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John W Hargrove, M Odwell Muzari, Sinead English
Theory suggests females should optimize resource allocation across reproductive bouts to maximize lifetime reproduction, balancing current and future reproductive efforts according to physiological state and projected survival and reproduction. Tests of these ideas focus on long-lived vertebrates: few measure age-related reproductive output in iteroparous invertebrates, or partition reserves between those allocated to offspring versus mothers. We investigated how maternal age, and environmental and physiological factors influence reproductive investment in wild tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen and G...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Nariae Baik, Megan O'Reilly, Caroline Fray, Sylvia van Os, Po-Yin Cheung, Georg M Schmölzer
Approximately, 10-20% of newborns require breathing assistance at birth, which remains the cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation. Fortunately, the need for chest compression (CC) or medications in the delivery room (DR) is rare. About 0.1% of term infants and up to 15% of preterm infants receive these interventions, this will result in approximately one million newborn deaths annually worldwide. In addition, CC or medications (epinephrine) are more frequent in the preterm population (~15%) due to birth asphyxia...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Matthew J McKay, Fahmida Afrose, Roger E Koeppe, Denise V Greathouse
In this article we review current understanding of basic principles for the folding of membrane proteins, focusing on the more abundant alpha-helical class. Membrane proteins, vital to many biological functions and implicated in numerous diseases, fold into their active conformations in the complex environment of the cell bilayer membrane. While many membrane proteins rely on the translocon and chaperone proteins to fold correctly, others can achieve their functional form in the absence of any translation apparatus or other aides...
February 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ziyao Zhang, Rebecca Ursin, Samiksha Mahapatra, G Ian Gallicano
Although it is well understood that genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and epigenetic miscues can cause congenital birth defects, many defects are still labeled idiopathic, meaning their origin is not yet understood. microRNAs are quickly entering the causal fray of developmental defects. miRNAs use a 7-8 base-pair seed sequence to target a corresponding sequence on one or multiple mRNAs resulting in rapid down-regulation of translation. miRNAs can also control protein 'amounts' in cells. As a result if miRNAs are over or under expressed during development protein homeostasis can be compromised resulting in defects in the development of organ systems...
February 7, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Haifan Wu, Arusha Acharyya, Yibing Wu, Lijun Liu, Hyunil Jo, Feng Gai, William DeGrado
Although helices play key roles in peptide-protein and protein-protein interactions, the helical conformation is generally unstable for short peptides (10 - 15 residues) in aqueous solution in the absence of their binding partners. Thus, stabilizing the helical conformation of peptides can lead to increases in binding potency, specificity, and stability towards proteolytic degradation. Helices have been successfully stabilized by introducing sidechain-to-sidechain cross-links within the central portion of the helix...
February 7, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Laura M Walker, Dennis R Burton
Antibodies have been used for more than 100 years in the therapy of infectious diseases, but a new generation of highly potent and/or broadly cross-reactive human monoclonal antibodies (sometimes referred to as 'super-antibodies') offers new opportunities for intervention. The isolation of these antibodies, most of which are rarely induced in human infections, has primarily been achieved by large-scale screening for suitable donors and new single B cell approaches to human monoclonal antibody generation. Engineering the antibodies to improve half-life and effector functions has further augmented their in vivo activity in some cases...
January 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Xuezhi Qi, Lizhen Chen, Xiaoning Zhang, Mingjuan Han, Wei He, Yangshuai Su, Xiaoyu Wang, Xianghong Jing, Bing Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To judge whether algesia sensitization of some acupoints is existed and whether the acupoint algesia sensitization area is expanded in the patients of intestinal cancer. METHODS: Totally, 30 patients of intestinal cancer and 30 healthy subjects were included. The electronic Von Fray was used to determine the pressure-pain thresholds at 13 acupoints relevant with gastrointestinal disorders and the reference points at the sites 1 cun and 2 cun lateral to those points as well as the sites at the corresponding nerve segments...
September 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Jiamin Wan, Tetsu K Tokunaga, Paul D Ashby, Yongman Kim, Marco Voltolini, Benjamin Gilbert, Donald J DePaolo
Interactions between supercritical (sc) CO2 and minerals are important when CO2 is injected into geologic formations for storage and as working fluids for enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing, and geothermal energy extraction. It has previously been shown that at the elevated pressures and temperatures of the deep subsurface, scCO2 alters smectites (typical swelling phyllosilicates). However, less is known about the effects of scCO2 on nonswelling phyllosilicates (illite and muscovite), despite the fact that the latter are the dominant clay minerals in deep subsurface shales and mudstones...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
William H Brock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Ambix
Paul M Sethi, Chirag D Sheth, Leo Pauzenberger, Mary Beth R McCarthy, Mark P Cote, Emma Soneson, Seth Miller, Augustus D Mazzocca
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have identified factors that may affect the chances of rotator cuff healing after surgery. Intraoperative tendon quality may be used to predict healing and to determine type of repair and/or consideration of augmentation. There are no data that correlate how gross tendon morphology and degree of tendinopathy affect patient outcome or postoperative tendon healing. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purposes of this study were to (1) compare the gross appearance of the tendon edge during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with its histological degree of tendinopathy and (2) determine if gross appearance correlated with postoperative repair integrity...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Matías Salvo, Andrés Lizasoain, Matías Castells, Viviana Bortagaray, Sebastián Castro, Rodney Colina, Fernando Lopez Tort, Matías Victoria
Human bocavirus (HBoV) infections are related to respiratory and gastroenteric diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HBoV in both sewage and surface waters in Uruguay. Sixty-eight sewage samples from the cities of Salto, Paysandú, Bella Unión, Fray Bentos, Treinta y Tres and Melo and 36 surface water samples from the cities of Salto, Florida and Santa Lucía were studied. HBoV was screened by multiplex qPCR for the detection of the four subtypes, followed by monoplex qPCRs for the independent quantification of each subtype...
