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Tuberculosis immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346784/structure-determination-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-serine-protease-hip1-rv2224c
#1
Jacqueline Lara Naffin-Olivos, Andrew Daab, Andre White, Nathan Eric Goldfarb, Amy C Milne, Dali Liu, Jacqueline Baikovitz, Ben M Dunn, Jyothi Rengarajan, Gregory A Petsko, Dagmar Ringe
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) serine protease Hip1 (Hydrolase important for pathogenesis; Rv2224c) promotes tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis by impairing host immune responses through proteolysis of a protein substrate, Mtb GroEL2. The cell surface localization of Hip1 and its immunomodulatory functions make Hip1 a good drug target for new adjunctive immune therapies for TB. Here we report the crystal structure of Hip1 to a resolution of 2.6 Å and the kinetic studies of the enzyme against model substrates and the protein GroEL2...
March 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342825/association-between-parasitic-infections-and-tuberculin-skin-test-results-in-refugees
#2
Nathaniel S Watts, Mucho M Mizinduko, Elizabeth D Barnett, Laura F White, Natasha S Hochberg
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are known to modulate the immune response necessary for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We sought to investigate species-specific effects of parasite infection on M. tuberculosis infection. METHODS: As part of the Refugee Health Assessment Program, stool examinations and tuberculin skin testing were performed on refugees seen at Boston Medical Center between 1995 and 2012. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and stool examination data were collected for 6669 refugees; 3349 (50...
March 22, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342639/sendai-virus-mucosal-vaccination-establishes-lung-resident-memory-cd8%C3%A2-t-cell-immunity-and-boosts-bcg-primed-protection-against-tb-in-mice
#3
Zhidong Hu, Ka-Wing Wong, Hui-Min Zhao, Han-Li Wen, Ping Ji, Hui Ma, Kang Wu, Shui-Hua Lu, Feng Li, Zhong-Ming Li, Tsugumine Shu, Jian-Qing Xu, Douglas B Lowrie, Xiao-Yong Fan
Accumulating evidence has shown the protective role of CD8(+) T cells in vaccine-induced immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) despite controversy over their role in natural immunity. However, the current vaccine BCG is unable to induce sufficient CD8(+) T cell responses, especially in the lung. Sendai virus, a respiratory RNA virus, is here engineered firstly as a novel recombinant anti-TB vaccine (SeV85AB) that encodes Mtb immuno-dominant antigens, Ag85A and Ag85B. A single mucosal vaccination elicited potent antigen-specific T cell responses and a degree of protection against Mtb challenge similar to the effect of BCG in mice...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341533/epidemiology-of-infectious-encephalitis-causes-in-2016
#4
REVIEW
A Boucher, J L Herrmann, P Morand, R Buzelé, Y Crabol, J P Stahl, A Mailles
We performed a literature search in the Medline database, using the PubMed website. The incidence of presumably infectious encephalitis is estimated at 1.5-7 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, excluding epidemics. Infectious encephalitis and immune-mediated encephalitis share similar clinical signs and symptoms. The latter accounts for a significant proportion of presumably infectious encephalitis cases without any established etiological diagnosis; as shown from a prospective cohort study where 21% of cases were due to an immune cause...
March 21, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336379/synthetic-nanovaccines-for-immunotherapy
#5
Min Luo, Layla Z Samandi, Zhaohui Wang, Zhijian J Chen, Jinming Gao
Although vaccination is historically one of the most successful strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases, development of vaccines for cancer and many chronic infections, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis, has remained a challenge. Strong and long-lasting antigen-specific T cell responses are critical for therapy of these diseases. A major challenge in achieving a robust CD8+ T cell response is the requirement of spatio-temporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336310/regulatory-role-of-ccl5-rs2280789-and-cxcl10-rs56061981-gene-polymorphisms-on-intracellular-ccl5-and-cxcl10-expression-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#6
Brijendra Singh, Selvaraj Anbalagan, Paramasivam Selvaraj
Genetic variations in chemokine genes influence the chemoattractive properties of T cells which may be associated with outcome of infections. In present study, we have investigated the regulatory role played by In1.1T/C (rs2280789) polymorphism of CCL5 and -135G/A (rs56061981) polymorphism of CXCL10 gene on intracellular CCL5 and CXCL10 expression in T cells. Whole blood cell cultures were stimulated with culture filtrate antigen (CFA) and infected with live M. tuberculosis were used for intracellular CCL5 and CXCL10 expression using flow cytometry...
