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Juan Wu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Jin-Hua Hu, Lin Jia, Ming Shi, Fan-Ping Meng, Juan Li, Juan Zhao, Fu-Sheng Wang, Qing-Hua Meng
AIM: To determine the differential characteristics and prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) detected using Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) criteria and then classified using European Association for the Study of the Liver-Chronic Liver Failure (EASL-CLIF) criteria. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 316 HBV-related APASL ACLF patients treated at Beijing 302 Hospital or Beijing You'An Hospital between February 2015 and February 2016...
April 29, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Enzo Z Poirier, Marco Vignuzzi
During RNA virus infection of a host, error-prone viral replication will give rise to a cloud of genetically-linked mutants, as well as truncated, defective genomes. In this review, we describe the dynamics of viral diversity during infection, illustrating that the viral population fluctuates greatly in number of genomes and composition of mutants, in relation with the existence of physical barriers or immune pressures. We illustrate the importance of generating diversity by analyzing the case of fidelity variants, largely attenuated in vivo...
April 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
Jason M Biegel, Eric Henderson, Erica M Cox, Gaston Bonenfant, Rachel Netzband, Samantha Kahn, Rachel Eager, Cara T Pager
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) subverts the cellular DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX6 to promote virus infection. Using polysome gradient analysis and the subgenomic HCV Renilla reporter replicon genome, we determined that DDX6 does not affect HCV translation. Rather expression of the subgenomic HCV Renilla luciferase reporter at late times, as well as labeling of newly synthesized viral RNA with 4-thiouridine showed that DDX6 modulates replication. Because DDX6 is an effector protein of the microRNA pathway, we also investigated its role in miR-122-directed HCV gene expression...
April 26, 2017: Virology
Lena N Lupey-Green, Stephanie A Moquin, Kayla A Martin, Shane M McDevitt, Michael Hulse, Lisa B Caruso, Richard T Pomerantz, Jj L Miranda, Italo Tempera
The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) genome persists in infected host cells as a chromatinized episome and is subject to chromatin-mediated regulation. Binding of the host insulator protein CTCF to the EBV genome has an established role in maintaining viral latency type, and in other herpesviruses, loss of CTCF binding at specific regions correlates with viral reactivation. Here, we demonstrate that binding of PARP1, an important cofactor of CTCF, at the BZLF1 lytic switch promoter restricts EBV reactivation. Knockdown of PARP1 in the Akata-EBV cell line significantly increases viral copy number and lytic protein expression...
April 26, 2017: Virology
Dong-Hun Lee, Mia Kim Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, David E Swayne
In mid-January 2016, an outbreak of H7N8 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in commercial turkeys occurred in Indiana. Surveillance within the 10km control zone identified H7N8 low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in nine surrounding turkey flocks but no other HPAIV-affected premises. We sequenced four of the H7N8 HPAIV isolated from the single farm and nine LPAIV identified during control zone surveillance. Evaluation included phylogenetic network analysis indicating close relatedness across the HPAIV and LPAIV, and that the progenitor H7N8 LPAIV spread among the affected turkey farms in Indiana, followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAIV on a single premise through acquisition of three basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin cleavage site...
April 26, 2017: Virology
Hongchao Gou, Mingqiu Zhao, Hailuan Xu, Jin Yuan, Wencheng He, Mengjiao Zhu, Hongxing Ding, Lin Yi, Jinding Chen
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which causes typical clinical characteristics in piglets, including hemorrhagic syndrome and immunosuppression, is linked to hepatitis C and dengue virus. Oxidative stress and a reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential are disturbed in CSFV-infected cells. The balance of mitochondrial dynamics is essential for cellular homeostasis. In this study, we offer the first evidence that CSFV induces mitochondrial fission and mitophagy to inhibit host cell apoptosis for persistent infection...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
Thomas Tu, Sandra Bühler, Ralf Bartenschlager
Chronic infection with hepatitis viruses represents the major causative factor for end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC). In this review, we highlight the current understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive the hepatocarcinogenesis associated with chronic hepatitis virus infections. While chronic inflammation (associated with a persistent, but impaired anti-viral immune response) plays a major role in HCC initiation and progression, hepatitis viruses can also directly drive liver cancer...
