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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668075/a-comparison-of-debate-and-role-play-in-enhancing-critical-thinking-and-communication-skills-of-medical-students-during-problem-based-learning
#1
Rabia Latif, Sadaf Mumtaz, Rafia Mumtaz, Aamir Hussain
Debate and role play for learning critical thinking and communication skills are being increasingly used in various undergraduate medical schools worldwide. We aim to compare students' views about effectiveness of two teaching strategies; debate and role play to exercise critical thinking and communication skills during problem-based learning (PBL). This is a comparative, cross-sectional, and questionnaire-based study. Our subjects were second year undergraduate female medical students enrolled in Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), College of Medicine from September 2014-2016, divided into 10 small PBL groups (10-13 students/group/year)...
April 18, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667998/isolation-purification-characterization-and-bioactivities-of-a-glucan-from-the-root-of-pueraria-lobata
#2
Can Xu, Ningbo Qin, Chunyan Yan, Shumei Wang
The root of Pueraria lobata is considered to be a medicinal and edible herb for the treatment of diabetes, and it has a long history of application in China. To explore the constituents responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic activities of P. lobata, a water-soluble polysaccharide (PL70-1-1) was isolated and purified by using a DEAE-Cellulose 52 anion exchange column and a Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration column. Its molecular weight (2584 Da) was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC)...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667669/structural-characterization-and-antitumor-activity-of-a-novel-se-polysaccharide-from-selenium-enriched-cordyceps-gunnii
#3
Huiqing Sun, Zhenyuan Zhu, Yali Tang, Yuanyuan Ren, Qiaoying Song, Yun Tang, Yongmin Zhang
Selenium (Se) has been recognized as an essential element. Animals and humans absorb and retain more organic Se than inorganic Se. Bio-transformation is a major approach to transform inorganic Se to organic Se. Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii), well known as a Chinese edible and medicinal fungus, has a variety of biological functions. C. gunnii and selenium were combined through liquid-fermentation to obtain selenium-enriched C. gunnii. A novel Se-polysaccharide (SeCPS-II) was extracted from selenium-enriched C...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666949/precision-medicine-against-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-beyond-crizotinib
#4
REVIEW
Biagio Ricciuti, Andrea De Giglio, Carmen Mecca, Cataldo Arcuri, Sabrina Marini, Giulio Metro, Sara Baglivo, Angelo Sidoni, Guido Bellezza, Lucio Crinò, Rita Chiari
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements represent the molecular driver of a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite the initial response, virtually all ALK-positive patients develop an acquired resistance to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, usually within 12 months. Several next-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib limitation, providing an unprecedented survival for this subset of patients. The aim of this review to summarize the current knowledge on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, focusing on the role of novel ALK inhibitors in this setting...
April 17, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666812/tumor-progression-the-neuronal-input
#5
REVIEW
Marco Arese, Federico Bussolino, Margherita Pergolizzi, Laura Bizzozero, Davide Pascal
One of the challenges of cancer is its heterogeneity and rapid capacity to adapt. Notwithstanding significant progress in the last decades in genomics and precision medicine, new molecular targets and therapies appear highly necessary. One way to approach this complex problem is to consider cancer in the context of its cellular and molecular microenvironment, which includes nerves. The peripheral nerves, the topic of this review, modulate the biological behavior of the cancer cells and influence tumor progression, including the events related to the metastatic spread of the disease...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666795/cell-chirality-drives-left-right-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Mikiko Inaki, Takeshi Sasamura, Kenji Matsuno
Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666754/empirical-evaluation-of-data-normalization-methods-for-molecular-classification
#7
Huei-Chung Huang, Li-Xuan Qin
Background: Data artifacts due to variations in experimental handling are ubiquitous in microarray studies, and they can lead to biased and irreproducible findings. A popular approach to correct for such artifacts is through post hoc data adjustment such as data normalization. Statistical methods for data normalization have been developed and evaluated primarily for the discovery of individual molecular biomarkers. Their performance has rarely been studied for the development of multi-marker molecular classifiers-an increasingly important application of microarrays in the era of personalized medicine...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666608/capsular-sialyltransferase-specificity-mediates-different-phenotypes-in-streptococcus-suis-and-group-b-streptococcus
#8
David Roy, Daisuke Takamatsu, Masatoshi Okura, Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Marie-Rose Van Calsteren, Audrey Dumesnil, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being α-2,6 for S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665274/combining-multiplex-sers-nanovectors-and-multivariate-analysis-for-in-situ-profiling-of-circulating-tumor-cell-phenotype-using-a-microfluidic-chip
#9
Yizhi Zhang, Zhuyuan Wang, Lei Wu, Shenfei Zong, Binfeng Yun, Yiping Cui
Isolating and in situ profiling the heterogeneous molecular phenotype of circulating tumor cells are of great significance for clinical cancer diagnosis and personalized therapy. Herein, an on-chip strategy is proposed that combines size-based microfluidic cell isolation with multiple spectrally orthogonal surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis for in situ profiling of cell membrane proteins and identification of cancer subpopulations. With the developed microfluidic chip, tumor cells are sieved from blood on the basis of size discrepancy...
