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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330280/culturable-endophytic-bacteria-associated-with-medicinal-plant-ferula-songorica-molecular-phylogeny-distribution-and-screening-for-industrially-important-traits
#1
Yong-Hong Liu, Jian-Wei Guo, Nimaichand Salam, Li Li, Yong-Guang Zhang, Jian Han, Osama Abdalla Mohamad, Wen-Jun Li
Xinjiang, a region of high salinity and drought, is a host to many arid and semi-arid plants. Many of these plants including Ferula spp. have indigenous pharmaceutical histories. As many of the medicinal properties of plants are in tandem with the associated microorganisms residing within the plant tissues, it is advisable to explore the endophytic potential of such plants. In the present study, diversity of culturable bacteria isolated from medicinal plants Ferula songorica collected from Hebukesaier, Xinjiang were analyzed...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330275/phytochemicals-of-moringa-oleifera-a-review-of-their-nutritional-therapeutic-and-industrial-significance
#2
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Young-Soo Keum
Moringa oleifera Lam., also known as the 'drumstick tree,' is recognized as a vibrant and affordable source of phytochemicals, having potential applications in medicines, functional food preparations, water purification, and biodiesel production. The multiple biological activities including antiproliferation, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiatherosclerotic, oxidative DNA damage protective, antiperoxidative, cardioprotective, as well as folk medicinal uses of M. oleifera (MO) are attributed to the presence of functional bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, natural sugars, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328967/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterobacter-spp-isolates-from-companion-animals-in-japan
#3
Kazuki Harada, Takae Shimizu, Yujiro Mukai, Ken Kuwajima, Tomomi Sato, Akari Kajino, Masaru Usui, Yutaka Tamura, Yui Kimura, Tadashi Miyamoto, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Asami Ohki, Yasushi Kataoka
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328502/spatial-statistics-for-segmenting-histological-structures-in-h-e-stained-tissue-images
#4
Luong Nguyen, A Burak Tosun, Jeffrey Fine, Adrian Lee, D Lansing Taylor, Chakra Chennubhotla
Segmenting a broad class of histological structures in transmitted light and/or fluorescence-based images is a prerequisite for determining the pathological basis of cancer, elucidating spatial interactions between histological structures in tumor microenvironments (e.g. tumor infiltrating lymphocytes), facilitating precision medicine studies with deep molecular profiling, and providing an exploratory tool for pathologists. Our paper focuses on segmenting histological structures in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images of breast tissues, e...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327534/the-anti-allergic-rhinitis-effect-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-of-shenqi-by-regulating-mast-cell-degranulation-and-th1-th2-cytokine-balance
#5
Yang-Yang Shao, Yi-Ming Zhou, Min Hu, Jin-Ze Li, Cheng-Juan Chen, Yong-Jiang Wang, Xiao-Yun Shi, Wen-Jie Wang, Tian-Tai Zhang
Shenqi is a traditional Chinese polyherbal medicine has been widely used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic rhinitis activity of Shenqi and explore its underlying molecular mechanism. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis rat model was used to evaluate the anti-allergic rhinitis effect of Shenqi. The effect of Shenqi on IgE-mediated degranulation was measured using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Primary spleen lymphocytes were isolated to investigate the anti-allergic mechanism of Shenqi by detecting the expression of transcription factors via Western blot and the level of cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) via ELISA...
