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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783148/comparative-study-of-six-sequential-spectrophotometric-methods-for-quantification-and-separation-of-ribavirin-sofosbuvir-and-daclatasvir-an-application-on-laboratory-prepared-mixture-pharmaceutical-preparations-spiked-human-urine-spiked-human-plasma-and-dissolution
#1
Wafaa S Hassan, Manal S Elmasry, Heba M Elsayed, Dalia W Zidan
In accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines, six novel, simple and precise sequential spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of Ribavirin (RIB), Sofosbuvir (SOF), and Daclatasvir (DAC) in their mixture without prior separation steps. These drugs are described as co-administered for treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV is the cause of hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and lymphomas in humans...
May 18, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782933/whole-genome-sequencing-and-analyses-identify-high-genetic-heterogeneity-and-diversity-of-rotavirus-genotype-p-6-strains-circulating-in-africa
#2
Martin M Nyaga, Yi Tan, Mapaseka L Seheri, Rebecca A Halpin, Asmik Akopov, Karla M Stucker, Nadia B Fedorova, Susmita Shrivastava, A Duncan Steele, Jason M Mwenda, Brett E Pickett, Suman R Das, M Jeffery Mphahlele
Rotavirus A (RVA) exhibits a wide genotype diversity globally. Little is known about the genetic composition of genotype P[6] from Africa. This study investigated possible evolutionary mechanisms leading to genetic diversity of genotype P[6] VP4 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses on 167 P[6] VP4 full-length sequences were conducted, which included six porcine-origin sequences. Of the 167 sequences, 57 were newly acquired through whole genome sequencing as part of this study. The other 110 sequences were all publicly-available global P[6] VP4 full-length sequences downloaded from GenBank...
May 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782928/a-mathematical-approach-to-effects-of-ctls-on-cancer-virotherapy-in-the-second-injection-of-virus
#3
A Ashyani, O RabieiMotlagh, H M Mohammadinezhad
This paper proposes a planar delay differential equation for cancer virotherapy. The model simulates the situation in which an oncolytic virus is injected for the second time, and the immune system suppresses the viral infection with a time delay. Our purpose is to provide theoretical conditions so that the therapy can be continued successfully. With the help of the characteristic equation, we examine the singularities and their local stability. Hopf bifurcation is also investigated around the endemic singularity...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782922/dengue-chikungunya-and-zika-infections-imported-to-paris-between-2009-and-2016-characteristics-and-correlation-with-outbreaks-in-the-french-overseas-territories-of-guadeloupe-and-martinique
#4
Victor Vasquez, Elie Haddad, Alice Perignon, Stéphane Jaureguiberry, Ségolène Brichler, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Eric Caumes
BACKGROUND: Dengue (DV), chikungunya (CV) and Zika virus (ZV) infections are rapidly expanding across countries and diagnosed in returned travelers who represent epidemiological sentinels. French Territories of America (FTA) such as Guadeloupe and Martinique are highly touristic places and have experienced three consecutive outbreaks by such viruses in the last decade. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated how ill returned travelers could be deemed as epidemiological sentinels for these three expanding arboviral diseases during eight consecutive years...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782916/identification-of-amino-acid-residues-in-infectious-hematopoietic-necrosis-virus-ihnv-nv-protein-necessary-for-viral-replication-and-pathogenicity
#5
Yang Wu, Li Wang, Tiantian Guo, Yanping Jiang, Xinyuan Qiao, Li Sun, Min Liu, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
Our previous studies demonstrated that the nonstructural NV protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was essential for efficient viral replication and pathogenicity, and that the amino acid residues 32 EGDL35 of the NV protein were responsible for nuclear localization, and played important roles in suppressing IFN and inhibiting NF-κB activity. However, little is known about the influence of 32 EGDL35 on IHNV replication and pathogenicity. In the present study, two recombinant IHNV strains with deletions of NV 32 EGDL35 were generated and the effect on IHNV replication and pathogenicity was explored...
