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Dignity of risk

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210521/the-right-to-die-in-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-can-we-avoid-the-slippery-slope-argument
#1
REVIEW
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Rosaria De Luca, Margherita Russo, Lory Caccamo, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti
Managing individuals with chronic disorders of consciousness raises ethical questions about the appropriateness of maintaining life-sustaining treatments and end-of-life decisions for those who are unable to make decisions for themselves. For many years, the positions fostering the "sanctity" of human life (i.e., life is inviolable in any case) have led to maintaining life-sustaining treatments (including artificial nutrition and hydration) in patients with disorders of consciousness, allowing them to live for as long as possible...
November 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176645/prevention-interventions-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-military-settings
#2
Michael Grillo, Margo Sloan, Che Wankie, Kelly Woodland, Elizabeth Reader, Bruce Porter, Caroline Macera, Richard Shaffer
Military prevention programs and healthy living programs were developed in the mid-1980s to manage and support newly HIV-positive military personnel in the US military. Since then, a program developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with support from the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), called Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention (PHDP), is currently being rolled out by DHAPP in partner militaries. The program, designed to reduce HIV transmission, is a package of interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV), including risk reduction counseling, condom provision, disclosure counseling, testing of sexual partner(s) and children, adherence counseling, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and provision of family planning services...
February 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162793/promising-intervention-strategies-to-reduce-parents-use-of-physical-punishment
#3
Elizabeth T Gershoff, Shawna J Lee, Joan E Durrant
The strong and ever-growing evidence base demonstrating that physical punishment places children at risk for a range of negative outcomes, coupled with global recognition of children's inherent rights to protection and dignity, has led to the emergence of programs specifically designed to prevent physical punishment by parents. This paper describes promising programs and strategies designed for each of three levels of intervention - indicated, selective, and universal - and summarizes the existing evidence base of each...
February 2, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156483/impact-of-financial-burden-on-information-and-opportunity-for-cancer-ca-patients-pts-participation-par-in-clinical-trials-cts
#4
Dana Dornsife
: 166 Background: The degree to which cancer caused financial problems may influence ca pts par in cts and negatively impact quality of life (QoL). Financial burden of cts par, may include finding an appropriate trial, traveling to the trial site, paying for travel, lodging and some medical expenses. The Lazarex Cancer Foundation (LCF) was founded in 2006 with mission to improve care, giving hope, dignity, and life to advanced ca pts by providing assistance with options and costs to cts par, community outreach, and education...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109423/moving-beyond-the-debate-over-restricting-sugary-drinks-in-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program
#5
EDITORIAL
Marlene B Schwartz
To address the dual problem of food insecurity and poor nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has recently revised the nutrition standards for nearly all of its federal food programs to align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. One notable exception is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Policy proposals to restrict SNAP benefits based on nutrition quality (e.g., excluding sugary drinks) have generated controversy and have polarized previous research and advocacy allies. This essay presents many of the issues that have emerged, which include challenges about the feasibility, justification, and effectiveness of restricting benefits; the risk of a slippery slope; concerns about participant dignity; and finally, distrust about the motives behind promoting and opposing a policy change...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060984/-saints-in-medicine-during-the-great-wars-of-the-twentieth-century
#6
María Agustina Martini, Bárbara C Finn, Julio E Bruetman, Pablo Young
In the political and social context of World War periods and unstoppable technological advances, health professionals in the early twentieth century tried to orientate the practice of medicine towards a modern anthropological concept close to the biomedical perspective, which defends the dignity of a person. Threatened by the risks represented by collectivism and the meanness of the prevailing repressive governments, a personal struggle for the defense of life aroused, which was socially expressed by the advent of bioethics, psychoanalytic theories and the concept that environment has an important role in people’s health and welfare...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866509/assistive-technology-and-older-adults-in-disasters-implications-for-emergency-management
#7
Mary Helen McSweeney-Feld
This article identifies concepts, trends, and policy gaps in the availability and service delivery of assistive technology utilized by older adults in disasters, as well as implications for emergency management planning and shelter administration. Definitions of types of assistive technology, as well as views of older adults using technology as at-risk individuals for emergency management service provision, are provided. An overview of peer-reviewed articles and gray literature is conducted, focusing on publications from 2001 to the present in the United States...
