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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910785/characterization-of-cross-flow-ultrafiltration-fractions-from-maitake-medicinal-mushroom-grifoia-frondosa-agaricomycetes-reveals-distinct-cytotoxicity-in-tumor-cells
#1
Miriam Sari, Reinhard Hambitzer, Jan I Lelley, Katharina Toepler, Nicole Teusch, Anna Nickisch-Hartfiel
β-glucans from Basidiomycetes like Grifola frondosa (the maitake mushroom) are well known for their health benefits. Polysaccharide preparations from medicinal mushrooms such as G. frondosa have been successfully tested in a vast number of studies. Many mushroom extracts have been developed and today are merchandized for use medicinally and commercially. Studies could show that, in particular, chemical structural features such as the molecular size of β-glucans significantly influence their bioactivity. Thus it is highly important to explore the composition and structural properties of β-glucans extracted from medicinal mushrooms and their effects on human tumor cell viability...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910774/comparison-of-the-chemical-composition-and-bioactive-components-of-fruiting-bodies-and-submerged-cultured-mycelia-of-the-willow-bracket-medicinal-mushroom-phellinus-igniarius-agaricomycetes
#2
Huawei Zeng, Wenfeng Wang, Menghua Ma, Guohua Xu, Mei Ying-Jie, Jianfan Sund
Chemical compositions and bioactive ingredients of dried fruiting bodies from Phellinus igniarius (CGMCC no. 50095) (P1) and submerged culture of Ph. igniarius dried mycelia (P2) were investigated in this study. It was found that glutamic acid was regarded as a major amino acid in P1 (1.20%) and was approximately 2.55-fold higher than that in P2 (0.47%). Total amino acids in P1 (5.36%) were slightly higher than in P2 (4.09%). The amounts of iron, zinc, copper, and manganese in P1 were 1.96-3.42 times as high as those in P2, whereas potassium, sodium, and magnesium in P2 were almost 2...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910772/structural-characterization-and-immunological-activities-of-a-novel-water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-culinary-medicinal-winter-mushroom-flammulina-velutipes-agaricomycetes
#3
Ting Feng, Wei Jia, Wen-Han Wang, Chi-Chung Lin, Hua Fan, Jing-Song Zhang, Hai-Ying Bao
A water-soluble polysaccharide, designated FVPA2, was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Flammulina velutipes using DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and gel-permeation chromatography. Its structure was elucidated by monosaccharide composition and methylation analysis, ultraviolet, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results showed that FVPA2 was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide containing galactose, fucose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 5:1:1. High-performance liquid chromatography indicated its molecular weight as 3...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910161/mir-29a-regulates-vascular-neointimal-hyperplasia-by-targeting-yy1
#4
Yu Zhang, Yong Hui Li, Chao Liu, Chan-Juan Nie, Xin-Hua Zhang, Cui-Ying Zheng, Wen Jiang, Wei-Na Yin, Ming-Hui Ren, Yu-Xin Jin, Shu-Feng Liu, Bin Zheng, Jin-Kun Wen
OBJECTIVES: The formation of vascular neointima is mainly related to impairment of the vascular endothelial barrier and abnormal proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether miR-29a exerts any promoting effect on the vascular neointimal hyperplasia and if so, its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RT-qPCR was performed to determine expression of miR-29a in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and vascular neointimal hyperplasia...
December 2, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910030/recurrent-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#5
Edmond S K Ma
Characteristic chromosomal translocations are found to be associated with subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), for example t(8;14)(q24;q32) and Burkitt lymphoma, t(14;18)(q32;q21) and follicular lymphoma, and t(11;14)(q13;q32) in mantle cell lymphoma. Only few recurrent cytogenetic aberrations have been identified in the T-cell NHL and the best known is the ALK gene translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Since lymph node or other tissue is seldom submitted for conventional cytogenetics study, alternative approaches for translocation detection are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910009/cancer-cytogenetics-an-introduction
#6
Thomas S K Wan
The Philadelphia chromosome was the first chromosomal abnormality discovered in cancer using the cytogenetics technique in 1960, and was consistently associated with chronic myeloid leukemia. Over the past five decades, innovative technical advances in the field of cancer cytogenetics have greatly enhanced the detection ability of chromosomal alterations, and have facilitated the research and diagnostic potential of chromosomal studies in neoplasms. These developments notwithstanding, chromosome analysis of a single cell is still the easiest way to delineate and understand the relationship between clonal evolution and disease progression of cancer cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909971/gastrodin-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-by-modulating-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-associated-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#7
Liming Chen, Xinan Liu, Hua Wang, Min Qu
Gastrodin, the major component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata ("Tianma"), has a long history in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that gastrodin ameliorated pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures with improvement of the electroencephalographic pattern in mice. Further studies demonstrated that gastrodin decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α while increasing interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the brain...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909533/patient-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-drug-development-and-screening-in-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#8
