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sepsis AND anti-inflammatory

Chao Ren, Xiu-Hua Li, Shi-Bin Wang, Li-Xue Wang, Ning Dong, Yao Wu, Yong-Ming Yao
Sepsis remains the leading cause of high mortality and huge financial burden in intensive care units (ICU), but with scarce effective treatments due to refractory multiple organ dysfunction and persistent immunosuppression. Treatments that aim at modulating immune function and attenuating multiple organ injury will certainly benefit septic cases. Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) has been reported with potent immunomodulatory properties in various diseases as the essential mediator of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP)...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Feng Guo, Ying Ding, Xue Yu, Xiujun Cai
Dexmedetomidine, midazolam and propofol are common sedative drugs used in the intensive care unit. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a potent inducer of human dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and survival, which induces cytokine production. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of sedative drugs on LPS-induced cytokine production in DCs. The mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic DC2.4 cell line was used in the present study. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to measure the viability of cells...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Matthias Hecker, Natascha Sommer, Sebastian Foch, Andreas Hecker, Holger Hackstein, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, Konstantin Mayer
Inflammatory disorders such as sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered a key factor in the pathogenesis of severe inflammation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the impact of arachidonic acid, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and n-3-derived lipid mediators 18R-HEPE and resolvin (Rv) E1 on mitochondrial function in experimental inflammation. The results revealed that, in contrast to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, both 18R-HEPE and RvE1 possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kevin M Rice, Venkata Vinay Kumar Bandarupalli, Nandini D P K Manne, Eric R Blough
Sepsis is a serious life threatening medical emergency which, if not treated properly, oftentimes results in organ failure and death. Current sepsis treatment protocols are largely centered on the use of antibiotics and supportive care. Recent studies have suggested that antibiotics fail to be effective for sepsis treatment when administered during hypo-dynamic phase of sepsis that is usually characterized by the presence of a cytokine storm. As such, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic drugs that target the inflammatory cytokines that are secreted as a result of increased reactive oxygen species...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Xuyun Gu, Chen Wei, Xishan Zhu, Feiping Lu, Bo Sheng, Xuefeng Zang
Sepsis with severe systemic inflammation remains a great challenge for the intensive care unit in clinics. Although biomarkers have been identified to diagnose, monitor and predict these syndromes, novel therapeutic approaches are required for the amelioration of symptoms of sepsis and septic shock. The present study demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-31 was able reduce the mortality rate of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis with the reduction of inflammatory cytokines in the sera. IL-31 also inhibited IL-1β production in the peritoneal lavage fluid in LPS-induced or cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Tobias Becher, Jens Müller, Ibrahim Akin, Stefan Baumann, Katharina Bosch, Ksenija Stach, Martin Borggrefe, Bernd Pötzsch, Dirk Loßnitzer
PURPOSE: Septic shock is commonly associated with hemostatic abnormalities. The endothelium-activated serine protease activated protein C (APC) plays a pivotal role in limiting coagulation and possesses anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that APC levels correlate with established coagulation parameters and provide prognostic information in patients with septic shock. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study in patients with septic shock...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Brian R Branchford, Shannon L Carpenter
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE), is becoming increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics, particularly among hospitalized children. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that suggests the inflammatory response may be a cause, as well as consequence, of VTE, but current anticoagulation treatment regimens are not designed to inhibit inflammation. In fact, many established clinical VTE risk factors such as surgery, obesity, cystic fibrosis, sepsis, systemic infection, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and lupus likely modulate thrombosis through inflammatory mediators...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Alexandra Brinkhoff, Annette Sieberichs, Harald Engler, Sebastian Dolff, Sven Benson, Johannes Korth, Manfred Schedlowski, Andreas Kribben, Oliver Witzke, Benjamin Wilde
Objective: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of the deaths in hospitals. During sepsis, patients are exposed to endotoxemia, which may contribute to the dysregulation of the immune system frequently observed in sepsis. This dysregulation leads to impaired pro-inflammatory responses and may increase the risk for secondary infections in sepsis. The experimental human endotoxemia model is widely used as a model system to study the acute effects of endotoxemia. Under physiological circumstances, the immune system is tightly regulated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiao-Ling Gao, Jian-Qiang Li, Yan-Ting Dong, Er-Jing Cheng, Jian-Nan Gong, Yi-Li Qin, Ya-Qiong Huang, Jiao-Jiao Yang, Shu-Juan Wang, Dong-Dong An
Sepsis, as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) subtype, is generally characterized by infection. Emerging evidence has highlighted dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the progression of sepsis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of miR-335-5p on inflammatory responses in a septic mouse model. The hypothesis was subsequently asserted that the FASN gene and AMPK/ULK1 signaling pathway may participate in the regulation of miR-335-5p. A septic mouse model was established in order to validate the effect of miR-335-5p on the inflammatory response by means of suppressing the endogenous expression of FASN by siRNA against FASN in endothelial cells...
June 1, 2018: Cytokine
Wei Zhao, Ling Jia, Hui-Jing Yang, Xiang Xue, Wei-Xiao Xu, Jian-Qin Cai, Rui-Juan Guo, Chang-Chun Cao
Sepsis, an overwhelming systemic inflammatory disease, is the leading cause of acute lung injury (ALI). Despite plenty of researches have been done, effective drugs treating septic ALI are still eagerly needed in the clinic. Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a potent alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist, has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory abilities. Taurine, a kind of intracellular free amino acid, has been used to treat various diseases. This study aimed to explore the combination effect of Dex and Taurine on septic ALI and the underlying mechanism in vivo...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Angélique M E Spoelstra-de Man, Paul W G Elbers, Heleen M Oudemans-Van Straaten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypovitaminosis C and vitamin C deficiency are very common in critically ill patients due to increased needs and decreased intake. Because vitamin C has pleiotropic functions, deficiency can aggravate the severity of illness and hamper recovery. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin C is a key circulating antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune-supporting effects, and a cofactor for important mono and dioxygenase enzymes. An increasing number of preclinical studies in trauma, ischemia/reperfusion, and sepsis models show that vitamin C administered at pharmacological doses attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation, and restores endothelial and organ function...