January 3, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Silvan Wick, Bart Baeyens, Maria Marques Fernandes, Andreas Voegelin
We investigated the adsorption of Tl+ onto purified Illite du Puy (IdP). Distribution coefficients (Kd) for trace Tl adsorption indicated a moderate pH-dependence from pH 2.5 to 11. Adsorption isotherms measured at Tl+ concentrations from 10-9 to 10-2 M at near-neutral pH on illite saturated with Na+ (100 mM), K+ (1 and 10 mM), NH4+ (10 mM) or Ca2+ (5 mM) revealed a high adsorption affinity of Tl+ in Na+- and Ca2+-electrolytes and strong competition with K+ and NH4+. Cation exchange selectivity coefficients for Tl+ with respect to Na+, K+, NH4+, and Ca2+ were derived using a 3-site sorption model...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Bastian Joffroy, Yavuz O Uca, Domen Prešern, Jonathan P K Doye, Thorsten L Schmidt
Biophysical properties of DNA such as its longitudinal and torsional persistence length govern many processes and phenomena in biology, DNA nanotechnology and biotechnology. It has, for example, long been known that the circularization efficiency of short DNA fragments shows a periodic pattern where fragments with integer helical turns circularize much more efficiently than those with odd helical half turns due to stronger stacking of duplex ends. Small DNA circles can serve as templates for rolling circle amplification (RCA), which is a common and extremely robust amplification mechanism for nucleic acids...
December 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Eleonora Ortu, Davide Pietropaoli, Fray Adib, Chiara Masci, Mario Giannoni, Annalisa Monaco
Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of two techniques for fabricating a Bimler device by assessing the patient's surface electromyography (sEMG) activity at rest before treatment and six months after treatment. Methods Twenty-four patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study; 12 formed the test group and wore a Bimler device fabricated with a Myoprint impression using neuromuscular orthodontic technique and 12 formed the control group and were treated by traditional orthodontic technique with a wax bite in protrusion...
November 16, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
B Wieskötter, M Herbort, M Langer, M J Raschke, D Wähnert
PURPOSE: Flexor tendon repair consists of circumferential peripheral sutures in combination with core sutures to avoid fraying and reduces the exposure of suture material on tendon surface. The peripheral suture adds up to a tenfold increase of the biomechanical stability compared to the core suture alone. The purpose of our study was to determine the most favourable peripheral repair technique for tendon repair. METHODS: Seventy-two porcine flexor tendons underwent standardized tenotomy and repair using one of the following six methods (n = 12): simple-running (SR), simple-locking (SL), Halsted-mattress (HM), lin-locking (LL), Lembert-mattress (LM), and Silfverskiöld cross-stich (SCS) suture technique...
November 13, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Marcello Raspa, Martin Fray, Renata Paoletti, Lluis Montoliu, Alessandro Giuliani, Ferdinando Scavizzi
Maintaining mouse stocks as frozen materials offers both ethical and economical advantages over live animal breeding if the lines are not actively used. The European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) promotes the archiving and distribution of important mouse models for biomedical research through the cryopreservation of their embryos and gametes. Embryo freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN2 ) at -196 °C has traditionally been the method of choice for archiving mouse lines. However, sperm freezing is emerging as a more convenient alternative due to the application of innovative cryopreservation and recovery protocols...
February 2018: Theriogenology
Michael McQuarrie
This paper argues that the election of Donald Trump is the product of a confluence of historical factors rather than the distinctive appeal of the victor himself. By paying particular attention to the geography of unusual voting behaviour the analytical question comes into view: why did so much uncharacteristic voting occur in the Rust Belt states of the upper Midwest? It is impossible to answer this question adequately using conventional categorical attributes. The usual hypotheses of 'economic anxiety' and white revanchism are unable to account for sudden shifts in the voting behaviour of both white and black voters in post-industrial territories...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
Raffaella Bianucci, Otto Appenzeller, Peter Evans, Philippe Charlier, Antonio Perciaccante
PURPOSE: St. John of the Cross (1542-1591) died aged 49 years after 3 months of excruciating pain following a trivial lesion in his right foot. Erysipelas, a superficial bacterial infection of the skin, and subsequent sepsis were previously suggested as the cause of his death. Here, an alternative diagnosis is proposed. METHODS: An accurate perusal of his biography allowed the symptomatology, the clinical evolution, the depth of the infection and the associated systemic manifestations displayed by Fray John to be reconstructed...
October 31, 2017: Infection
Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Yanina Poblete, Élfego Cuevas, Sylvia Kuhn, Alexander Girg, Kim Teltscher, Elie Poulin, Bart Kempenaers, Rodrigo A Vásquez
The distribution of suitable habitat influences natal and breeding dispersal at small spatial scales, resulting in strong microgeographic genetic structure. Although environmental variation can promote interpopulation differences in dispersal behavior and local spatial patterns, the effects of distinct ecological conditions on within-species variation in dispersal strategies and in fine-scale genetic structure remain poorly understood. We studied local dispersal and fine-scale genetic structure in the thorn-tailed rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda), a South American bird that breeds along a wide latitudinal gradient...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Joobin Hooshmand, Robin G Abell, Karsten Goemann, Peter E J Davies, Brendan J Vote
PURPOSE: To investigate the ultrastructural features of anterior capsulotomy performed with a thermal device, the precision pulse capsulotomy (PPC). DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter case series. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients undergoing capsulotomy with the PPC device. METHODS: Prospective study of patients undergoing capsulotomy with the PPC by 2 surgeons, followed up by routine phacoemulsification cataract surgery, was undertaken...
October 23, 2017: Ophthalmology
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