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Vassilis E Papadopoulos, Georgia Nikolopoulou, Ivi Antoniadou, Antonia Karachaliou, Giovanna Arianoglou, Evangelia Emmanouilidou, S Pablo Sardi, Leonidas Stefanis, Kostas Vekrellis
Glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) mutations are the most common genetic contributor to Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are associated with decreased Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) enzymatic activity in PD. PD patients without GBA mutations also exhibit lower levels of GCase activity in the central nervous system (CNS) suggesting a potential contribution of the enzyme activity in disease pathogenesis, possibly by alteration of lysosomal function. α-synuclein, a protein with a central role in PD pathogenesis, has been shown to be secreted partly in association with exosomes...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Pei-Hui Wang, Sin-Yee Fung, Wei-Wei Gao, Jian-Jun Deng, Yun Cheng, Vidyanath Chaudhary, Kit-San Yuen, Ting-Hin Ho, Ching-Ping Chan, Yan Zhang, Kin-Hang Kok, Wanling Yang, Chi-Ping Chan, Dong-Yan Jin
STING is a core adaptor in innate nucleic acid sensing in mammalian cells, on which different sensing pathways converge to induce type I interferon (IFN) production. Particularly, STING is activated by 2'3'-cGAMP, a cyclic dinucleotide containing mixed phosphodiester linkages and produced by cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. Here, we reported on a novel transcript isoform of STING designated STING-β that dominantly inhibits innate nucleic acid sensing. STING-β without transmembrane domains was widely expressed at low levels in various human tissues and viral induction of STING-β correlated inversely with IFN-β production...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Miriam Fritz, Benjamin Berger, Mathias Schemmerer, Dominique Endres, Jürgen J Wenzel, Oliver Stich, Marcus Panning
There is growing evidence that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can present with extrahepatic manifestations including neurological disorders. Among these, neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) has been reported to occur in some industrialized countries. We investigated 35 patients with NA and a control group for markers of HEV infection. Acute HEV infection was found in NA patients only and was associated with an inflammatory response in the central nervous system. Shedding of HEV RNA into the cerebrospinal fluid and intrathecal production of anti-HEV IgM occurred in one patient suggesting that HEV is neurotropic...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Khoa T D Thai, Hannelore Götz, Bibi C G C Slingerland, Janienne Klaasse, Martin Schutten, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel
BACKGROUND: Correct identification of blood borne viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial in detection and follow up of infection in patients. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the DiaSorin LIAISON XL (LIAISON XL) for screening of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In addition, we investigated the variability of the signal-to-cuttoff ratio (S/CO) of the LIAISON XL HIV Ag/Ab assay and it's predictive value in subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Neha J Pancholi, Matthew D Weitzman
During viral replication in the nucleus, the DNA genomes of adenoviruses are accessible to cellular DNA-binding proteins. Human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) targets the cellular Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex (MRN) to evade detection by the DNA damage response (DDR). Ad5 mutants that cannot target MRN have reduced viral propagation. Previous studies showed that diverse adenovirus serotypes interact differently with MRN. While these studies revealed diverse MRN interactions among serotypes, it remains unclear how these differences influence viral replication...
March 13, 2018: Virology
Sophie Outh-Gauer, Marie Alt, Christophe Le Tourneau, Jérémy Augustin, Chloé Broudin, Cassandre Gasne, Thomas Denize, Haitham Mirghani, Elizabeth Fabre, Madeleine Ménard, Florian Scotte, Eric Tartour, Cécile Badoual
Cancer occurrence can be understood as the result of dysfunctions in immune tumoral microenvironment. Here we review the recent understandings of those microenvironment changes, regarding their causes and prognostic significance in head and neck (HN) carcinoma. We will focus on HN squamous cell cancer (SCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). Their overall poor prognosis may be improved with immunotherapy in a subset of patients, as supported by current clinical trials. However, finding reliable markers of therapeutic response is crucial for patient selection, due to potential severe adverse reactions and high costs...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Hong-Jie Li, Dong-Sheng Gao, Yong-Tao Li, Yong-Sheng Wang, Hong-Ying Liu, Jun Zhao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality rates in neonatal piglets. Severe outbreaks of PEDV variants have re-emerged in Asia and North America since 2010, causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry. The lack of effective therapeutic treatment promotes the research for new antivirals. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been reported as a potential antiviral drug for certain viruses. In this study, the antiviral effect of LiCl on PEDV in Vero cells was evaluated...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Amporn Suphatrakul, Thaneeya Duangchinda, Natapong Jupatanakul, Kanjanawadee Prasittisa, Suppachoke Onnome, Jutharat Pengon, Bunpote Siridechadilok
Reporter virus is a versatile tool to visualize and to analyze virus infections. However, for flaviviruses, it is difficult to maintain the inserted reporter genes on the viral genome, limiting its use in several studies that require homogeneous virus particles and several rounds of virus replication. Here, we showed that flanking inserted GFP genes on both sides with ribosome-skipping 2A sequences improved the stability and the consistency of their fluorescent signals for dengue-virus-serotype 2 (DENV2) reporter viruses...