REVIEW
Ben Jehuda Ronen, Barad Lili
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), an inherited arrhythmia often leading to sudden cardiac death in children and young adults, is characterized by polymorphic/bidirectional ventricular tachycardia induced by adrenergic stimulation associated with emotionally stress or physical exercise. There are two forms of CPVT: 1. CPVT1 is caused by mutations in the RYR2 gene, encoding for ryanodine receptor type 2. CPVT1 is the most common form of CPVT in the population, and is inherited by a dominant mechanism...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908424/first-comprehensive-study-on-total-contents-and-hot-water-extractable-fraction-of-selected-elements-in-19-medicinal-plants-from-various-locations-in-nyamira-county-kenya
#9
Volker Nischwitz, Richard Mogwasi, Salim Zor, Zachary Getenga, David K Kariuki, Klaus Günther
A large number of medicinal plants is traditionally known in Kenya and used for treatment of various diseases, for example diabetes, where metals are supposed to be involved in pathogenesis and therapy. Therefore, detailed investigation of the concentration of a large number of metals in medicinal plants is required for improved understanding and optimisation of the therapeutic role of metals and also to exclude potentially toxic effects. Our study focused on the determination of 30 selected elements in 19 medicinal plant species each collected from 3 sampling locations in Nyamira County, Kenya...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906626/advances-in-purine-and-pyrimidine-metabolism-in-health-and-diseases
#10
Michio Hirano, Godefridus J Peters
In June, 2015, the Purine and Pyrimidine Society organized the 16th biennial symposium on Purine and Pyrimidine metabolism at the Faculty House of Columbia University, New York City. This exciting meeting focused on these important molecules, new developments in inborn errors of metabolism; therapeutic analogs. In addition, the biochemistry of mammalian and non-mammalian systems were discussed. Due to significant advances in molecular medicine, the boundaries between clinical and basic sciences have merged into exciting translational research, of which a small portion was highlighted in the presymposium...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906201/the-cost-of-molecular-guided-therapy-in-oncology-a-prospective-cost-study-alongside-the-moscato-trial
#11
Arnaud Pagès, Stéphanie Foulon, Zhaomin Zou, Ludovic Lacroix, François Lemare, Thierry de Baère, Christophe Massard, Jean-Charles Soria, Julia Bonastre
AIM: There is increasing use of molecular technologies to guide cancer treatments, but few cost data are available. Our objective was to assess the costs of molecular-guided therapy for patients with advanced solid tumors alongside the Molecular Screening for Cancer Treatment and Optimization (MOSCATO) trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 529 patients. The molecular diagnosis included seven steps from tumor biopsy to the multidisciplinary molecular tumor board...
December 1, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904870/preclinical-study-of-68-ga-dotatoc-biodistribution-assessment-in-syrian-rats-and-evaluation-of-absorbed-dose-in-human-organs
#12
Mojdeh Naderi, Samaneh Zolghadri, Hassan Yousefnia, Ali Ramazani, Amir Reza Jalilian
OBJECTIVES: Gallium-68 DOTA-DPhe(1)-Tyr(3)-Octreotide ((68)Ga-DOTATOC) has been applied by several European centers for the treatment of a variety of human malignancies. Nevertheless, definitive dosimetric data are yet unavailable. According to the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, researchers are investigating the safety and efficacy of this radiotracer to meet Food and Drug Administration requirements. The aim of this study was to introduce the optimized procedure for (68)Ga-DOTATOC preparation, using a novel germanium-68 ((68)Ge)/(68)Ga generator in Iran and evaluate the absorbed doses in numerous organs with high accuracy...
2016: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904688/molecular-mechanism-of-prostate-cancer-cell-apoptosis-induced-by-busulfan-via-adjustment-of-androgen-receptor-phosphatization
#13
Jun Liu, Guojun Jiang, Aiping Yang, Guohui Yang, Wenjuan Yang, Yi Fang
OBJECTIVE: To probe killing effect of busulfan to prostate cancer cell without androgen and the influence of androgen receptor phosphatization and analyze its molecular mechanism. METHODS: prostate cancer cell line 22RV1, LAPC4 and LNCaP treated with busulfan under androgen-free condition underwent CCK-8 examination to probe killing ability of the medicine. Flow cytometry was used to check the influence of busulfan on apoptosis rate of prostate cancer cell line LAPC4...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903431/differential-regulation-of-baicalin-and-scutellarin-on-ampk-and-akt-in-promoting-adipose-cell-glucose-disposal
#14
Le-Le Yang, Na Xiao, Jinfeng Liu, Kang Liu, Baolin Liu, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi
Baicalin and scutellarin, two flavonoid glucuronic acids isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, exhibit beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Baicalin and scutellarin are similar in structure except scutellarin has an additional hydroxyl at composition C-4'. In this work, we observed that baicalin and scutellarin promoted glucose disposal in mice and in adipocytes. Baicalin selectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), while scutellarin selectively enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Both of them increased AS160 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in basal condition...
