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Tuberculosis immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140996/childhood-tuberculosis-is-associated-with-decreased-abundance-of-t-cell-gene-transcripts-and-impaired-t-cell-function
#1
Cheryl Hemingway, Maurice Berk, Suzanne T Anderson, Victoria J Wright, Shea Hamilton, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Myrsini Kaforou, Greg M Goldgof, Katy Hickman, Beate Kampmann, Johan Schoeman, Brian Eley, David Beatty, Sandra Pienaar, Mark P Nicol, Michael J Griffiths, Simon J Waddell, Sandra M Newton, Lachlan J Coin, David A Relman, Giovanni Montana, Michael Levin
The WHO estimates around a million children contract tuberculosis (TB) annually with over 80 000 deaths from dissemination of infection outside of the lungs. The insidious onset and association with skin test anergy suggests failure of the immune system to both recognise and respond to infection. To understand the immune mechanisms, we studied genome-wide whole blood RNA expression in children with TB meningitis (TBM). Findings were validated in a second cohort of children with TBM and pulmonary TB (PTB), and functional T-cell responses studied in a third cohort of children with TBM, other extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) and PTB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140946/comparison-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-with-tuberculin-skin-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-children
#2
Walter Dehority, Rolando M Viani, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Graciano Lopez, Stephen A Spector
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is facilitated by tuberculin skin testing (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays such as the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube (QTF-GIT) assays. Limited data exist on the utility of interferon-gamma release assays in HIV-infected children, which may be falsely negative due to immunosuppression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing TST to QTF-GIT for the diagnosis of suspected LTBI was performed in children in Tijuana, Mexico, and in San Diego, California...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138300/high-zika-virus-seroprevalence-in-salvador-northeastern-brazil-limits-the-potential-for-further-outbreaks
#3
Eduardo Martins Netto, Andres Moreira-Soto, Celia Pedroso, Christoph Höser, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Alexandra Rockstroh, Beate M Kümmerer, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Estela Luz, Sara Nunes Vaz, Juarez Pereira Dias, Fernanda Anjos Bastos, Renata Cabral, Thomas Kistemann, Sebastian Ulbert, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Jaenisch, Oliver J Brady, Christian Drosten, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135655/neutrophil-activation-and-enhanced-release-of-granule-products-in-hiv-tb-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#4
Justine K Nakiwala, Naomi F Walker, Collin R Diedrich, William Worodria, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Robert Colebunders, Luc Kestens, Katalin A Wilkinson, David M Lowe
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains incompletely understood. Neutrophils are implicated in tuberculosis pathology but detailed investigations in TB-IRIS are lacking. We sought to further explore the biology of TB-IRIS and in particular the role of neutrophils. SETTING: Two observational, prospective cohort studies in HIV/TB co-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy, one to analyze gene expression and subsequently one to explore neutrophil biology...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133346/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-groel2-modulates-dendritic-cell-responses
#5
Maria Georgieva, Jonathan Kevin Sia, Erica Bizzell, Ranjna Madan-Lala, Jyothi Rengarajan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) successfully subverts the host immune response to promote disease progression. In addition to its known intracellular niche in macrophages, Mtb interferes with the functions of dendritic cells (DCs), which are the primary antigen presenting cells in the immune system. We previously showed that Mtb dampens proinflammatory responses and impairs DC functions through the cell envelope-associated serine protease, Hip1. Here we present data showing that Mtb GroEL2, a substrate of Hip1, modulates DC functions...