2018: PloS One
Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Shih-Ping Lin, Te-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Yu-Shan Huang, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Wen-Chien Ko, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the evolution of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients included in two cohorts in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics of 4,025 and 3,856 HIV-positive Taiwanese, who were aged 18 years or older at designated hospitals around Taiwan in 2004-2007, when an outbreak of HIV infection was occurring, and 2012-2016, when the outbreak was controlled with the implementation of harm reduction program, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Mitchell R White, Ruth Kandel, I-Ni Hsieh, Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein (βA) can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses. We reported that the 42 amino acid βA protein inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and modulates activation of neutrophils and monocytes exposed IAV. We here show that fragments composed of the N and C terminal domain of βA42, including βA22-42 and the 8 amino acid βA35-42, retain viral neutralizing and viral aggregating activity, whereas fragments lacking the C-terminal amino acids 41 and 42 (e...
2018: PloS One
Gennaro Ilardi, Daniela Russo, Silvia Varricchio, Giovanni Salzano, Giovanni Dell'Aversana Orabona, Virginia Napolitano, Rosa Maria Di Crescenzo, Alessandra Borzillo, Francesco Martino, Francesco Merolla, Massimo Mascolo, Stefania Staibano
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can play a causative role in the development of sinonasal tract malignancies. In fact, HPV may be the most significant causative agent implicated in sinonasal tumorigenesis and is implicated in as many as 21% of sinonasal carcinomas. To date, there are no definitive, reliable and cost-effective, diagnostic tests approved by the FDA for the unequivocal determination of HPV status in head and neck cancers. We followed an exhaustive algorithm to correctly test HPV infection, including a sequential approach with p16INK4a IHC, viral DNA genotyping and in situ hybridization for E6/E7 mRNA...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew J Murray, Nicholas E Peters, Matthew B Reeves
The host cell represents a hostile environment that viruses must counter in order to establish infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no different and encodes a multitude of functions aimed at disabling, re-directing or hijacking cellular functions to promulgate infection. However, during the very early stages of infection the virus relies on the outcome of interactions between virion components, cell surface receptors and host signalling pathways to promote an environment that supports infection. In the context of latent infection-where the virus establishes an infection in an absence of many gene products specific for lytic infection-these initial interactions are crucial events...
March 16, 2018: Pathogens
Daniel M P Ardisson-Araújo, Ana Maria Rodrigues da Silva, Fernando L Melo, Ethiane Rozo Dos Santos, Daniel R Sosa-Gómez, Bergmann M Ribeiro
In this report, we described the genome of a novel baculovirus isolated from the monocot insect pest Mocis latipes , the striped grass looper. The genome has 134,272 bp in length with a G + C content of 38.3%. Based on the concatenated sequence of the 38 baculovirus core genes, we found that the virus is a betabaculovirus closely related to the noctuid-infecting betabaculoviruses including Pseudaletia unipuncta granulovirus (PsunGV), Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV), Helicoverpa armigera granulovirus (HearGV), and Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV)...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Carolina de la Guardia, David E Stephens, Hang T Dang, Mario Quijada, Oleg V Larionov, Ricardo Lleonart
Dengue virus causes dengue fever, a debilitating disease with an increasing incidence in many tropical and subtropical territories. So far, there are no effective antivirals licensed to treat this virus. Here we describe the synthesis and antiviral activity evaluation of two compounds based on the quinoline scaffold, which has shown potential for the development of molecules with various biological activities. Two of the tested compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of dengue virus serotype 2 in the low and sub micromolar range...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Allison A Lindgren, Adam R Filipowicz, Julian B Hattler, Soon Ok Kim, Hye Kyung Chung, Marcelo J Kuroda, Edward M Johnson, Woong-Ki Kim
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection of the brain and related cognitive impairment remain prevalent in HIV-1-infected subjects despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a newly identified host restriction factor that blocks the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses in myeloid cells. Cell-cycle-regulated phosphorylation at residue Thr592 and viral protein X (Vpx)-mediated degradation of SAMHD1 have been shown to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in vitro...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
C Roger Goucke, Pongparadee Chaudakshetrin
Approximately 80% of the world's population lives in countries with little or no access to pain management. These countries also have 74% of the world's deaths from cancer and human immunodeficiency virus. Appropriate use of oral opioids can control 80%-90% of cancer pain. However, only 6.7% of the world's medical opioids are available in these low-resource countries. With the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery calling for a significant expansion of surgical services, postoperative pain management will need to be an increasing focus of our attention...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Brice Jegado, Chloé Journo, Renaud Mahieux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Jovan Nikolic, Cécile Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Nathalie Scrima, Danielle Blondel, Yves Gaudin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Ioannis Griveas, Eirini Sveroni, Vasiliki Argiana, Antonios Kalliaropoulos, Beatriz Martinez-Gonzalez, Melanie Deutsch
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still common among dialysis patients, but the natural history of HCV in this group is not completely understood. The KDIGO HCV guidelines of 2009 recommend that chronic haemodialysis patients be screened for HCV antibody upon admission to the dialysis clinic and every 6 months thereafter if susceptible to HCV infection. However, previous studies have shown the presence of HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients as up to 22%...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Alessandra Maria Mont Alverne Pierre, Ana Cristina de Castro Amaral Feldner, Roberto José de Carvalho Filho, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida Lopes, Michele Soares Gomes Gouvea, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Claudia Teresa Carvente, Christini Takemi Emori, Genimari Arruda da Silva, Maria Lúcia Cardoso Gomes Ferraz
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease in hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients. Hepatitis Delta virus is a defective virus transmitted by the same route of hepatitis B virus, which requires the helper function of hepatitis B virus. Data about hepatitis B virus/hepatitis delta virus coinfection are scarce and there are no studies regarding the coinfection among hemodialysis patients and renal transplant in our country. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus infection among hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
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