March 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326803/when-is-an-alveolar-type-2-cell-an-alveolar-type-2-cell-a-conundrum-for-lung-stem-cell-biology-and-regenerative-medicine
#6
Michael F Beers, Yuben Moodley
Generating mature, differentiated, adult lung cells from pluripotent cells such as induced pluripotent cells (iPS) and embryonic stem cells (ES) offers the hope of both generating disease specific in vitro models and creating definitive and personalized therapies for a host of debilitating lung parenchymal and airway diseases. With the goal of advancing lung regenerative medicine, several groups have developed and reported on protocols utilizing either defined media, co-culture with mesenchymal components, or sequential treatments mimicking lung development, to obtain distal lung epithelial cells from stem cell precursors...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325338/physicochemical-properties-and-antidiabetic-effects-of-a-polysaccharide-from-corn-silk-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#7
Yuxiang Pan, Cong Wang, Zhongqin Chen, Weiwei Li, Guoqi Yuan, Haixia Chen
This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and antidiabetic effects of a polysaccharide obtained from corn silk (PCS2). PCS2 was isolated and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The hypoglycemic effects were determined using the high-fat diet and streptozocin induced type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) insulin resistance mice. The results showed that PCS2 was a heteropolysaccharide with the average molecular weight of 45.5kDa. PCS2 was composed of d-galactose, d-mannose, d-(+)-glucose, d-(+)-xylose, l-arabinose and l-rhamnose...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325298/relevance-of-fusion-genes-in-pediatric-cancers-toward-precision-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Célia Dupain, Anne Catherine Harttrampf, Giorgia Urbinati, Birgit Geoerger, Liliane Massaad-Massade
Pediatric cancers differ from adult tumors, especially by their very low mutational rate. Therefore, their etiology could be explained in part by other oncogenic mechanisms such as chromosomal rearrangements, supporting the possible implication of fusion genes in the development of pediatric cancers. Fusion genes result from chromosomal rearrangements leading to the juxtaposition of two genes. Consequently, an abnormal activation of one or both genes is observed. The detection of fusion genes has generated great interest in basic cancer research and in the clinical setting, since these genes can lead to better comprehension of the biological mechanisms of tumorigenesis and they can also be used as therapeutic targets and diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324120/-biological-mechanisms-of-radiation-effects
#9
S Gruber, W Dörr
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes is inevitable in modern medicine. The therapeutic application of irradiation is highly effective against cancer; however, this implies exposure of normal tissue structures to significant doses of radiation. Diagnostic or therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation can result in tissue changes and tumor induction in the long term. Knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects is essential for individualization of the application...
March 21, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322920/stem-cell-transplantation-therapy-for-multifaceted-therapeutic-benefits-after-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Ling Wei, Zheng Z Wei, Michael Qize Jiang, Osama Mohamad, Shan Ping Yu
One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures...
March 16, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322497/single-molecule-force-spectroscopy-to-compare-natural-versus-artificial-antibody-antigen-interaction
#11
Congzhou Wang, Rong Hu, Jeremiah J Morrissey, Evan D Kharasch, Srikanth Singamaneni
Biorecognition is central to various biological processes and finds numerous applications in virtually all areas of chemistry, biology, and medicine. Artificial antibodies, produced by imprinting synthetic polymers, are designed to mimic the biological recognition capability of natural antibodies, while exhibiting superior thermal, chemical, and environmental stability compared to their natural counterparts. The binding affinity of the artificial antibodies to their antigens characterizes the biorecognition ability of these synthetic nanoconstructs and their ability to replace natural recognition elements...
March 21, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322279/pluripotent-stem-cells-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
M A Soliman, F Aboharb, N Zeltner, L Studer
Neuropsychiatric disorders place an enormous medical burden on patients across all social and economic ranks. The current understanding of the molecular and cellular causes of neuropsychiatric disease remains limited, which leads to a lack of targeted therapies. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers a novel platform for modeling the genetic contribution to mental disorders and yields access to patient-specific cells for drug discovery and personalized medicine. Here, we review recent progress in using iPSC technology to model and potentially treat neuropsychiatric disorders by focusing on the most prevalent conditions in psychiatry, including depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322147/molecular-characterization-and-antioxidant-potential-of-three-wild-culinary-medicinal-mushrooms-from-tripura-northeast-india
#13
Aparajita Roy Das, Madhusmita Borthakur, Ajay Krishna Saha, Santa Ram Joshi, Panna Das
The aim of this study was to characterize 3 wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms using molecular tools and to analyze their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties were studied by evaluating free radical scavenging, reducing power, and chelating effect. The mushrooms were identified as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium, and Macrocybe gigantean by amplifying internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of M. gigantean has the highest free radical scavenging effect and chelating effect, whereas the methanolic extract of L...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321121/dnmt3a-regulates-t-cell-development-and-suppresses-t-all-transformation
#14
A C Kramer, A Kothari, W C Wilson, H Celik, J Nikitas, C Mallaney, E L Ostrander, E Eultgen, A Martens, M C Valentine, A L Young, T E Druley, M E Figueroa, B Zhang, G A Challen
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematopoietic neoplasm resulting from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors, and comprises approximately 15 and 25% of pediatric and adult ALL cases respectively. It is well-established that activating NOTCH1 mutations are the major genetic lesions driving T-ALL in most patients, but efforts to develop targeted therapies against this pathway have produced limited success in decreasing leukemic burden and come with significant clinical side effects...