November 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125874/pulmonary-immune-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-exposed-individuals
#6
Christian Herzmann, Martin Ernst, Christoph Lange, Steffen Stenger, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Norbert Reiling, Tom Schaberg, Lize van der Merwe, Jeroen Maertzdorf
BACKGROUND: Blood based Interferon-(IFN)-γ release assays (IGRAs) have a poor predictive value for the development of tuberculosis. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between IGRAs and pulmonary immune responses in tuberculosis contacts in Germany. METHODS: IGRAs were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and peripheral blood from close healthy contacts of patients with culturally confirmed tuberculosis. Cellular BAL composition was determined by flow cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124710/ultraviolet-irradiation-of-blood-the-cure-that-time-forgot
#7
Michael R Hamblin
Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, UBI use declined and it has now been called "the cure that time forgot". Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers and in other Eastern countries and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123166/a-temperature-sensitive-mycobacterium-paragordonae-induces-enhanced-protective-immune-responses-against-mycobacterial-infections-in-the-mouse-model
#8
Byoung-Jun Kim, Bo-Ram Kim, Yoon-Hoh Kook, Bum-Joon Kim
Recently, we introduced a temperature sensitive Mycobacterium spp., Mycobacterium paragordonae (Mpg). Here, we checked its potential as a candidate for live vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium abscessus. Intravenous infections of mice with Mpg led to lower colony forming units (CFUs) compared to infection with BCG, suggesting its usefulness as a live vaccine. The analyses of immune responses indicated that the highly protective immunity elicited by Mpg was dependent on effective dendritic maturation, shift of cytokine patterns and antibody production toward a Th1 phenotype, and enhanced cytotoxic T cell response...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122384/strengthening-global-vaccine-access-for-adolescents-and-adults
#9
REVIEW
Angeline Nanni, Stefanie Meredith, Stephanie Gati, Karin Holm, Tom Harmon, Ann Ginsberg
Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121801/usefulness-of-chinese-herbal-medicines-as-host-directed-therapeutics-against-mycobacterial-infections-a-review
#10
Haruaki Tomioka
The high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries, the resurgence of TB in industrialized countries, and the world-wide increase in the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infections have prompted the quest for new antimycobacterial drugs. However, the development of such chemotherapeutics is currently making very slow progress. It therefore appears that devising improved administration protocols for clinical treatment against intractable mycobacteriosis using existing chemotherapeutics is more practical than awaiting the development of novel antimycobacterial drugs...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120360/elemental-ingredients-in-the-macrophage-cocktail-role-of-zip8-in-host-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
REVIEW
Charlie J Pyle, Abul K Azad, Audrey C Papp, Wolfgang Sadee, Daren L Knoell, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global epidemic caused by the infection of human macrophages with the world's most deadly single bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). M.tb resides in a phagosomal niche within macrophages, where trace element concentrations impact the immune response, bacterial metal metabolism, and bacterial survival. The manipulation of micronutrients is a critical mechanism of host defense against infection. In particular, the human zinc transporter Zrt-/Irt-like protein 8 (ZIP8), one of 14 ZIP family members, is important in the flux of divalent cations, including zinc, into the cytoplasm of macrophages...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119205/secretome-profile-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-monodrug-resistant-and-drug-susceptible-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Chanyanuch Putim, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Ratikorn Gamngoen, Khajornsak Tragoolpua, Sorasak Intorasoot, Usanee Anukool, Chayada Sitthidet Tharincharoen, Ponrut Phunpae, Chatchai Tayapiwatana, Watchara Kasinrerk, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Bordin Butr-Indr
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated great concern in the control of tuberculosis and HIV/TB patients have established severe complications that are difficult to treat. Although, the gold standard of drug-susceptibility testing is highly accurate and efficient, it is time-consuming. Diagnostic biomarkers are, therefore, necessary in discriminating between infection from drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. One strategy that aids to effectively control tuberculosis is understanding the function of secreting proteins that mycobacteria use to manipulate the host cellular defenses...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119025/parachute-like-mitral-valve-tuberculoma-a-rare-presentation
#13
Arslan Masood, Gul Zaman Khan, Irfan Bashir, Zubair Akram
There have been anecdotal reports of tuberculous cardiac involvement, mainly in cases of military tuberculosis or immune deficient individuals. The spectrum of clinical presentations of tuberculous cardiac involvements includes incidental detection of single and multiple well-circumscribed tuberculomas, symptomatic obstructive lesions, AV conduction abnormalities, and even sudden death. We present a case of cardiac tuberculoma in an immune-competent person who presented with worsening dyspnea. The unique morphology of this mass posed an imaging challenge that required 4-dimensional (4D) echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detail to differentiate the mass from an anterior mitral leaflet (AML) aneurysm...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118429/mesenchymal-stem-cells-internalize-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-through-scavenger-receptors-and-restrict-bacterial-growth-through-autophagy