November 21, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855692/knowledge-and-exercise-of-human-rights-and-barriers-and-facilitators-to-claiming-rights-a-cross-sectional-study-of-female-sex-workers-and-high-risk-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-andhra-pradesh-india
#8
Deepika Ganju, Sangram Kishor Patel, Parimi Prabhakar, Rajatashurva Adhikary
BACKGROUND: HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey (2014) among 2400 FSWs and 1200 HR-MSM...
November 17, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806700/autonomy-of-the-child-in-the-south-african-context-is-a-12%C3%A2-year-old-of-sufficient-maturity-to-consent-to-medical-treatment
#9
Wandile Ganya, Sharon Kling, Keymanthri Moodley
BACKGROUND: A child is a developing person with evolving capacities that include autonomy, mental (decisional) capacity and capacity to assume responsibility. Hence, children are entitled to participatory (autonomy) rights in South Africa as observed in the Children's Act 38 of 2005. According to section 129 of the Act a child may consent to his or her own medical treatment provided that he or she is over the age of 12 years and is of sufficient maturity and decisional capacity to understand the various implications of the treatment including the risks and benefits thereof...
November 2, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768393/care-home-manager-attitudes-to-balancing-risk-and-autonomy-for-residents-with-dementia
#10
Elizabeth A Evans, Elizabeth Perkins, Pam Clarke, Alina Haines, Ashley Baldwin, Richard Whittington
OBJECTIVE: To determine how care home managers negotiate the conflict between maintaining a safe environment while enabling the autonomy of residents with dementia. This is important because there is limited research with care home managers; yet, they are key agents in the implementation of national policies. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 managers from care homes offering dementia care in the Northwest of England. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach...
October 21, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752870/interpersonal-attacks-on-the-dignity-of-members-of-hiv-key-populations-a-descriptive-and-exploratory-study
#11
Samuel R Friedman, Enrique R Pouget, Milagros Sandoval, Diana Rossi, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, John A Schneider, Pavlo Smyrnov, Ron D Stall
Attacks on peoples' dignity help to produce and maintain stigmatization and interpersonal hostility. As part of an effort to develop innovative measures of possible pathways between structural interventions or socially-disruptive Big Events and HIV outbreaks, we developed items to measure dignity denial. These measures were administered to 300 people who inject drugs (PWID), 260 high-risk heterosexuals who do not inject drugs, and 191 men who have sex with men who do not inject drugs (MSM). All of the PWID and many of the high risk heterosexuals and MSM were referred to our study in 2012-2015 by a large New York city study that used respondent-driven sampling; the others were recruited by chain-referral...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717509/patterns-of-palliative-care-service-consultation-in-a-sample-of-critically-ill-icu-patients-at-high-risk-of-dying
#12
Jennifer B Seaman, Amber E Barnato, Susan M Sereika, Mary Beth Happ, Judith A Erlen
OBJECTIVE: Describe patterns of palliative care service consultation among a sample of ICU patients at high risk of dying. BACKGROUND: Patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) face threats to comfort, social connectedness and dignity due to pain, heavy sedation and physical restraint. Palliative care consultation services may mitigate poor outcomes. METHODS: From a dataset of 1440 ICU patients with ≥2 days of MV and ≥12 h of sustained wakefulness, we identified those at high risk of dying and/or who died and assessed patterns of sub-specialty palliative care consultation...
