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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241623/hybrid-imprinting-process-to-fabricate-a-multi-layer-compound-eye-for-multispectral-imaging
#1
Jianwei Chen, Hiu Hung Lee, Dongping Wang, Si Di, Shih-Chi Chen
We present a high-precision hybrid imprinting method to fabricate multi-layer micro-optical structures on nonplanar substrates using a custom-built vacuum imprinting system; with the application of kinematic couplings that align the flexible stamps in all six degrees of freedom, a cross-layer pattern registration precision of 400 nm has been achieved on nonplanar substrates. To demonstrate the precision and feasibility of the new process and instrument, we have designed and fabricated a multi-layer artificial compound eye (ACE) for multispectral imaging...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241470/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-in-pancreatic-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Miroslav Vujasinovic, Roberto Valente, Marco Del Chiaro, Johan Permert, J-Matthias Löhr
Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor's metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241446/dna-methylation-status-of-pax1-and-znf582-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Jin Huang, Guo Wang, Jie Tang, Wei Zhuang, Li-Ping Wang, Yu-Ligh Liou, Ying-Zi Liu, Hong-Hao Zhou, Yuan-Shan Zhu
Hypermethylation of specific gene promoters is an important mechanism of carcinogenesis. A high frequency of promoter methylation of PAX1 and ZNF582 genes has been detected in cervical cancer. In the present study, we investigated the methylation status of PAX1 and ZNF582 genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. Tumor and paracancerous tissues were obtained from 14 ESCC patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from both tumor and paracancerous tissues, and the concentration of DNA were determined...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241441/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-naphthalimide-derivatives-as-potential-anticancer-agents-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Chaochao Ge, Liping Chang, Ying Zhao, Congcong Chang, Xiaojuan Xu, Haoying He, Yuxia Wang, Fujun Dai, Songqiang Xie, Chaojie Wang
Two kinds of naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro their anti-hepatocellular carcinoma properties. Compound 3a with a fused thiazole fragment to naphthalimide skeleton inhibited cell migration of SMMC-7721 and HepG2, and further in vivo trials with two animal models confirmed that compound 3a moderately inhibited primary H22 tumor growth (52.6%) and potently interrupted lung metastasis (75.7%) without obvious systemic toxicity at the therapeutic dose. Mechanistic research revealed that compound 3a inhibited cancerous liver cell growth mostly by inducing G2/M phase arrest...
February 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241422/androgen-receptor-signaling-in-bladder-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Peng Li, Jinbo Chen, Hiroshi Miyamoto
Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth...
February 22, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241373/-multidisciplinary-tumor-boards-facts-and-satisfaction-analysis-of-an-indispensable-comprehensive-cancer-center-instrument
#6
Monika Engelhardt, Ricarda Selder, Masa Pandurevic, Mandy Möller, Gabriele Ihorst, Johannes Waldschmidt, Georg Herget, Ralph Wäsch
Background The established standard to ensure State-of-the-art cancer treatment - as a prerequisite in the national cancer plan and for comprehensive cancer centers (CCCs) today - is through interdisciplinary tumor boards (TBs). Methods This analysis assessed a newly founded CCC-TB for multiple myeloma (MM) patients, namely a) questions solved therein, b) level of compliance and c) evidence, d) frequency of clinical trial (CT) inclusion, d) progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) and e) satisfaction of TB-participants, referring physicians and MM patients...
February 27, 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241370/evolution-of-laparoscopic-liver-surgery-as-standard-procedure-for-hcc-in-cirrhosis
#7
Daniel Seehofer, Robert Sucher, Moritz Schmelzle, Robert Öllinger, Andri Lederer, Timm Denecke, Eckart Schott, Johann Pratschke
Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis have an increased risk for postoperative complications including liver failure. However, there is some evidence that the use of laparoscopy markedly decreases this risk. Patients Between 2010 - 2015, a total of 21 laparoscopic liver resections were performed for HCC in Child-A cirrhosis at our center. Mean MELD score was 9 (6 - 12), and the mean LiMAx was 261 µg/h/kg (101 - 489). All resections were performed by conventional laparoscopy using 4 - 6 trocars...