#14
Arshad Khan, Lovepreet Mann, Ramesha Papanna, Mi-Ae Lyu, Christopher R Singh, Scott Olson, N Tony Eissa, Jeffrey Cirillo, Gobardhan Das, Robert L Hunter, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express scavenger receptors that internalize lipids, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). We report that MSCs phagocytose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through two types of scavenger receptors (SRs; MARCO and SR-B1), as blockade of the receptors with antibodies or siRNA knockdown decreased the uptake of Mtb. MSCs also expressed mannose receptor (MR) that was found to endocytose rhodamine-labeled mannosylated BSA (rMBSA), though the receptor was not involved in the uptake of Mtb...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118314/association-of-immune-factors-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-control-study
#15
En-Tao Sun, Dan Xia, Ben-He Li, Jun Ma, Yuan-Yuan Dong, Shu-Shu Ding, Bai-Feng Chen, Yu-Feng Wen
BACKGROUND Presently, studies of factors associated with drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) focus on patients' socio-demographic characteristics and living habits, to the exclusion of biochemical indicators, especially immune factors. This study was carried out to determine whether immune factors are associated with drug-resistant TB. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 227 drug-resistant pulmonary TB patients and 225 drug-susceptible pulmonary TB patients were enrolled in this study. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and biochemical indicators were obtained through their clinical records...
November 9, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116639/dna-replication-fidelity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#16
Digby F Warner, Jeremy M Rock, Sarah M Fortune, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is genetically isolated, with no evidence for horizontal gene transfer or the acquisition of episomal genetic information in the modern evolution of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. When considered in the context of the specific features of the disease M. tuberculosis causes (e.g., transmission via cough aerosol, replication within professional phagocytes, subclinical persistence, and stimulation of a destructive immune pathology), this implies that to understand the mechanisms ensuring preservation of genomic integrity in infecting mycobacterial populations is to understand the source of genetic variation, including the emergence of microdiverse sub-populations that may be linked to the acquisition of drug resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116636/pe-and-ppe-genes-a-tale-of-conservation-and-diversity
#17
Giovanni Delogu, Michael J Brennan, Riccardo Manganelli
PE and PPE are two large families of proteins typical of mycobacteria whose structural genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) occupy about 7% of the total genome. The most ancestral PE and PPE proteins are expressed by genes that belong to the same operon and in most cases are found inserted in the esx clusters, encoding a type VII secretion system. Duplication and expansion of pe and ppe genes, coupled with intragenomic and intergenomic recombination events, led to the emergence of the polymorphic pe_pgrs and ppe_mptr genes in the MTBC genome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116635/antigenic-variation-and-immune-escape-in-the-mtbc
#18
Joel D Ernst
Microbes that infect other organisms encounter host immune responses, and must overcome or evade innate and adaptive immune responses to successfully establish infection. Highly successful microbial pathogens, including M. tuberculosis, are able to evade adaptive immune responses (mediated by antibodies and/or T lymphocytes) and thereby establish long-term chronic infection. One mechanism that diverse pathogens use to evade adaptive immunity is antigenic variation, in which structural variants emerge that alter recognition by established immune responses and allow those pathogens to persist and/or to infect previously-immune hosts...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115933/new-variant-identified-in-major-susceptibility-locus-to-tuberculosis-on-chromosomal-region-8q12-q13-in-moroccan-population-a-case-control-study
#19
Mounia Qrafli, Imane Asekkaj, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi, Rajae El Aouad, Khalid Sadki
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Several studies have implicated genetic host factors in predisposing populations to TB disease. In this study, we have selected NSMAF (Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activation Associated Factor) as a candidate gene to evaluate its level of association with TB disease in a Moroccan population for two reasons: first, this gene is located in a major susceptibility locus on chromosomal region 8q12-q13 in the Moroccan population, closely linked to the CYP7A1 gene, which was previously shown to be associated with TB disease; second, NSMAF has an important role in immune system function...
November 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109555/pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-co-infection
#20
REVIEW
Lucy C K Bell, Mahdad Noursadeghi
Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections...
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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