May 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782889/development-of-robust-genotype-1a-hepatitis-c-replicons-harboring-adaptive-mutations-for-facilitating-the-antiviral-drug-discovery-and-study-of-virus-replication
#6
Hui-Mei Lin, Pei-Shan Wu, Han-Shu Hu, Wan-Chun Chang, Ren-Huang Wu, Jia-Ni Tian, Jyh-Haur Chern, Andrew Yueh
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic replicon is a valuable tool for studying virus replication and HCV drug development. Despite the fact that HCV genotype 1a (HCV1a) is the most prevalent genotype in the United States, few HCV1a reporter replicon constructs have been reported, and their replication capacities are not as efficient as those of HCV1b or 2a, especially in transient expression. In this study, we selected efficient HCV1a replicons and characterized the novel adaptive mutations derived from stable HCV1a (strain H77) replicon cells after G418 selection...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782878/the-ubiquitin-protein-ligase-e6ap-ube3a-supports-early-encephalomyocarditis-virus-replication
#7
Marybeth Carmody, Joshua T Zimmer, Camille H Cushman, Thao Nguyen, T Glen Lawson
Many viruses make use of, and even direct, the ubiquitin-proteasome system to facilitate the generation of a cellular environment favorable for virus replication, while host cells use selected protein ubiquitylation pathways for antiviral defense. Relatively little information has been acquired, however, regarding the extent to which protein ubiquitylation determines the replication success of picornaviruses. Here we report that the ubiquitin-protein ligase E6AP/UBE3A, recently shown to be a participant in encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 3C protease concentration regulation, also facilitates the early stages of EMCV replication, probably by a mechanism that does not involve 3C protease ubiquitylation...
May 18, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782834/high-throughput-dissection-of-aav-host-interactions-the-fast-and-the-curious
#8
REVIEW
Anne-Kathrin Herrmann, Dirk Grimm
Over fifty years after its initial description, Adeno-associated virus (AAV) remains a most exciting but also most elusive study object in basic or applied virology. On the one hand, its simple structure not only facilitates investigations into virus biology, but combined with the availability of numerous natural AAV variants with distinct infection efficiency and specificity also makes AAV a preferred substrate for engineering of gene delivery vectors. On the other hand, it is striking to witness a recent flurry of reports that highlight and partially close persistent gaps in our understanding of AAV virus and vector biology...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782795/rna-modulates-the-interaction-between-influenza-a-virus-ns1-and-human-pabp1
#9
Bryan H Arias-Mireles, Cyrus M de Rozieres, Kevin Ly, Simpson Joseph
Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein involved in preventing host-interferon response in Influenza A Virus (IAV). Previous studies have indicated that NS1 also stimulates the translation of viral mRNA by binding to conserved sequences in the viral 5'-UTR. Additionally, NS1 binds to Poly (A) Binding Protein (PABP1) and eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4G (eIF4G). The interaction of NS1 with the viral 5'-UTR, PABP1, and eIF4G has been suggested to specifically enhance the translation of viral mRNAs...
May 21, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782663/prospective-study-confirms-that-bronchiolitis-in-early-infancy-increases-the-risk-of-reduced-lung-function-at-10-13-years-of-age
#10
Riikka Riikonen, Eero Lauhkonen, Sari Törmänen, Katri Backman, Petri Koponen, Merja Helminen, Kirsi Nuolivirta, Matti Korppi
AIM: This study evaluated children hospitalised for bronchiolitis at less than six months of age to see if they had reduced lung function in early adolescence. METHODS: We have prospectively followed 166 children hospitalised for infant bronchiolitis in 2001-2004 at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. At 10-13 years of age, flow-volume spirometry was measured in 89 cases and 108 controls without infant bronchiolitis from the local population register. Parameters of flow-volume spirometry before and after bronchodilation were analysed...
