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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222788/rat-pancreatic-beta-cell-culture
#1
Myrian Velasco, Carlos Larqué, Carlos Manlio Díaz-García, Carmen Sanchez-Soto, Marcia Hiriart
In this chapter, we describe the methods used to culture mainly rat pancreatic beta cells. We consider necessary to use this approach to get more information about physiological, biophysical, and molecular biology characteristics of primary beta cells. Most of the literature published has been developed in murine and human beta-cell lines. However, there are many differences between tumoral cell lines and native cells because, in contrast to cell lines, primary cells do not divide. Moreover, cell lines can be in various stages of the cell cycle and thus have a different sensitivity to glucose, compared to primary cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222305/biology-of-cns-lymphoma-and-the-potential-of-novel-agents
#2
REVIEW
James L Rubenstein
Primary and secondary CNS lymphomas are aggressive brain tumors that pose an immense challenge to define in terms of molecular pathogenesis, as well as to effectively treat. During the past 10 years improvements in survival have been achieved with the implementation of anti-CD20 immunotherapy and optimization of dose-intensive consolidation strategies. The applications of whole-exome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and examination of the tumor microenvironment, particularly in the context of clinical investigation, provide insights that create a roadmap for the development and implementation of novel targeted agents for this disease...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222268/tailoring-front-line-therapy-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-who-should-we-treat-differently
#3
REVIEW
Andrew Davies
Although there have been significant insights into the biology of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) over recent years, progress in our therapeutic approach has been disappointing over the same timeframe. This is not for want of trying. In 2017, R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) remains the "gold standard," despite all of our insights into cell-of-origin and other subgroups. We have traditionally used clinical risk factors to tailor our therapies and have tested intensification of chemotherapy with little success...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222120/targeting-cardiovascular-implant-infection-multimodality-and-molecular-imaging
#4
Jan M Sohns, Udo Bavendiek, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel
Owing to their success in clinical practice, the prevalence of cardiovascular implants is continuously increasing. Implant infection is a relevant complication but remains a diagnostic challenge because echocardiography as a first-line test may be limited. Accordingly, a multimodality approach is increasingly used for diagnostic workup and supported by recent guidelines. As reviewed here, computed tomography and nuclear imaging provide incremental diagnostic value and may be combined in a single hybrid imaging session using positron emission tomography/computed tomography or single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222026/transcriptome-analysis-provides-insights-into-the-immune-responsive-pathways-and-genes-in-the-head-kidney-of-tiger-grouper-epinephelus-fuscoguttatus-fed-with-spatholobus-suberectus-phellodendron-amurense-or-eclipta-prostrata
#5
Yan Cai, Shifeng Wang, Weiliang Guo, Zhenyu Xie, Yu Zheng, Zhenjie Cao, Yongcan Zhou
The tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, is an economically important fish in Southeast Asia but has been plagued by several diseases. Spatholobus suberectus (S), Phellodendron amurense (P), and Eclipta prostrate (E) are three commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Although previous pharmacological and clinical studies indicated that S, P, and E possess a variety of beneficial functions in mammals, little is known about their functions in farmed fish and the underlying molecular mechanism of their actions...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221970/practical-application-of-biogenic-amine-profiles-for-the-diagnosis-of-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#6
Natalia Miękus, Ilona Olędzka, Piotr Kowalski, Paweł Miękus, Tomasz Baczek
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke (IS) is still one of the major issues in medicine. Still, early diagnosis and misdiagnosis remain the main barriers for proper patient treatment and follow-up. Exploring new potential diagnostic biomarkers for IS is relevant to decrease patient morbidity and the occurrence of poststroke diseases. Biomedical analysis could bring new light to the background of IS and-in such a way-propose new bioanalytical tools for the early diagnosis, prognostication, and monitoring of IS...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221603/emerging-therapies-for-pre-ra
#7
REVIEW
Andrew P Cope
The field of rheumatology has made major contributions to medicine through the identification of cellular and molecular targets and the development of therapies for the treatment of an impressive range of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In recent years, new milestones have been achieved. These include the recognition of an at-risk state, characterized by disease specific autoantibodies in serum and inflammatory joint pain, and the initiation of studies seeking to prevent high-risk individuals from progressing to a state of clinically apparent arthritis...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218953/-exploiture-and-application-of-an-internet-based-computation-platform-for-integrative-pharmacology-of-traditional-chinese-medicine
