect of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is considered to chiefly rely on reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral tissues back to the liver. However, HDL particles display pleiotropic properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic or antioxidant functions. Some studies suggest that HDL concentration decreases during sepsis, and an association was reported between low HDL levels and a poor outcome. Like sepsis, trauma is also associated with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585162/omega-3-supplementation-in-patients-with-sepsis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#16
Clara Lu, Sunjay Sharma, Lauralyn McIntyre, Andrew Rhodes, Laura Evans, Saleh Almenawer, Lori Leduc, Derek C Angus, Waleed Alhazzani
BACKGROUND: Nutritional supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids has been proposed to modulate the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in sepsis. If proved to improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis, this intervention would be easy to implement. However, the cumulative evidence from several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) remains unclear. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 2016 for RCTs on parenteral or enteral omega-3 supplementation in adult critically ill patients diagnosed with sepsis or septic shock...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579909/the-alleviative-effects-of-metformin-for-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-rat-model-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#17
Xiangcheng Zhang, Futai Shang, Liangliang Hui, Kui Zang, Gengyun Sun
For patients who have sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI) causes most of death. Metformin (Met) is an anti-hyperglycemic agent and it has extensive pharmacological properties. This study aimed to analyze the influence of Met on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced ALI. Met (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) were injected and LPS was injected 30 min later. The data suggested Met can reduce release of inflammatory cytokines and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein expression, reduce lung wet/dry ratio, and significantly improve LPS-induced lung destruction during ALI...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556912/farnesyltransferase-inhibitor-fti-277-inhibits-pd-l1-expression-on-septic-spleen-lymphocytes-and-promotes-spleen-lymphocyte-activation
#18
Wentian Li, Ji Tu, Xianzhe Liu, Wen Yang
Farnesyltransferase inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of tumours. In sepsis, the binding of PD-1 to PD-L1 promotes lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases cytokine expression, thus affecting survival rates. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays an important role in chronic viral infection, bacterial infection, and sepsis. However, the precise immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions of this pathway remain poorly understood. In our previous study, the induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) resulted in increased farnesyltransferase activity and farnesylated protein levels in the spleen relative to sham treatment...
May 30, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553162/bladder-reconstruction-with-human-amniotic-membrane-in-a-xenograft-rat-model-a-preclinical-study
#19
Dimitri Barski, Holger Gerullis, Thorsten Ecke, Jin Yang, Gabriella Varga, Mihaly Boros, Isabel Pintelon, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Thomas Otto
Background: Human amniotic membranes (HAMs) are assumed to have a number of unique characteristics including durability, hypoallergenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Materials and Methods: Multilayer HAMs from caesarian sections were applied to repair defined bladder defects in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 42 days after implantation. Bladder volume capacity after grafting was measured. Histological analyses were performed to asses a number of parameters including HAM degradation, inflammatory reaction, graft rejection and smooth muscle ingrowth...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550734/pterostilbene-alleviates-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-liver-injury-possible-role-of-sirt1-signaling
#20
Xiaojing Liu, Xueliang Yang, Lingna Han, Feng Ye, Min Liu, Wanhu Fan, Kai Zhang, Ying Kong, Jian Zhang, Lei Shi, Yunru Chen, Xi Zhang, Shumei Lin
Liver injury occurs frequently during sepsis. Pterostilbene (Pte), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol from blueberries, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in various diseases. However, the role of Pte in sepsis-induced liver injury and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The current study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Pte on sepsis-induced liver injury and its potential mechanisms. Sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were administered Pte (5, 10, 15mg/kg, i...
May 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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