January 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664466/international-youth-justice-systems-promoting-youth-development-and-alternative-approaches-a-position-paper-of-the-society-for-adolescent-health-and-medicine
#13
(no author information available yet)
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534904/detained-and-distressed-persistent-distressing-symptoms-in-a-population-of-older-jail-inmates
#14
Marielle Bolano, Cyrus Ahalt, Christine Ritchie, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Brie Williams
Distressing symptoms are associated with poor function, acute care use, and mortality in older adults. The number of older jail inmates is increasing rapidly, prompting calls to develop systems of care to meet their healthcare needs, yet little is known about multidimensional symptom burden in this population. This cross-sectional study describes the prevalence and factors associated with distressing symptoms and the overlap between different forms of symptom distress in 125 older jail inmates in an urban county jail...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464566/quality-of-life-and-related-factors-of-nursing-home-residents-in-singapore
#15
Pei Wang, Philip Yap, Gerald Koh, Jia An Chong, Lucy Jennifer Davies, Mayank Dalakoti, Ngan Phoon Fong, Wei Wei Tiong, Nan Luo
BACKGROUND: Litter is known about the well-being of nursing home (NH) residents in Singapore. This study aimed to identify predictors of self-reported quality of life (QOL) of NH residents in Singapore. METHODS: In face-to-face interviews, trained medical students assessed each consenting resident recruited from 6 local NHs using a modified Minnesota QOL questionnaire, and rating scales and questions assessing independence, cognitive function, depression, and communication...
July 28, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437529/water-and-sanitation-standards-in-humanitarian-action
#16
REVIEW
Murat Ersel
The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH - (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion) programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417106/reconnecting-with-oneself-while-struggling-between-life-and-death-the-phenomenon-of-recovery-as-experienced-by-persons-at-risk-of-suicide
#17
Linda Sellin, Margareta Asp, Tuula Wallsten, Lena Wiklund Gustin
The body of knowledge regarding health and recovery as experienced by patients at risk of suicide is limited. More research is needed into the meaning of recovery and what strengthens the desire to live. The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of recovery in a context of nursing care as experienced by persons at risk of suicide. In line with a reflective lifeworld research approach, 14 patients from a psychiatric clinic in Sweden participated in phenomenon-oriented interviews. Data were analyzed to describe the essence of the phenomenon...
July 15, 2016: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385293/elbow-arthroplasty-where-are-we-today-a-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Ilse Degreef
Background The elbow joint is a complex compound articulation, with a linking role within the upper limb kinematics. Its hinge function allows for proper placement of our working instrument (the hand) in the space surrounding us, directed by the shoulder joint. Both reliable mobility and stability are essential elements to allow for consistent bridging of the distance we aim to achieve in common daily activities. Sufficient flexion and extension are required to ensure both the patients' independence and the dignity...
April 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355820/statement-of-the-declaration-of-istanbul-custodian-group-regarding-payments-to-families-of-deceased-organ-donors
#19
Alexander Morgan Capron, Francis L Delmonico, Beatriz Dominguez-Gil, Dominique Elizabeth Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch, Jeremy Chapman
Governmental and private programs that pay next of kin who give permission for the removal of their deceased relative's organs for transplantation exist in a number of countries. Such payments, which may be given to the relatives or paid directly for funeral expenses or hospital bills unrelated to being a donor, aim to increase the rate of donation. The Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group-in alignment with the World Health Organization Guiding Principles and the Council of Europe Convention Against Trafficking in Human Organs-has adopted a new policy statement opposing such practices...
September 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322590/the-experience-of-people-with-dementia-and-nurses-in-hospital-an-integrative-review
#20
Robin Digby, Susan Lee, Allison Williams
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify and examine existing research exploring how people with dementia and nurses view acute hospital care. BACKGROUND: Admission to hospital can be traumatic for a person with dementia due to an inability to cope with unfamiliar environments, faces and routines. Adverse behavioural and health outcomes can result. Dementia adds complexity to patient care. Inability to deliver appropriate care is a source of stress and frustration for nurses...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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