June 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Y Feng
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 7.5% of patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of hospitals are likely diagnosed with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), and more than one-third of the affected patients die with this disease. Despite the improvement in patient care with the availability of mechanical ventilators, mortality among these patients is unabated. Even though many drugs proved effective in preclinical studies, none is efficacious clinically, and no pharmacological treatment is insight...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Annette Wegner, Dragan Pavlovic, Sebastian Haußmann-Vopel, Christian Lehmann
It has been observed, that patients who were treated medically for dyslipoproteinemia had a potentially lower risk of complications during infection and sepsis, regarding both morbidity and mortality. Aim of this study in experimental sepsis was to elucidate the impact of lipid metabolism modulation by simvastatin, HDL, or bezafibrate, respectively, on the intestinal microcirculation which plays a crucial role in the development of multiple organ failure in sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced in Lewis rats by intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration...
May 31, 2018: Microvascular Research
Hee Jo Park, Seung Jun Lee, Joon Cho, Amal Gharbi, Hee Dong Han, Tae Heung Kang, Yangmee Kim, Yeongjoon Lee, Won Sun Park, In Duk Jung, Yeong-Min Park
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to pathogenic infection that currently has no specific pharmaceutical interventions. Instead, antibiotics administration is considered the best available option, despite increasing drug resistance. Alternative strategies are therefore urgently required to prevent sepsis and strengthen the host immune system. One such option is tamarixetin (4'- O-methylquercetin), a naturally occurring flavonoid derivative of quercetin that protects against inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the anti-inflammatory effects of tamarixetin protect against the specific inflammatory conditions induced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Escherichia coli K1 models of sepsis...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Yue Zhao, Cong Ding
BACKGROUND Severe sepsis is among the most common causes of death in Emergency Departments, with more than 30% mortality. Hydrocortisone is used in severe sepsis patients who were not responsive to fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy. However, the effect of hydrocortisone on regulating inflammation, hemodynamic stability, and preventing shock is still unclear in Chinese patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this prospective observational study, we included 105 severe sepsis patients. We measured the level of serum inflammatory cytokines, hemodynamic variables, and phagocytic ability of innate immune cells during the treatment...
May 30, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Rhaya L Johnson, Christopher G Wilson
In this review, we provide an overview of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical uses of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as well as information about the ongoing studies and preclinical research to expand the use of VNS to additional applications. VNS is currently FDA approved for therapeutic use in patients aged >12 years with drug-resistant epilepsy and depression. Recent studies of VNS in in vivo systems have shown that it has anti-inflammatory properties which has led to more preclinical research aimed at expanding VNS treatment across a wider range of inflammatory disorders...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Andrea Galassi, Liliana Turatello, Alessandra De Salvia, Margherita Neri, Emanuela Turillazzi, Raffaele La Russa, Rocco V Viola, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
Current scientific consensus about the physiopathology in the progression from severe sepsis to septic shock and death focuses on myocardial contractile dysfunction. Nevertheless, objective parameters to establish a pathological correlate of a fatal outcome are lacking; then a cause of death due to sepsis can remain an unsolved problem. We first reviewed all death cases recorded at our institutions during the period from 2007 until 2015. Then, we conducted a retrospective study of a selected autopsy series of people who had received "sepsis" as cause of death...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Tobias Zrzavy, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Helmut Rauschka, Oleg Butovsky, Howard Weiner, Hans Lassmann
AIMS: Experimental data suggest that systemic immune activation may create a pro-inflammatory environment with microglia activation in the central nervous system in the absence of overt inflammation, which in turn may be deleterious in conditions of neurodegenerative disease. The extent to which this is relevant for the human brain is unknown. The central aim of this study is to provide an in-depth characterization of the microglia and macrophage response to systemic inflammation. METHODS: We used recently described markers to characterize the origin and functional states of microglia/macrophages in white and grey matter in patients who died under septic conditions and compared it to those patients without systemic inflammation...
May 27, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Fang Li, Fangfang Lang, Yidan Wang, Chunxiao Zhai, Chuanbei Zhang, Liping Zhang, Enkui Hao
Cyanidin, an anthocyanin pigment, demonstrates anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we examined the mechanistic role of cyanidin in endotoxin induced myocardial injury in inflammation and oxidative stress. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced myocardial injury model, cyanidin ameliorated cardiac injury (Lactate dehydrogenase or LDH, Creatine Kinase or CK, cardiac troponin I or cTnI and cardiac myosin light chains 1 or cMLC1), cell death (caspase 3 activity and PARP activity), and improved cardiac function (ejection fraction or EF and end diastolic left ventricular inner dimension or LVID)...
May 24, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Kazumichi Fujioka, Flora Kalish, Hui Zhao, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Sepsis in preterm infants is associated with systemic inflammatory responses. The stress-response protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has protective anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, we reported a protective role of HO-1 using our non-surgical cecal slurry (CS) model in wild-type (WT) mouse pups. Here, we extend these findings to investigate the association of HO-1 deficiency with sepsis severity. METHODS: Adapting the Wynn model, we induced sepsis in 4-day-old HO-1-deficient (HO-1+/- , Het) pups to determine if HO-1 deficiency affected survival rates at the LD40 (2...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Research
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