March 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320091/animal-models-for-assessing-the-impact-of-natural-products-on-the-aetiology-and-metabolic-pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Md Asrafuzzaman, Yingnan Cao, Rizwana Afroz, Danielle Kamato, Susan Gray, Peter J Little
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex and heterogeneous disorder which in its most common manifestation arises from insulin resistance and later insulin insufficiency. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by impaired insulin sensitivity and diagnosed as hyperglycaemia. Because of its cardiovascular consequences, Type 2 diabetes represents one of the world's leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Drug discovery and development are required to produce better ways to prevent, treat and manage diabetes and its complications...
March 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319896/a-dynamic-sandwich-assay-on-magnetic-beads-for-selective-detection-of-single-nucleotide-mutations-at-room-temperature
#16
Junxiu Wang, Guoliang Xiong, Liang Ma, Shihui Wang, Xu Zhou, Lei Wang, Lehui Xiao, Xin Su, Changyuan Yu
Single-nucleotide mutation (SNM) has proven to be associated with a variety of human diseases. Development of reliable methods for the detection of SNM is crucial for molecular diagnosis and personalized medicine. The sandwich assays are widely used tools for detecting nucleic acid biomarkers due to their low cost and rapid signaling. However, the poor hybridization specificity of signal probe at room temperature hampers the discrimination of mutant and wild type. Here, we demonstrate a dynamic sandwich assay on magnetic beads for SNM detection based on the transient binding between signal probe and target...
March 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319779/supramolecular-biofunctional-materials
#17
REVIEW
Jie Zhou, Jie Li, Xuewen Du, Bing Xu
This review discusses supramolecular biofunctional materials, a novel class of biomaterials formed by small molecules that are held together via noncovalent interactions. The complexity of biology and relevant biomedical problems not only inspire, but also demand effective molecular design for functional materials. Supramolecular biofunctional materials offer (almost) unlimited possibilities and opportunities to address challenging biomedical problems. Rational molecular design of supramolecular biofunctional materials exploit powerful and versatile noncovalent interactions, which offer many advantages, such as responsiveness, reversibility, tunability, biomimicry, modularity, predictability, and, most importantly, adaptiveness...
March 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319221/fluorescent-chemical-probes-for-accurate-tumor-diagnosis-and-targeting-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Min Gao, Fabiao Yu, Changjun Lv, Jaebum Choo, Lingxin Chen
Surgical resection of solid tumors is currently the gold standard and preferred therapeutic strategy for cancer. Chemotherapy drugs also make a significant contribution by inhibiting the rapid growth of tumor cells and these two approaches are often combined to enhance treatment efficacy. However, surgery and chemotherapy inevitably lead to severe side effects and high systemic toxicity, which in turn results in poor prognosis. Precision medicine has promoted the development of treatment modalities that are developed to specifically target and kill tumor cells...
March 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319010/exploring-protein-peptide-recognition-pathways-using-a-supervised-molecular-dynamics-approach
#19
Veronica Salmaso, Mattia Sturlese, Alberto Cuzzolin, Stefano Moro
Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutic agents during recent years. The high specificity and relatively low toxicity of peptide drugs derive from their extremely tight binding to their targets. Indeed, understanding the molecular mechanism of protein-peptide recognition has important implications in the fields of biology, medicine, and pharmaceutical sciences. Even if crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance are offering valuable atomic insights into the assembling of the protein-peptide complexes, the mechanism of their recognition and binding events remains largely unclear...
March 10, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318351/retinoids-a-journey-from-the-molecular-structures-and-mechanisms-of-action-to-clinical-uses-in-dermatology-and-adverse-effects
#20
Samar Khalil, Tara Bardawil, Carla Stephan, Nadine Darwiche, Ossama Abbas, Abdul Ghani Kibbi, Georges Nemer, Mazen Kurban
Retinoids are a class of compounds derived from vitamin A or have structural and/or functional similarity with vitamin A. They are classified into three generations based on their molecular structures. Inside the body, retinoids bind to several classes of proteins including retinoid-binding proteins and retinoid nuclear receptors. This eventually leads to the activation of specific regulatory regions of DNA - called the retinoic acid response elements - involved in regulating cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
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