March 21, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335738/genome-wide-expression-profiling-establishes-novel-modulatory-roles-of-vitamin-c-in-thp-1-human-monocytic-cell-line
#7
Sakshi Dhingra Batra, Malobi Nandi, Kriti Sikri, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C (vit C) is an essential dietary nutrient, which is a potent antioxidant, a free radical scavenger and functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. Vit C is also considered to enhance the immune effector function of macrophages, which are regarded to be the first line of defence in response to any pathogen. The THP-1 cell line is widely used for studying macrophage functions and for analyzing host cell-pathogen interactions. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide temporal gene expression and functional enrichment analysis of THP-1 cells treated with 100 μM of vit C, a physiologically relevant concentration of the vitamin...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333932/impairment-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-blood-cells-of-patients-with-severe-cavitary-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
Lin Fan, Hongbo Shen, Huichang Huang, Rui Yang, Lan Yao
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as a leading infectious disease worldwide. Our previous study showed interferon (IFN)-γ and CD3 T cell impairment in patients with severe cavitary pulmonary TB (PTB). However, the cause of the change in immune responses during the progression of TB is still poorly understood. In this study, eight newly diagnosed patients with severe cavitary and mild lesion non-cavity PTB were recruited, and three healthy volunteers were recruited as the control. RNA extracted from blood was tested by whole genome oligo microarrays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329667/serious-infections-are-on-the-rise-in-us-inpatients-with-psoriasis
#9
Derek Y Hsu
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with immune dysregulation and use of systemic immunosuppressive treatments that may predispose toward serious infections. We sought to determine the rates of serious infections in hospitalized patients with psoriasis. We analyzed data from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a 20% sample of all US hospitalizations. Psoriasis was determined by a validated algorithm using ICD-9-CM codes. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographics, psoriasis was associated with multiple serious infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] 1...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329234/revaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vaccine-mtbvac-improves-bcg-s-protection-against-tuberculosis
#10
Simon Clark, Faye Lanni, Dessislava Marinova, Emma Rayner, Carlos Martin, Ann Williams
Background.: The need for an effective vaccine against human tuberculosis has driven the development of different candidates and vaccination strategies. Novel live attenuated vaccines are being developed that promise greater safety and efficacy than BCG against tuberculosis. We combined BCG with the vaccine MTBVAC to evaluate whether the efficacy of either vaccine would be affected upon revaccination. Methods.: In a well-established guinea pig model of aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG and MTBVAC delivered via various prime-boost combinations or alone were compared...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329119/stratification-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-by-cellular-immune-profiling
#11
Alice Halliday, Hilary Whitworth, Sherine Hermagild Kottoor, Umar Niazi, Sarah Menzies, Heinke Kunst, Samuel Bremang, Amarjit Badhan, Peter Beverley, Onn Min Kon, Ajit Lalvani
Background: Recently-acquired and remotely-acquired latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are clinically indistinguishable, yet recent acquisition of infection is the greatest risk factor for progression to active TB (ATB) in immunocompetent individuals. We aimed to evaluate the ability of cellular immune signatures which differ between ATB and LTBI, to distinguish recently from remotely acquired LTBI. Methods: Fifty-nine individuals were recruited: ATB (n=20); recent LTBI (n=19); remote LTBI (n=20)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327797/bacterial-immunostat-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipids-and-their-role-in-the-host-immune-response
#12
Adriano Queiroz, Lee W Riley
The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dynamic structure that is involved in the regulation of the transport of nutrients, toxic host-cell effector molecules, and anti-tuberculosis drugs. It is therefore postulated to contribute to the long-term bacterial survival in an infected human host. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis remodels the lipid composition of the cell wall as an adaptive mechanism against host-imposed stress. Some of these lipid species (trehalose dimycolate, diacylated sulphoglycolipid, and mannan-based lipoglycans) trigger an immunopathologic response, whereas others (phthiocerol dimycocerosate, mycolic acids, sulpholipid-1, and di-and polyacyltrehalose) appear to dampen the immune responses...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327409/mir-23a-5p-modulates-mycobacterial-survival-and-autophagy-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-through-tlr2-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-by-targeting-tlr2
#13
Xing Gu, Yan Gao, De-Guang Mu, En-Qing Fu
Autophagy plays a pivotal role in activating the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.). The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating immune responses have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Appreciating the potential of host-directed therapies designed to control autophagy during mycobacterial infection, we focused on the influence of miR-23a-5p on the activation of macrophage autophagy during M.tb. infection in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and murine RAW264...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315719/sequence-based-hla-a-b-c-dp-dq-and-dr-typing-of-100-luo-infants-from-the-boro-area-of-nyanza-province-kenya
#14
Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Richard Copin, Shay Leary, Steven J Mack, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Alessandro Sette, Gretta Blatner, Heather Siefers, Joel D Ernst
One hundred healthy infants enrolled as controls in a tuberculosis vaccine study in Nyanza Province, Kenya provided anonymized samples for DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1, and -DRB3/4/5 loci. The purpose of the study was to characterize allele frequencies in the local population, to support studies of T cell immunity against pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are no detectable deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions for the HLA-B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci...
