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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067916/self-correcting-mismatches-during-high-fidelity-dna-replication
#1
Rafael Fernandez-Leiro, Julian Conrad, Ji-Chun Yang, Stefan M V Freund, Sjors H W Scheres, Meindert H Lamers
Faithful DNA replication is essential to all forms of life and depends on the action of 3'-5' exonucleases that remove misincorporated nucleotides from the newly synthesized strand. However, how the DNA is transferred from the polymerase to the exonuclease active site is not known. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the editing mode of the catalytic core of the Escherichia coli replisome, revealing a dramatic distortion of the DNA whereby the polymerase thumb domain acts as a wedge that separates the two DNA strands...
January 9, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009929/solvent-effects-on-the-folding-of-o-phenylene-oligomers
#2
Gopi Nath Vemuri, Meng Chu, Han Dong, Brian J Spinello, C Scott Hartley
ortho-Phenylene oligomers fold into compact helical conformations in solution, and have therefore recently emerged as a class of foldamers. Previous work has shown that their folding is controlled by arene-arene stacking interactions parallel to the helical axis. Such interactions might reasonably be expected to be sensitive to solvent, but little is known of solvent effects in this system. Here, we report on the behavior of a representative set of o-phenylene oligomers in solvents ranging from non-polar (benzene) to polar and protic (methanol and water)...
December 23, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982106/protein-knotting-through-concatenation-significantly-reduces-folding-stability
#3
Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Concatenation by covalent linkage of two protomers of an intertwined all-helical HP0242 homodimer from Helicobacter pylori results in the first example of an engineered knotted protein. While concatenation does not affect the native structure according to X-ray crystallography, the folding kinetics is substantially slower compared to the parent homodimer. Using NMR hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis, we showed here that concatenation destabilises significantly the knotted structure in solution, with some regions close to the covalent linkage being destabilised by as much as 5 kcal mol(-1)...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919081/m-6-a-potentiates-sxl-alternative-pre-mrna-splicing-for-robust-drosophila-sex-determination
#4
Irmgard U Haussmann, Zsuzsanna Bodi, Eugenio Sanchez-Moran, Nigel P Mongan, Nathan Archer, Rupert G Fray, Matthias Soller
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins. The mammalian mRNA m(6)A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir). In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)...
December 8, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911771/stability-folding-dynamics-and-long-range-conformational-transition-of-the-synaptic-t-snare-complex
#5
Xinming Zhang, Aleksander A Rebane, Lu Ma, Feng Li, Junyi Jiao, Hong Qu, Frederic Pincet, James E Rothman, Yongli Zhang
Synaptic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) couple their stepwise folding to fusion of synaptic vesicles with plasma membranes. In this process, three SNAREs assemble into a stable four-helix bundle. Arguably, the first and rate-limiting step of SNARE assembly is the formation of an activated binary target (t)-SNARE complex on the target plasma membrane, which then zippers with the vesicle (v)-SNARE on the vesicle to drive membrane fusion. However, the t-SNARE complex readily misfolds, and its structure, stability, and dynamics are elusive...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900313/semitendinosus-and-gracilis-free-muscle-tendon-graft-for-repair-of-massive-rotator-cuff-tears-surgical-technique
#6
Antonio Gigante, Carlo Bottegoni, Giuseppe Milano, Michele Riccio, Luca Dei Giudici
Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics...
July 2016: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884908/books-the-frayed-consultation-model-for-doctors-dealing-with-unreasonable-demands-from-difficult-patients-a-communication-skills-guide-for-stressed-gps-on-how-to-survive-doctor-patient-conflict-to-yield-or-not-to-yield
#7
Shazia Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864948/using-frons-width-to-differentiate-blow-fly-species-diptera-calliphoridae-phormia-regina-meigen-and-protophormia-terraenovae-robineau-desvoidy
#8
Sarah V Langer, Christopher J Kyle, David V Beresford
Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are morphologically similar blow fly species commonly used for estimating postmortem intervals. Field collection and storage of adults can result in color changes, in particular on calypters and palps; often collected specimens show damage such as wing fray or fungal growth. We measured the frons width: total head width ratio using photographs (ImageJ version 1.49) to differentiate these two species...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822951/rectal-neuroendocrine-neoplasia-a-rare-tumour
#9
Marina de Benito Sanz, Javier Santos Fernández, Mª Henar Núñez Rodríguez
Colorectal neuroendocrine tumours are rare A 78 year old man with a history of hypertension, heart disease, pacemakers, prostate adenocarcinoma.On examination for rectal bleeding, a colonoscopy was performed and at 5 cm of the anal margin a 28 mm ulcerated neoformation was found.An echo-endoscopy revealed infiltration of the muscular layer with an area of loss in the cleavage plane loss and fraying of the perirectal fat infiltration suggestive of infiltration (T3). They no lymph nodes or metastasis were identified by CAT...