February 27, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241368/-benign-multicystic-peritoneal-mesothelioma-bmpm-a%C3%A2-surprising-differential-diagnosis-in-case-of-an-expected-intraabdominal-abscess-formation
#8
Michael Josef Lipp, Maximilian Stanley Jusufi, Christoph Backer, Bernd Feyerabend, Hauke Weilert, Karl Jürgen Oldhafer
The benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease. Most frequently, young women in reproductive age are affected by this disease. Nevertheless, there are known cases of multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in male patients. The pathogenesis remains uncertain. Whereas asbestos fibers can cause the development of malignant mesothelioma, the exposure to asbestos particles cannot induce this type of mesothelioma. An inflammatory genesis is discussed as well as the idea of a neoplastic development...
February 27, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241273/miniature-spectral-imaging-device-for-wide-field-quantitative-functional-imaging-of-the-morphological-landscape-of-breast-tumor-margins
#9
Brandon S Nichols, Antonio Llopis, Gregory M Palmer, Samuel S McCachren, Ozlem Senlik, David Miller, Martin A Brooke, Nan M Jokerst, Joseph Geradts, Rachel Greenup, Nimmi Ramanujam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241261/outcomes-of-melanoma-in-situ-treated-with-mohs-micrographic-surgery-compared-with-wide-local-excision
#10
Adi Nosrati, Jacqueline G Berliner, Shilpa Goel, Joseph McGuire, Vera Morhenn, Juliana R de Souza, Yildiray Yeniay, Rasnik Singh, Kristina Lee, Mio Nakamura, Rachel R Wu, Ann Griffin, Barbara Grimes, Eleni Linos, Mary Margaret Chren, Roy Grekin, Maria L Wei
Importance: Melanoma in situ (MIS) is increasing in incidence, and expert consensus opinion recommends surgical excision for therapeutic management. Currently, wide local excision (WLE) is the standard of care. However, Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is now used to treat a growing subset of individuals with MIS. During MMS, unlike WLE, the entire cutaneous surgical margin is evaluated intraoperatively for tumor cells. Objective: To assess the outcomes of patients with MIS treated with MMS compared with those treated with WLE...
February 22, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241187/mismatch-repair-deficiency-microsatellite-instability-and-survival-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-medical-research-council-adjuvant-gastric-infusional-chemotherapy-magic-trial
#11
Elizabeth C Smyth, Andrew Wotherspoon, Clare Peckitt, David Gonzalez, Sanna Hulkki-Wilson, Zakaria Eltahir, Matteo Fassan, Massimo Rugge, Nicola Valeri, Alicia Okines, Madeleine Hewish, William Allum, Sally Stenning, Matthew Nankivell, Ruth Langley, David Cunningham
Importance: Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency (MMRD) and microsatellite instability (MSI) are prognostic for survival in many cancers and for resistance to fluoropyrimidines in early colon cancer. However, the effect of MMRD and MSI in curatively resected gastric cancer treated with perioperative chemotherapy is unknown. Objective: To examine the association among MMRD, MSI, and survival in patients with resectable gastroesophageal cancer randomized to surgery alone or perioperative epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil chemotherapy in the Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC) trial...
February 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241164/evaluation-of-optical-coherence-tomography-to-detect-elevated-intracranial-pressure-in-children
#12
Jordan W Swanson, Tomas S Aleman, Wen Xu, Gui-Shuang Ying, Wei Pan, Grant T Liu, Shih-Shan Lang, Gregory G Heuer, Phillip B Storm, Scott P Bartlett, William R Katowitz, Jesse A Taylor
Importance: Detecting elevated intracranial pressure in children with subacute conditions, such as craniosynostosis or tumor, may enable timely intervention and prevent neurocognitive impairment, but conventional techniques are invasive and often equivocal. Elevated intracranial pressure leads to structural changes in the peripapillary retina. Spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) can noninvasively quantify retinal layers to a micron-level resolution. Objective: To evaluate whether retinal measurements from OCT can serve as an effective surrogate for invasive intracranial pressure measurement...
February 23, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241123/upper-urinary-tract-tumors-which-diagnostic-methods-are-needed
#13
Matthias Maruschke, Wolfgang Kram, Annette Zimpfer, Günther Kundt, Oliver W Hakenberg
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the data of patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) tumors to evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated tumor characteristics, imaging procedures, epidemiological and follow-up data of 113 patients. We analyzed the importance of non-invasive and endoscopic diagnosis in addition to imaging as well as the influence of stage and grade on recurrence rate. RESULTS: Most tumors were urothelial carcinomas (92...