March 16, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314076/lactococcus-lactis-carrying-a-dna-vaccine-coding-for-the-esat-6-antigen-increases-il-17-cytokine-secretion-and-boosts-the-bcg-vaccine-immune-response
#15
Vanessa Bastos Pereira, Vanessa Pecini da Cunha, Tatiane Melo Preisser, Bianca Mendes Souza, Meritxell Zurita Turk, Camila Prósperi De Castro, Marcela Santiago Pacheco Azevedo, Anderson Miyoshi
AIMS: A regimen utilizing BCG and another vaccine system as a booster may represent a promising strategy for the development of an efficient tuberculosis vaccine for adults. In a previous work, we confirmed the ability of Lactococcus lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6), a live mucosal DNA vaccine, to produce a specific immune response in mice after oral immunization. In the present study, we examined the immunogenicity of this strain as a booster for the BCG vaccine in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: After immunization, cytokine and immunoglobulin profiles were measured...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303782/paradoxical-reactions-and-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#16
L W Preston Church, Amit Chopra, Marc A Judson
In HIV-infected individuals, paradoxical reactions after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with a variety of underlying infections and have been called the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In cases of IRIS associated with tuberculosis (TB), two distinct patterns of disease are recognized: (i) the progression of subclinical TB to clinical disease after the initiation of ART, referred to as unmasking, and (ii) the progression or appearance of new clinical and/or radiographic disease in patients with previously recognized TB after the initiation of ART, the classic or "paradoxical" TB-IRIS...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#17
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301284/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-bacille-calmette-guerin-strains-expressing-mycobacterium-antigens-ag85a-cfp10-esat-6-gm-csf-and-il-12p70
#18
Fu-Ying Dai, Jun-Fang Wang, Xue-Li Gong, Lang Bao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant bacille calmette-guerin (rBCG) strains expressing Ag85A (A), CFP10 (C), ESAT6 (E), IL-12p70 (I), and fusion protein GM-CSF (G). METHOD: rBCGs were established by integrating of A, C, E, I, G, AE, CE, IE, GC, GE and GCE into Mycobacterium bovis BCG-1173 and BCG-SH. The macro-effects of rBCGs on mice were evaluated by phenotype and weight. The immunogenicity of rBCGs was analyzed by lgG, lgG1 and lgG2a antibody titers, and IFN-γ and IL-4 contents through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299403/effects-of-ifn-%C3%AE-1a-and-ifn-%C3%AE-1b-treatment-on-the-expression-of-cytokines-inducible-nos-nos-type-ii-and-myelin-proteins-in-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Natalia Lubina-Dąbrowska, Adam Stepień, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Józef Langfort, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-β1a and IFN-β1b treatment on inflammatory factors and myelin protein levels in the brain cortex of the Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of multiple sclerosis. To induce EAE, rat were immunized with inoculums containing spinal cord guinea pig homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant containing 110 µg of the appropriate antigen in 100 µl of an emulsion and additionally 4-mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra)...
March 15, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298455/evaluation-of-quantiferon%C3%A2-tb-gold-plus-in-healthcare-workers-in-a-low-incidence-setting
#20
Hee-Won Moon, Rajiv L Gaur, Sara Shu-Hwa Tien, Mary Spangler, Madhukar Pai, Niaz Banaei
Background: Although launched in 2015, little is known about the accuracy of QuantiFERON-TB Gold-Plus (QFT-Plus) for diagnosis of latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Unlike its predecessor, QFT-Plus utilizes two antigen tubes to elicit an immune response from CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. We conducted a cross-sectional study in low-risk healthcare workers (HCWs) at a single U.S. center to compare QFT-Plus to QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT).Method: 989 HCWs were tested with both QFT and QFT-Plus. Risk factors for LTBI were obtained from a questionnaire...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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