#8
Hai-Yu Xu, Zhen-Ming Liu, Yan Fu, Yan-Qiong Zhang, Jian-Jun Yu, Fei-Fei Guo, Shi-Huan Tang, Chuan-Yu Lv, Jin Su, Ru-Yi Cui, Hong-Jun Yang
Recently, integrative pharmacology(IP) has become a pivotal paradigm for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) and combinatorial drugs discovery, which is an interdisciplinary science for establishing the in vitro and in vivo correlation between absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion/pharmacokinetic(ADME/PK) profiles of TCM and the molecular networks of disease by the integration of the knowledge of multi-disciplinary and multi-stages. In the present study, an internet-based Computation Platform for IP of TCM(TCM-IP, www...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218945/-prediction-of-drug-target-interaction-based-on-fingerprint-similarity
#9
Ya-Yun Yu, Yong-Guo Liu, Yu Jiang, Li-Min Li
Drugs play the pharmacological effects by combining with target proteins. Identification of drug-target interactions is important for discovering new functions of drugs. In this paper, the target fingerprints based on molecular substructure and the drug-target similarity based on fingerprints are proposed to a random forest-based classification method, in order to identify the drug-target interactions. Experiments on enzymes, ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors and nuclear receptors proved the effectiveness of the proposed method...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218920/integrating-community-level-data-resources-for-precision-medicine-research
#10
William S Bush, Dana C Crawford, Farren Briggs, Darcy Freedman, Chantel Sloan
Precision Medicine focuses on collecting and using individual-level data to improve healthcare outcomes. To date, research efforts have been motivated by molecular-scale measurements, such as incorporating genomic data into clinical use. In many cases however, environmental, social, and economic factors are much more predictive of health outcomes, yet are not systematically used in clinical practice due to the difficulties in measurement and quantification. Advances in both the availability of electronic health information, environmental exposure data, and the more systematic use of geo-coding now provide ways to systematically assess community-level indicators of health, and link these factors to electronic health records for evaluating their influence on disease outcomes...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218886/clingen-cancer-somatic-working-group-standardizing-and-democratizing-access-to-cancer-molecular-diagnostic-data-to-drive-translational-research
#11
Subha Madhavan, Deborah Ritter, Christine Micheel, Shruti Rao, Angshumoy Roy, Dmitriy Sonkin, Matthew Mccoy, Malachi Griffith, Obi L Griffith, Peter Mcgarvey, Shashikant Kulkarni
A growing number of academic and community clinics are conducting genomic testing to inform treatment decisions for cancer patients (1). In the last 3-5 years, there has been a rapid increase in clinical use of next generation sequencing (NGS) based cancer molecular diagnostic (MolDx) testing (2). The increasing availability and decreasing cost of tumor genomic profiling means that physicians can now make treatment decisions armed with patient-specific genetic information. Accumulating research in the cancer biology field indicates that there is significant potential to improve cancer patient outcomes by effectively leveraging this rich source of genomic data in treatment planning (3)...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218828/monocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-as-prognostic-factor-in-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia-patients-treated-with-dasatinib
#12
Cesarina Giallongo, Nunziatina L Parrinello, Piera La Cava, Giuseppina Camiolo, Alessandra Romano, Marina Scalia, Fabio Stagno, Giuseppe A Palumbo, Roberto Avola, Giovanni Li Volti, Daniele Tibullo, Francesco Di Raimondo
Myeloid suppressor cells are a heterogeneous group of myeloid cells that are increased in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) inducing T cell tolerance. In this study, we found that therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) decreased the percentage of granulocytic MDSC, but only patients treated with dasatinib showed a significant reduction in the monocytic subset (M-MDSC). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between number of persistent M-MDSC and the value of major molecular response in dasatinib-treated patients...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218763/single-cell-mass-spectrometry-approaches-to-explore-cellular-heterogeneity
#13
Linwen Zhang, Akos Vertes
Compositional diversity is a fundamental property in cell populations that is responsible for evolutionary adaptation and resilience. Single-cell analysis promises new insights into this cellular heterogeneity and the corresponding subpopulations on the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a label-free technique that enables the multiplexed analysis of proteins, peptides, lipids, and metabolites in individual cells. The abundances of these molecular classes are correlated with the physiological states and environmental responses of the cells...