November 26, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903293/personalized-medicine-approach-confirms-a-milder-case-of-abat-deficiency
#15
A Besse, A K Petersen, J V Hunter, V Appadurai, S R Lalani, P E Bonnen
ABAT deficiency (OMIM 613163) is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by recessive variants in the gene 4-aminobutyric acid transaminase (ABAT), which is responsible for both the catalysis of GABA and maintenance of nucleoside pools in the mitochondria. To date, only a few patients have been reported worldwide. Their clinical presentation has been remarkably consistent with primary features of severe psychomotor retardation, encephalopathy, hypotonia, and infantile-onset refractory epilepsy. We report a new case of ABAT deficiency that marks an important departure from previous clinical findings...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903259/differential-variation-patterns-between-hubs-and-bottlenecks-in-human-protein-protein-interaction-networks
#16
Erli Pang, Yu Hao, Ying Sun, Kui Lin
BACKGROUND: The identification, description and understanding of protein-protein networks are important in cell biology and medicine, especially for the study of system biology where the focus concerns the interaction of biomolecules. Hubs and bottlenecks refer to the important proteins of a protein interaction network. Until now, very little attention has been paid to differentiate these two protein groups. RESULTS: By integrating human protein-protein interaction networks and human genome-wide variations across populations, we described the differences between hubs and bottlenecks in this study...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902406/mlvf-as-a-method-for-rapid-and-cost-effective-typing-of-animal-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-from-lineages-other-than-st398
#17
Maja Kosecka-Strojek, Weronika M Ilczyszyn, Aneta Buda, Klaudia Polakowska, Krzysztof Murzyn, Tomasz Panz, Anna Bialecka, Andrzej Kasprowicz, Antoni Jakubczak, Jaroslaw Krol, Alina Wieliczko, Benedykt Wladyka, Jacek Miedzobrodzki
In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus aureus is associated with a range of mild to severe infections. The high density of livestock in intensive farming systems increases the risk of disease spread and hampers its control and measures of prevention, making S. aureus one of the most important animal pathogens. Multiple-locus VNTR fingerprinting (MLVF) has been successfully applied to the characterization of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 but not to the characterization of a wide range of other animal isolates...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901097/sequencing-based-breast-cancer-diagnostics-as-an-alternative-to-routine-biomarkers
#18
Mattias Rantalainen, Daniel Klevebring, Johan Lindberg, Emma Ivansson, Gustaf Rosin, Lorand Kis, Fuat Celebioglu, Irma Fredriksson, Kamila Czene, Jan Frisell, Johan Hartman, Jonas Bergh, Henrik Grönberg
Sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics have the potential to replace routine biomarkers and provide molecular characterization that enable personalized precision medicine. Here we investigate the concordance between sequencing-based and routine diagnostic biomarkers and to what extent tumor sequencing contributes clinically actionable information. We applied DNA- and RNA-sequencing to characterize tumors from 307 breast cancer patients with replication in up to 739 patients. We developed models to predict status of routine biomarkers (ER, HER2,Ki-67, histological grade) from sequencing data...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901023/rhein-and-rhubarb-similarly-protect-the-blood-brain-barrier-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-via-gp91-phox-subunit-of-nadph-oxidase-ros-erk-mmp-9-signaling-pathway
#19
Yang Wang, Xuegong Fan, Tao Tang, Rong Fan, Chunhu Zhang, Zebing Huang, Weijun Peng, Pingping Gan, Xingui Xiong, Wei Huang, Xi Huang
Oxidative stress chiefly contributes to the disruption of the BBB following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Chinese herbal medicine rhubarb is a promising antioxidant in treating TBI. Here we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to determine whether rhubarb and its absorbed bioactive compound protected the BBB after TBI by increasing ZO-1 expression through inhibition of gp91(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK/MMP-9 pathway. Rats were subjected to the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model, and primary rat cortical astrocytes were exposed to scratch-wound model...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900588/modeling-informatics-at-vertex-pharmaceuticals-incorporated-our-philosophy-for-sustained-impact
#20
Georgia McGaughey, W Patrick Walters
Molecular modelers and informaticians have the unique opportunity to integrate cross-functional data using a myriad of tools, methods and visuals to generate information. Using their drug discovery expertise, information is transformed to knowledge that impacts drug discovery. These insights are often times formulated locally and then applied more broadly, which influence the discovery of new medicines. This is particularly true in an organization where the members are exposed to projects throughout an organization, such as in the case of the global Modeling & Informatics group at Vertex Pharmaceuticals...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
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