February 28, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241106/future-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumor-incidence-in-the-united-states-forecast-through-2026
#14
Armen A Ghazarian, Scott P Kelly, Sean F Altekruse, Philip S Rosenberg, Katherine A McGlynn
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are rare tumors in the general population but are the most commonly occurring malignancy among males between ages 15 and 44 years in the United States (US). Although non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) have the highest incidence in the US, rates among Hispanics have increased the most in recent years. To forecast what these incidence rates may be in the future, an analysis of TGCT incidence in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program and the National Program of Cancer Registries was conducted...
February 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241096/the-prognostic-role-of-sex-race-and-human-papillomavirus-in-oropharyngeal-and-nonoropharyngeal-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer
#15
Carole Fakhry, William H Westra, Steven J Wang, Annemieke van Zante, Yuehan Zhang, Eleni Rettig, Linda X Yin, William R Ryan, Patrick K Ha, Alicia Wentz, Wayne Koch, Jeremy D Richmon, David W Eisele, Gypsyamber D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established prognostic marker for oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC). Because of the limited numbers of women and nonwhites in studies to date, sex and racial/ethnic differences in prognosis have not been well explored. In this study, survival differences were explored by the tumor HPV status among 1) patients with OPSCCs by sex and race and 2) patients with nonoropharyngeal (non-OP) head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs)...
February 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241095/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-challenging-populations
#16
REVIEW
Douglas B Johnson, Ryan J Sullivan, Alexander M Menzies
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including those targeting the programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 pathways, are revolutionizing cancer therapeutics. Both activity and toxicities largely stem from unleashing tumor- or host-specific cytotoxic T cells. Many patients seen in routine clinical practice have not qualified for or have been seriously underrepresented in immune checkpoint inhibitor clinical trials. Thus, a major gap in knowledge regarding the safety and efficacy of these agents persists in many populations, even after regulatory approval...
February 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241093/phase-1-2-study-of-immunotherapy-with-dendritic-cells-pulsed-with-autologous-tumor-lysate-in-patients-with-refractory-bone-and-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#17
Shinji Miwa, Hideji Nishida, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Akihiko Takeuchi, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Norio Yamamoto, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Yasunari Nakamoto, Shuichi Kaneko, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: There are limited options for the curative treatment of refractory bone and soft tissue sarcomas. The purpose of this phase 1/2 study was to assess the immunological and clinical effects of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with autologous tumor lysate (TL) in patients with advanced bone and soft tissue sarcomas. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with metastatic or recurrent sarcomas were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from the patients were suspended in media containing interleukin 4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
February 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241089/adolescent-and-young-adult-oncology-patients-disparities-in-access-to-specialized-cancer-centers
#18
Elysia Alvarez, Theresa Keegan, Emily E Johnston, Robert Haile, Lee Sanders, Olga Saynina, Lisa J Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 15 to 39 years with cancer continue to experience disparate survival outcomes compared with their younger and older counterparts. This may be caused in part by differential access to specialized cancer centers (SCCs), because treatment at SCCs has been associated with improved overall survival. The authors examined social and clinical factors associated with AYA use of SCCs (defined as Children's Oncology Group-designated or National Cancer Institute-designated centers)...
February 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241053/release-of-hiv-1-sequestered-in-the-vesicles-of-oral-and-genital-mucosal-epithelial-cells-by-epithelial-lymphocyte-interaction
#19
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241049/expression-of-cd133-and-cd44-in-glioblastoma-stem-cells-correlates-with-cell-proliferation-phenotype-stability-and-intra-tumor-heterogeneity
#20
Daniel V Brown, Gulay Filiz, Paul M Daniel, Frédéric Hollande, Sebastian Dworkin, Stephanie Amiridis, Nicole Kountouri, Wayne Ng, Andrew P Morokoff, Theo Mantamadiotis
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a heterogeneous tumor of the brain with a poor prognosis due to recurrence and drug resistance following therapy. Genome-wide profiling has revealed the existence of distinct GBM molecular subtypes that respond differently to aggressive therapies. Despite this, molecular subtype does not predict recurrence or drug resistance and overall survival is similar across subtypes. One of the key features contributing to tumor recurrence and resistance to therapy is proposed to be an underlying subpopulation of resistant glioma stem cells (GSC)...
2017: PloS One
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