November 8, 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790534/clinico-radiological-correlation-of-subcoracoid-impingement-with-reduced-coracohumeral-interval-and-its-relation-to-subscapularis-tears-in-indian-patients
#10
Ayyappan Vijayachandran Nair, Srivatsa Nagaraja Rao, Chandrababu Kadassery Kumaran, Bhaskaran Vadakkekottu Kochukunju
INTRODUCTION: Clinically, subcoracoid impingement is characterized by pain at the anterior aspect of the shoulder that is induced by adduction, internal rotation and forward flexion. This position leads to narrowing of the Coraco-Humeral Interval (CHI)-that is, the space between the coracoid process and the lesser tuberosity of the humerus. Structures in the rotator interval are at greatest risk for impingement which includes the Subscorapularis tendon, tendon of the long head of the biceps, and the middle gleno-humeral ligament...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777911/long-term-clinical-outcome-and-the-identification-of-homozygous-cyp27b1-gene-mutations-in-a-patient-with-vitamin-d-hydroxylation-deficient-rickets-type-1a
#11
Ja Hyang Cho, Eungu Kang, Gu-Hwan Kim, Beom Hee Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo
Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A (VDDR1A) is an autosomal recessively-inherited disorder caused by mutations in CYP27B1 encoding the 1α-hydroxylase enzyme. We report on a female patient with VDDR1A who presented with hypocalcemic seizure at the age of 13 months. The typical clinical and biochemical features of VDDR1A were found, such as hypocalcemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, secondary hyperparathyroidism and normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3). Radiographic images of the wrist showed metaphyseal widening with cupping and fraying of the ulna and distal radius, suggesting rickets...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756102/exogenous-n-acyl-homoserine-lactones-enhance-the-expression-of-flagella-of-pseudomonas-syringae-and-activate-defence-responses-in-plants
#12
Feifei Cheng, Anzhou Ma, Guoqiang Zhuang, Rupert G Fray
In order to cope with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense pathogenic attacks and to induce defence responses. The N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria regulates diverse physiological processes, including those involved in pathogenicity. In this work, we study the interactions between AHL-producing transgenic tobacco plants and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528). Both a reduced incidence of disease and decrease in the growth of P...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727231/corrigendum-genetic-improvement-of-tomato-by-targeted-control-of-fruit-softening
#13
Selman Uluisik, Natalie H Chapman, Rebecca Smith, Mervin Poole, Gary Adams, Richard B Gillis, Tabot M D Besong, Judith Sheldon, Suzy Stiegelmeyer, Laura Perez, Nurul Samsulrizal, Duoduo Wang, Ian D Fisk, Ni Yang, Charles Baxter, Daniel Rickett, Rupert Fray, Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Ann L T Powell, Stephen E Harding, Jim Craigon, Jocelyn K C Rose, Eric A Fich, Li Sun, David S Domozych, Paul D Fraser, Gregory A Tucker, Don Grierson, Graham B Seymour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726750/imaging-findings-of-metabolic-bone-disease
#14
Connie Y Chang, Daniel I Rosenthal, Deborah M Mitchell, Atsuhiko Handa, Susan V Kattapuram, Ambrose J Huang
Metabolic bone diseases are a diverse group of diseases that result in abnormalities of (a) bone mass, (b) structure mineral homeostasis, (c) bone turnover, or (d) growth. Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, results in generalized loss of bone mass and deterioration in the bone microarchitecture. Impaired chondrocyte development and failure to mineralize growth plate cartilage in rickets lead to widened growth plates and frayed metaphyses at sites of greatest growth. Osteomalacia is the result of impaired mineralization of newly formed osteoid, which leads to characteristic Looser zones...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712281/more-holes-than-cheese-what-prevents-the-delivery-of-effective-high-quality-and-safe-healthcare-in-england
#15
Sue Hignett, Alexandra Lang, Laura Pickup, Christine Ives, Mike Fray, Celine McKeown, Sarah Tapley, Matthew Woodward, Paul Bowie
What prevents the delivery of effective, high quality, and safe healthcare in the National Health Service (NHS) in England? This paper presents 760 challenges which 330 NHS staff reported as preventing the delivery of effective, high quality and safe care. Some problems have been known for over 25 years (staff shortages, finance and patient complexity) but other challenges raise questions about the commitment of the NHS to patient and staff safety. For example Organisational Culture leading to 'stifling bureaucracy', 'odds stacked against smooth […] working' and Workload resulting in 'firefighting daily' and 'perpetual crisis mode'...