April 29, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Alexios-Fotios A Mentis, Efthimios Dardiotis, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Efthimia Petinaki, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou
Viruses are directly or indirectly implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we review the evidence on the virus-related pathophysiology of MS, introduce common experimental models, and explore the ways in which viruses cause demyelination. By emphasizing knowledge gaps, we highlight future research directions for effective MS diagnostics and therapies: (i) identifying biomarkers for at-risk individuals, (ii) searching for direct evidence of specific causative viruses, (iii) establishing the contribution of host genetic factors and viruses, and (iv) investigating the contribution of immune regulation at extra-CNS sites...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaoxia Su, Kuo Wu, Li Zhen Zhang, Mohammad Siddiqur Rahman, Kuanyu Zheng, Ting Li, Zhongkai Zhang, Jiahong Dong
The complete genome sequence of a new potato virus M (PVM) isolate (PVM-YN), collected from potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Yunnan, China, was determined. It was 8,530 nucleotides (nt) in length, excluding the poly(A) tail at the 3' end, and shared 71.4-72.0% nucleotide sequence identity with available PVM isolates in the NCBI database. The coat proteins (CP) of PVM-YN shared 79.0-97.4% amino acid sequence identity with that of other isolates. It is the first report of the complete genomic sequence of a new PVM isolate infecting S...
April 28, 2017: Archives of Virology
Caihong Liu, Xiangdong Li, Jianpo Zhang, Linxia Yang, Fan Li, Junhua Deng, Feifei Tan, Ming Sun, Yuxiu Liu, Kegong Tian
A canine parainfluenza virus type 5 strain was isolated from a lung sample from a diseased dog. The genome sequene of this isolate, named HeN0718, was determined and compared tho those of other previously reported canine parainfluenza viruses. Unlike previously reported viruses, the HeN0718 strain contained several nucleotide mutations in the SH gene that led to a frame shift in the open reading frame. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete virus genome and the P, F, and HN genes showed that HeN0718 was genetically closest to D277, a Korean strain that was isolated in 2008...
April 28, 2017: Archives of Virology
Elisa Mazzoni, Silvia Pietrobon, Miriam Bilancia, Fabrizio Vinante, Antonella Rigo, Isacco Ferrarini, Antonio D'Agostino, Maria Vittoria Casali, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
A new immunological investigation was carried out to study the association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Simian virus 40 (SV40). To this end, a new indirect ELISA was employed with two mimotopes from SV40 large T antigen (Tag), the viral oncoprotein, to analyse for specific reactions to antibodies in sera from non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients and controls, represented by healthy subjects (HS) and breast carcinoma (BC) patients. This study allowed us to assay a new sera collection from non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients (NHL, n = 254)...
April 28, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Machiko Nishio
Tetherin is an anti-viral factor that restricts viral budding through tethering virions to the cell surface. The human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) V protein decreases cell surface tetherin in HeLa cells, which constitutively express endogenous tetherin. However, the role of the hPIV-2 V protein in tetherin induction remains unclear. Here, we examined whether hPIV-2 infection itself induces tetherin in HEK293 cells that have no basal expression of tetherin. Unlike influenza A virus (IAV) infection, hPIV-2 infection induced neither tetherin mRNA nor protein expression...
April 28, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Xiaofang Han, Keli Peng, Haixia Wu, Shanshan Song, Yerong Zhu, Yanling Bai, Yong Wang
The importance of the phosphorylated pathway (PPSB) of L-serine (Ser) biosynthesis in plant growth and development has been demonstrated, but its specific role in leaves and interaction with photorespiration, the main leaf Ser biosynthetic pathway at daytime, are still unclear. To investigate whether changes in biosynthesis of Ser by the PPSB in leaves could have an impact on photorespiration and plant growth, we overexpressed PSP1, the last enzyme of this pathway, under control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 28, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Suntae Lee, Akihiko Hata, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
The evaluation of virus reduction in water reclamation processes is essential for proper assessment and management of the risk of infection by enteric viruses. Ultrafiltration (UF) with coagulation-sedimentation (CS) is potentially effective for efficient virus removal. However, its performance at removing indigenous viruses has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of indigenous viruses by UF with and without CS in a pilot-scale water reclamation plant in Okinawa, Japan, by measuring the concentration of viruses using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
April 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
Sangmin Kang, Jinjong Myoung
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the latest addition to the human herpesvirus family. Unlike alpha- and beta-herpesvirus subfamily members, gamma-herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and KSHV, cause various tumors in humans. KSHV primarily infects endothelial and B cells in vivo, and is associated with at least three malignancies: Kaposi's sarcoma and two B cell lymphomas, respectively. Although KSHV readily infects endothelial cells in vitro and thus its pathogenic mechanisms have been extensively studied, B cells had been refractory to KSHV infection...