April 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665255/concise-review-rational-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-heart-disease
#10
REVIEW
Michael R Ward, Armin Abadeh, Kim A Connelly
The capacity of stem and progenitor cells to stimulate cardiac regeneration has been studied for almost 20 years, with very promising preclinical data and mixed clinical results. Several cell types have been studied, identified by their cell surface markers, differentiation capacity and their secreted growth factors. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to have potent regenerative capacity, through multiple mechanisms, including mesoderm lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine stimulation...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664925/actin-and-myosin-ii-modulate-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Liana C Boraas, Emma T Pineda, Tabassum Ahsan
Use of stem cell-based therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is hindered by efficient means of directed differentiation. For pluripotent stem cells, an initial critical differentiation event is specification to one of three germ lineages: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Differentiation is known to be regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular factors, but the role of the cytoskeleton during specification, or early differentiation, is still unknown. In these studies, we used agonists and antagonists to modulate actin polymerization and the actin-myosin molecular motor during spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664161/affinity-driven-covalent-modulator-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-cascade
#12
Jeffy Chern, Chun-Ping Lu, Zhanxiong Fang, Ching-Ming Chang, Kuo-Feng Hua, Yi-Ting Chen, Cheng Yang Ng, Yi-Lin Sophia Chen, Yulin Lam, Shih-Hsiung Wu
Traditional medicines provide a fertile ground to explore potent lead compounds; yet, their transformation into modern drugs is fraught with challenges in deciphering the target that is mechanistically valid for its biological activity. Herein we revealed Z-(+)-isochaihulactone 1 exhibited significant inhibition against MDR cancer cell lines and mice xenografts. By NMR spectroscopy, 1 was shown to resist to an off-targeting thiolate, thus giving 1 a target covalent inhibitor-like (TCI) property. By identifying the pharmacophore of 1 (α,β-unsaturated moiety), a 1-derived probe was designed and synthesized for TCI-oriented activity-based proteome profiling (TCI-ABPP)...
April 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663408/dual-targeting-autoimmunity-and-cancer-from-biology-to-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Daohong Chen
Cancer is known to be often associated with autoimmunity/inflammation epidemically and pathologically. Although comprehensive mechanisms behind the link of these 2 medical conditions are yet to be elucidated, cumulated biological evidence has pointed to an array of molecular pathways that are shared in the pathogenesis of cancer and autoimmunity. Herein, this article presents the representative druggable cellular proteins that substantially contribute to the development of the 2 medical conditions, in particular highlighting the recently approved medications that target these molecular pathways to corroborate the link between autoimmunity and cancer from the therapeutic perspective...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662881/the-continuum-of-aging-and-age-related-diseases-common-mechanisms-but-different-rates
#14
REVIEW
Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani, Cristina Morsiani, Maria Conte, Aurelia Santoro, Andrea Grignolio, Daniela Monti, Miriam Capri, Stefano Salvioli
Geroscience, the new interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the relationship between aging and chronic age-related diseases (ARDs) and geriatric syndromes (GSs), is based on epidemiological evidence and experimental data that aging is the major risk factor for such pathologies and assumes that aging and ARDs/GSs share a common set of basic biological mechanisms. A consequence is that the primary target of medicine is to combat aging instead of any single ARD/GSs one by one, as favored by the fragmentation into hundreds of specialties and sub-specialties...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662559/deep-learning-in-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-current-perspectives-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Hongyoon Choi
Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers...
April 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661784/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-a-sense-of-time-of-the-glucocorticoid-circadian-clock-from-the-ontogeny-to-the-diagnosis-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#16
Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Sonir Roberto R Antonini, Margaret De Castro
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids has long been recognised within the last 75 years. Since the beginning, researchers have sought to identify basic mechanisms underlying the origin and emergence of the corticosteroid circadian rhythmicity among mammals. Accordingly, Young, Hall and Rosbash, laureates of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, as well as Takahashi's group among others, have characterised the molecular cogwheels of the circadian system, describing interlocking transcription/translation feedback loops essential for normal circadian rhythms...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660466/formononetin-an-isoflavone-from-astragalus-membranaceus-inhibits-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-ovarian-cancer-cells
#17
Jing Zhang, Likun Liu, Jing Wang, Baoyin Ren, Lin Zhang, Weiling Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus membranaceus which was originally described in the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica, the earliest complete Pharmacopoeia of China written from the Warring States Period to Han Dynasty, has been widely used in Chinese medicine for>2,000 years, especially in the prescription of curing cancer. A. membranaceus has various bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, immunomodulation, hepatoprotection, hematopoiesis, neuroprotection and so on...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660454/purification-and-structural-elucidation-of-a-water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-the-grifola-frondosa
#18
Anqiang Zhang, Jiaying Deng, Shuying Yu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Peilong Sun
Grifola frondosa is a polypore mushroom, which has been used for many centuries by traditional Chinese and Japanese herbalists as a medicinal mushroom. A water-soluble polysaccharide (code as GFP30-2-a, molecular weight: 2.04 × 106  Da) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. frondosa by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and chromatography. Its structure was elucidated from its monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, together with 1D NMR (1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) and 2D NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra)...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660122/significance-of-pharmacogenomics-in-precision-medicine
#19
EDITORIAL
Ingolf Cascorbi
Precision medicine-a term widely used in modern medicine-emphasizes the goal to overcome still existing limitations of therapeutic interventions by tailoring medical treatments to individual patient characteristics. Pharmacogenetics was one of the first scientific approaches taking molecular biomarkers into consideration of diagnostics and therapeutic decisions. This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics on the significance of pharmacogenomics inprecision medicine discusses the ongoing challenges on different levels...
May 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658328/effects-of-enoxaparin-on-intravascular-sclerostin-release-in-healthy-men
#20
Jacek Borawski, Justyna Zoltko, Barbara Labij-Reduta, Ewa Koc-Zorawska, Beata Naumnik
Sclerostin (Scl) is implicated in vascular calcification and angiogenesis and localizes within vasculature. Its molecule incorporates a heparin-binding site that implies also binding to endothelial glycocalyx. We preliminary tested whether intravenous (IV) low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin can stimulate intravascular release of this calcification inhibitor in humans. Sixteen male volunteers were injected with a bolus of 1 mg/kg body weight of enoxaparin. After 10 minutes, plasma immunoreactive Scl levels increased uniformly by a mean of 184% versus baseline level of 0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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