May 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782554/hijacking-of-multiple-phospholipid-biosynthetic-pathways-and-induction-of-membrane-biogenesis-by-a-picornaviral-3cd-protein
#11
Sravani Banerjee, David Aponte-Diaz, Calvin Yeager, Suresh D Sharma, Gang Ning, Hyung S Oh, Qingxia Han, Masato Umeda, Yuji Hara, Robert Y L Wang, Craig E Cameron
RNA viruses induce specialized membranous structures for use in genome replication. These structures are often referred to as replication organelles (ROs). ROs exhibit distinct lipid composition relative to other cellular membranes. In many picornaviruses, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) is a marker of the RO. Studies to date indicate that the viral 3A protein hijacks a PI4 kinase to induce PI4P by a mechanism unrelated to the cellular pathway, which requires Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1, GBF1, and ADP ribosylation factor 1, Arf1...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782552/role-of-kinesins-in-directed-adenovirus-transport-and-cytoplasmic-exploration
#12
Jie Zhou, Julian Scherer, Julie Yi, Richard B Vallee
Many viruses, including adenovirus, exhibit bidirectional transport along microtubules following cell entry. Cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for microtubule minus end transport of adenovirus capsids after endosomal escape. However, the identity and roles of the opposing plus end-directed motor(s) remain unknown. We performed an RNAi screen of 38 kinesins, which implicated Kif5B (kinesin-1 family) and additional minor kinesins in adenovirus 5 (Ad5) capsid translocation. Kif5B RNAi markedly increased centrosome accumulation of incoming Ad5 capsids in human A549 pulmonary epithelial cells within the first 30 min post infection, an effect dramatically enhanced by blocking Ad5 nuclear pore targeting using leptomycin B...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782550/multiple-roles-of-core-protein-linker-in-hepatitis-b-virus-replication
#13
Kuancheng Liu, Laurie Luckenbaugh, Xiaojun Ning, Ji Xi, Jianming Hu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) contains an N-terminal domain (NTD, assembly domain) and a C-terminal domain (CTD), which are linked by a flexible linker region. HBc plays multiple essential roles in viral replication, including capsid assembly, packaging of the viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) into nucleocapsids, viral reverse transcription that converts pgRNA to the genomic DNA, and secretion of DNA-containing (complete) virions or genome-free (empty) virions. The HBc linker is generally assumed to act merely as a spacer between NTD and CTD but some results suggest that the linker may affect NTD assembly...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782545/rosmarinic-acid-is-a-novel-inhibitor-for-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-targeting-viral-epsilon-rna-polymerase-interaction
#14
Yuta Tsukamoto, Sotaro Ikeda, Koji Uwai, Riho Taguchi, Kazuaki Chayama, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Ryo Narita, Wan-Ling Yao, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yukie Otakaki, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Hiroki Kato, Takashi Fujita
Current therapeutics for hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients such as nucleoside analogs (NAs) are effective; however, new antiviral drugs against HBV are still desired. Since the interaction between the epsilon (ε) sequence of HBV pregenomic RNA and viral polymerase (Pol) is a key step in the HBV replication cycle, we aimed to identify small compounds for its inhibition, and established a pull-down assay system for the detection of ε-RNA-binding-Pol. Screening showed that 5 out of 3,965 compounds inhibited ε-Pol binding, and we identified rosmarinic acid, which exhibited specificity, as a potential antiviral agent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782532/hepatitis-c-virus-ns4b-induces-the-degradation-of-trif-to-inhibit-tlr3-mediated-interferon-signaling-pathway
#15
Yisha Liang, Xuezhi Cao, Qiang Ding, Yanan Zhao, Zhenliang He, Jin Zhong
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) senses dsRNA intermediates produced during RNA virus replication to activate innate immune signaling pathways through adaptor protein TRIF. Many viruses have evolved strategies to block TLR3-mediated interferon signaling via targeting TRIF. Here we studied how hepatitis C virus (HCV) antagonizes the TLR3-mediated interferon signaling. We found that HCV-encoded NS4B protein inhibited TLR3-mediated interferon signaling by down-regulating TRIF protein level. Mechanism studies indicated that the downregulation of TRIF by NS4B was dependent on caspase8...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782527/detection-of-influenza-a-virus-in-aerosols-of-vaccinated-and-non-vaccinated-pigs-in-a-warm-environment