December 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218269/blood-based-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-precision-radiation-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Dirk De Ruysscher, Jianyue Jin, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Jin-Xiong She, Zhongxing Liao, Feng-Ming Spring Kong
Both tumors and patients are complex and models that determine survival and toxicity of radiotherapy or any other treatment ideally must take into account this variability as well as its dynamic state. The genetic features of the tumor and the host, and increasingly also the epi-genetic and proteomic characteristics, are being unraveled. Multiple techniques, including histological examination, blood sampling, measurement of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and functional and molecular imaging, can be used for this purpose...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218264/role-of-pet-ct-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-perspective-of-the-society-of-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging
#15
Bennett S Greenspan
This article discusses the role of PET/CT in contributing to precision medicine in lung cancer, and provides the perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) on this process. The mission and vision of SNMMI are listed, along with the guidance provided by SNMMI to promote best practice in precision medicine. Basic principles of PET/CT are presented. An overview of the use of PET/CT imaging in lung cancer is discussed. In lung cancer patients, PET/CT is vitally important for optimal patient management...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218253/clinical-applications-of-urinary-cell-free-dna-in-cancer-current-insights-and-promising-future
#16
REVIEW
Tian Lu, Jinming Li
Liquid biopsy is gaining significant attention as a tool for unveiling the molecular landscape of tumor and holds great promise for individualized medicine for cancer. Cell-free DNA serves as an extremely important component of liquid biopsy for cancer, and cell-free DNA in urine is even promising due to the remarkable advantage of urine as an ultra-noninvasive sample source over tissue and blood. Compared with the widely studied cell-free DNA in blood, less is known about the role of urinary cell-free DNA...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217119/panomics-for-precision-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Charanjit Sandhu, Alia Qureshi, Andrew Emili
Medicine is poised to undergo a digital transformation. High-throughput platforms are creating terabytes of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data. The challenge is to interpret these data in a meaningful manner - to uncover relationships that are not readily apparent between molecular profiles and states of health or disease. This will require the development of novel data pipelines and computational tools. The combined analysis of multi-dimensional data is referred to as 'panomics'. The ultimate hope of integrative panomics is that it will lead to the discovery and application of novel markers and targeted therapeutics that drive forward a new era of 'precision medicine' where inter-individual variation is accounted for in the treatment of patients...
December 4, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216587/quantification-of-immobilized-protein-in-pharmaceutical-production-by-bio-assisted-potentiometric-multisensor-system
#18
Edita Voitechovič, Anton Korepanov, Dmitry Kirsanov, Andrey Legin
Quantification of proteins is a key biochemical assay in molecular biology, biotechnology, medicine and pharmacology. Protein quantification protocols can be based on spectrophotometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, mass spectrometry or quantitative immunoblotting depending on analyte. In case of immobilized protein these methods require suitable sample preparation. Thus, sophisticated analysis becomes even more complex, expensive and time-consuming. Such drawbacks are highly undesirable in industry. In this study we propose a new approach for evaluation of immobilized protein concentration based on application of bio-assisted potentiometric multisensor system...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216340/incorporating-blood-based-liquid-biopsy-information-into-cancer-staging-time-for-a-tnmb-system
#19
M Yang, M E Forbes, R L Bitting, S S O'Neill, P-C Chou, U Topaloglu, L D Miller, G A Hawkins, S C Grant, B R DeYoung, W J Petty, K Chen, B C Pasche, W Zhang
Tissue biopsy is the standard diagnostic procedure for cancer. Biopsy may also provide material for genotyping, which can assist in the diagnosis and selection of targeted therapies but may fall short in cases of inadequate sampling, particularly from highly heterogeneous tumors. Traditional tissue biopsy suffers greater limitations in its prognostic capability over the course of disease, most obviously as an invasive procedure with potential complications, but also with respect to probable tumor clonal evolution and metastasis over time from initial biopsy evaluation...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216181/case-report-a-rare-case-of-urinary-myiasis-induced-by-the-fourth-instar-larvae-of-telmatoscopus-albipunctatus
#20
Beibei Zhang, Lifu Wang, Jiahua Liu, Lian Xu, Langui Song, Xiaoying Wu, Xi Sun, Zhongdao Wu
Telmatoscopus albipunctatus, a cosmopolitan fly, is widely distributed throughout moist environments. It is one of the most medically important insects (especially in urban environments) that may potentially cause myiasis. Urinary myiasis and other sites of infestation, including the intestine, nasal passages, lung, and derma, have been reported. This is the first case report of a Chinese middlescent woman infected with T. albipunctatus in Guangzhou, China. In the present report, a 50-year-old woman came to The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, because larvae were found when urinating in the morning; this had occurred every two days within the past two months...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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