October 7, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705049/new-poly-ester-amide-copolymers-modified-with-polyether-peae-for-anticancer-drug-encapsulation
#16
Anita Chudecka-Głaz, Joanna Szczeblińska, Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska, Joachim Kohn, Miroslawa El Fray
New poly(ester-amide) copolymers modified with polyethers were developed for carboplatin encapsulation. These new copolymers contain hydrophobic blocks made of tyrosine derivative and dimer fatty acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as hydrophilic blocks. Short-term hydrolytic degradation revealed high water absorption, slight increase of pH of simulated body fluid and change of sample shape, which indicated the erosive mechanism of polymers degradation. Poly(ester-amide)-PEG copolymers were used for microspheres preparation and carboplatin encapsulation...
December 2016: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702957/in-the-affordable-care-act-s-shadow-the-fate-of-the-children-s-health-insurance-program
#17
Jonathan Oberlander, David K Jones, Steven Spivack, Phillip M Singer
The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) is a success story. CHIP has contributed greatly to ensuring affordable insurance and access to medical services for millions of children. The 2015 two-year extension of CHIP funding appeared to confirm its longstanding status as a bipartisan program. Yet that appearance obscures important changes in CHIP politics. In recent years, there have been calls to end the program, and its bipartisan coalition has frayed. In this article we analyze CHIP's funding extension, explore its shifting political environment, and discuss the implications for the program's future...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662835/the-effect-of-adenosine-monophosphate-deaminase-overexpression-on-the-accumulation-of-umami-related-metabolites-in-tomatoes
#18
Bee Lynn Chew, Ian D Fisk, Rupert Fray, Gregory A Tucker, Zsuzsanna Bodi, Alison Ferguson, Wei Xia, Graham B Seymour
This study highlights the changes in umami-related nucleotide and glutamate levels when the AMP deaminase gene was elevated in transgenic tomato. Taste is perceived as one of a combination of five sensations, sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. The umami taste is best known as a savoury sensation and plays a central role in food flavour, palatability, and eating satisfaction. Umami flavour can be imparted by the presence of glutamate and is greatly enhanced by the addition of ribonucleotides, such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP)...
January 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633204/effect-of-long-term-driving-on-driver-discomfort-and-its-relationship-with-seat-fidgets-and-movements-sfms
#19
George M Sammonds, Mike Fray, Neil J Mansfield
Discomfort in vehicle seats is a multifactorial problem with large increases in discomfort occurring during extended duration driving. Due to the nature of driver discomfort, previous research has found it difficult to accurately quantify long term driver discomfort via the use of objective measures. This paper reports a laboratory study that investigates a novel objective measure of long term driver discomfort and its correlation with subjective discomfort ratings. Analysis of driver's seat fidgets and movements was conducted over the duration of a 140 min drive on a driving simulator in addition to collecting subjective ratings of discomfort...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602514/high-molecular-weight-organic-matter-in-the-particles-of-comet-67p-churyumov-gerasimenko
#20
Nicolas Fray, Anaïs Bardyn, Hervé Cottin, Kathrin Altwegg, Donia Baklouti, Christelle Briois, Luigi Colangeli, Cécile Engrand, Henning Fischer, Albrecht Glasmachers, Eberhard Grün, Gerhard Haerendel, Hartmut Henkel, Herwig Höfner, Klaus Hornung, Elmar K Jessberger, Andreas Koch, Harald Krüger, Yves Langevin, Harry Lehto, Kirsi Lehto, Léna Le Roy, Sihane Merouane, Paola Modica, François-Régis Orthous-Daunay, John Paquette, François Raulin, Jouni Rynö, Rita Schulz, Johan Silén, Sandra Siljeström, Wolfgang Steiger, Oliver Stenzel, Thomas Stephan, Laurent Thirkell, Roger Thomas, Klaus Torkar, Kurt Varmuza, Karl-Peter Wanczek, Boris Zaprudin, Jochen Kissel, Martin Hilchenbach
The presence of solid carbonaceous matter in cometary dust was established by the detection of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in particles from comet 1P/Halley. Such matter is generally thought to have originated in the interstellar medium, but it might have formed in the solar nebula-the cloud of gas and dust that was left over after the Sun formed. This solid carbonaceous material cannot be observed from Earth, so it has eluded unambiguous characterization. Many gaseous organic molecules, however, have been observed; they come mostly from the sublimation of ices at the surface or in the subsurface of cometary nuclei...
October 6, 2016: Nature
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