May 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Yang Yang, Wen Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Hua Xiao, Bing Luo
Mutations of filaggrin gene (FLG) have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris, while recently FLG mutations were found to be associated with gastric cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association of filaggrin polymorphism with Epstein-Barr virus-associated tumors in China. A total of 200 patients with three types of tumors and 117 normal control samples were genotyped at three common FLG mutation loci (rs3126085, K4671X, R501X) by using Sequenom MassARRAY technique. The χ (2) test was used to evaluate the relationship between the mutation and the three kinds of tumors...
April 28, 2017: Virus Genes
Chunyang Wang, Menghuai Sun, Xinhui Yuan, Lianfu Ji, Yu Jin, Carol J Cardona, Zheng Xing
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as one of the most important enteroviruses since the eradication of poliovirus, and causes severe neurological symptoms for which no effective antiviral drugs are available. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) have been used clinically as antiviral therapy as the first line of defense against virus infections successfully for decades. However, treatment with Type I interferons has not been effective in patients with EV71 infection. In this study, we found that in cells pre-treated with IFN-β, EV71 infection could still lead to a cytopathic effect and the viral replication was not affected...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jacob M Serfass, Yoshinori Takahashi, Zhixiang Zhou, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Ying Liu, Nikolaos Tsotakos, Megan M Young, Zhenyuan Tang, Linlin Yang, Jennifer M Atkinson, Zissis C Chroneos, Hong-Gang Wang
Endocytosis, and the subsequent trafficking of endosomes, requires dynamic physical alterations in membrane shape that are mediated in part by endophilin proteins. The endophilin B family of proteins contains an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (N-BAR) domain that induces membrane curvature to regulate intracellular membrane dynamics. While endophilin B1 (SH3GLB1/Bif-1) is known to be involved in a number of cellular processes, including apoptosis, autophagy and endocytosis, the cellular function of endophilin B2 (SH3GLB2) is not well understood...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Randeep Singh, Tizong Miao, Alistair L J Symonds, Becky Omodho, Suling Li, Ping Wang
T-bet is important for differentiation of cytotoxic CD8 and Th1 CD4 T cells. We have discovered that Egr2 and 3 are potent inhibitors of T-bet function in CD4 and CD8 effector T cells. Egr2 and 3 were essential to suppress Th1 differentiation in Th2 and Th17 conditions in vitro and also to control IFN-γ-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells in response to virus infection. Together with Egr2 and 3, T-bet is induced in naive T cells by Ag stimulation, but Egr2 and 3 expression was inhibited by Th1-inducing cytokines...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Cheng Qin, Bin Li, Yaya Fan, Xian Zhang, Zhiming Yu, Eugene Ryabov, Mei Zhao, Hui Wang, Nongnong Shi, Pengcheng Zhang, Stephen Jackson, Mahmut Tör, Qi Cheng, Yule Liu, Philippe Gallusci, Yiguo Hong
RNA silencing is an innate antiviral mechanism conserved in organisms across kingdoms. Such cellular defense involves DICER or DICER-LIKEs (DCLs) that process viral RNAs into small interfering (vsi)RNAs. Plants encode four DCLs which play diverse roles in cell-autonomous virus-induced RNA silencing (known as VIGS) against viral invasion. However, intracellular VIGS can spread between cells, and the genetic basis and involvement of vsiRNAs in non-cell autonomous VIGS remains poorly understood. Here using GFP as a reporter gene together with a suite of DCL RNAi transgenic lines, we show that in addition to well-established activities of DCLs in intracellular VIGS and vsiRNA biogenesis, DCL4 inhibits intercellular VIGS whilst DCL2 is required, likely along with DCL2-processed/dependent vsiRNAs and their precursor RNAs, for efficient VIGS trafficking from epidermal to adjacent cells...
April 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
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