#16
Victor Neira, Matt Allerson, Cesar Corzo, Marie Culhane, Aaron Rendahl, Montserrat Torremorell
The 2009 influenza pandemic, the variant H3N2v viruses in agricultural fairs and the zoonotic poultry H5N9 infections in China have highlighted the constant threat that influenza A viruses (IAV) present to people and animals. In this study we evaluated the effect of IAV vaccination on aerosol shedding in pigs housed in warm environmental conditions. Thirty-six, three-week old weaned pigs were obtained from an IAV negative herd and were randomly allocated to one of 4 groups: 1) a homologous vaccine group, 2) a heterologous multivalent vaccine group, 3) a heterologous monovalent group and, 4) a non-vaccinated group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782512/regulation-of-midgut-cell-proliferation-impacts-aedes-aegypti-susceptibility-to-dengue-virus
#17
Mabel L Taracena, Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Octavio A C Talyuli, Ana Beatriz Walter-Nuno, José Henrique M Oliveira, Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodriguez, Michael B Wells, George Dimopoulos, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Aedes aegypti is the vector of some of the most important vector-borne diseases like dengue, chikungunya, zika and yellow fever, affecting millions of people worldwide. The cellular processes that follow a blood meal in the mosquito midgut are directly associated with pathogen transmission. We studied the homeostatic response of the midgut against oxidative stress, as well as bacterial and dengue virus (DENV) infections, focusing on the proliferative ability of the intestinal stem cells (ISC). Inhibition of the peritrophic matrix (PM) formation led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the epithelial cells in response to contact with the resident microbiota, suggesting that maintenance of low levels of ROS in the intestinal lumen is key to keep ISCs division in balance...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782308/activation-of-herpes-simplex-infection-after-tattoo
#18
Antigona Begolli Gerqari, Mybera Ferizi, Merita Kotori, Aferdita Daka, Syzana Hapciu, Ilir Begolli, Mirije Begolli, Idriz Gerqari
Tattooing is a procedure where ink is applied to an area of the skin, mostly intraepidermally (1). This procedure is carried out mainly for aesthetic purposes. Lately, it has been used as a corrective medical procedure following amputation of mammilla. The procedure is aggressive (2), and the fact that skin is punctured many times with the same needle which cannot be fully sterilized may cause infection of the treated area with bacterial, fungal, or viral agents that may lead to health consequences manifesting in the form of verrucae vulgaris, molluscum contagiosum, and herpes simplex...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782238/generation-of-a-lineage-ii-powassan-virus-deer-tick-virus-cdna-clone-assessment-of-flaviviral-genetic-determinants-of-tick-and-mosquito-vector-competence
#19
Joan L Kenney, Michael Anishchenko, Meghan Hermance, Hannah Romo, Ching-I Chen, Saravanan Thangamani, Aaron C Brault
The Flavivirus genus comprises a diverse group of viruses that utilize a wide range of vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. The genus includes viruses that are transmitted solely by mosquitoes or vertebrate hosts as well as viruses that alternate transmission between mosquitoes or ticks and vertebrates. Nevertheless, the viral genetic determinants that dictate these unique flaviviral host and vector specificities have been poorly characterized. In this report, a cDNA clone of a flavivirus that is transmitted between ticks and vertebrates (Powassan lineage II, deer tick virus [DTV]) was generated and chimeric viruses between the mosquito/vertebrate flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), were constructed...
May 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782226/microparticle-release-from-cell-lines-and-its-anti-influenza-activity
#20
Saharat Jantaratrirat, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Kanyarat Ruangrung, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Prasert Auewarakul
Microparticles (MPs) are vesicles that are released by budding from plasma membrane of living cells. Recently, the role of MPs in antiviral activity has been proposed. We investigated quantity and anti-influenza activity of MPs from human alveolar epithelial cells A549, human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B, human colon adenocarcinoma cells HT-29, and the human lung fibroblast cells MRC-5. MPs were found from all four cell lines. However, anti-influenza activity against an H1N1 influenza virus was found only from MPs of A549 and BEAS-2B...
May 21, 2018: Viral Immunology
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