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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140829/guiding-regulatory-t-cells-to-the-allograft
#1
Caroline Lamarche, Megan K Levings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy in organ transplantation is actively being pursued using unmodified, typically polyclonal cells. As the results of these ongoing clinical trials emerge, it is time to plan the next wave of clinical trials of Tregs. Here we will review a key strategy to improve Treg effectiveness and reduce side effects, namely increasing Treg specificity - both in terms of antigen recognition and localization to the allograft. RECENT FINDINGS: Study of chemokine signatures accompanying acute rejection has revealed several chemokines that could be targeted to increase Treg homing...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137822/dnmt1-is-associated-with-cell-cycle-and-dna-replication-gene-sets-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#2
Suet Kee Loo, Suzina Sheikh Ab Hamid, Mustaffa Musa, Kah Keng Wong
Dysregulation of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is associated with the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. It has been previously shown that DNMT1 is frequently expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), however its functions remain to be elucidated in the disease. In this study, we gene expression profiled (GEP) shRNA targeting DNMT1(shDNMT1)-treated germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL (GCB-DLBCL)-derived cell line (i.e. HT) compared with non-silencing shRNA (control shRNA)-treated HT cells...
October 9, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136676/papillary-thyroid-cancer-and-coexisting-autoimmune-thyroiditis
#3
Franziska Veit, Dieter Graf, Saskia Momberger, Brigitte Helmich-Kapp, Ilka Ruschenburg, Anja Peters, Jochen Kussmann, Wolfgang Saeger, Kurt Werner Schmidt, Martin Toetsch, Kai Nestler, Klaus Mann
Histological findings often display an association between papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and so differ significantly from follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC). The aim of this interdisciplinary, retrospective study was to evaluate the association of AIT in patients with PTC and FTC and a control group of benign nodular goiters. One hundred thyroidectomies with histologically confirmed differentiated thyroid carcinomas, 67 with PTC and 33 with FTC, were submitted for examination...
November 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119505/parameters-estimation-in-phase-space-landscape-reconstruction-of-cell-fate-a-systems-biology-approach
#4
Sheyla Montero, Reynaldo Martin, Ricardo Mansilla, Germinal Cocho, José Manuel Nieto-Villar
The thermodynamical formalism of irreversible processes offers a theoretical framework appropriate to explain the complexity observed at the macroscopic level of dynamic systems. In this context, together with the theory of complex systems and systems biology, the thermodynamical formalism establishes an appropriate conceptual framework to address the study of biological systems, in particular cancer.The Chapter is organized as follows: In Subheading 1, an integrative view of these disciplines is offered, for the characterization of the emergence and evolution of cancer, seen as a self-organized dynamic system far from the thermodynamic equilibrium...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118741/analysis-of-the-germination-of-individual-clostridium-sporogenes-spores-with-and-without-germinant-receptors-and-cortex-lytic-enzymes
#5
Shiwei Wang, Jason Brunt, Michael W Peck, Peter Setlow, Yong-Qing Li
The Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe Clostridium sporogenes is a significant cause of food spoilage, and it is also used as a surrogate for C. botulinum spores for testing the efficacy of commercial sterilization. C. sporogenes spores have also been proposed as a vector to deliver drugs to tumor cells for cancer treatments. Such an application of C. sporogenes spores requires their germination and return to life. In this study, Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy were used to analyze the germination kinetics of multiple individual C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100733/synthesis-antifungal-and-antitumor-activity-of-two-new-types-of-imidazolin-2-ones
#6
Shaopeng Wei, Li Li, Yaping Shu, Kun Zhao, Zhiqin Ji
Thirty-six imidazolin-2-ones, including ten pairs of benzimidazolones and sixteen imidazopyridines, were synthesized and subjected for the evaluation of antifungal and antitumor activity. Compounds 4a-01, 6-01, 6-04 and 6-06 could effectively inhibit the spore germination and mycelium growth of Botrytis cinerea. The relationship between structure and antifungal activity revealed that the introducing short-chain aliphatic acyl groups at the moiety of imidazopyridines is favorable for the antifungal activity, whereas aromatic acyl groups are much better than aliphatic acyl groups for the activity of benzimidazolones except for acetyl...
October 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074044/dnmt1-is-predictive-of-survival-and-associated-with-ki-67-expression-in-r-chop-treated-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphomas
#7
Suet Kee Loo, Ewe Seng Ch'ng, Charles H Lawrie, María Arestin Muruzabal, Ayman Gaafar, María Puente Pomposo, Azlan Husin, Md Salzihan Md Salleh, Alison H Banham, Lars M Pedersen, Michael B Møller, Tina M Green, Kah Keng Wong
DNMT1 is a target of approved anti-cancer drugs including decitabine. However, the prognostic value of DNMT1 protein expression in R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) remains unexplored. Here we showed that DNMT1 was expressed in the majority of DLBCL cases (n = 209/230, 90.9%) with higher expression in germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB)-DLBCL subtype. Low and negative DNMT1 expression (20% cut-off, n = 33/230, 14.3%) was predictive of worse overall survival (OS; p < 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS; p < 0...
October 23, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037738/peptides-derived-from-in-vitro-gastrointestinal-digestion-of-germinated-soybean-proteins-inhibit-human-colon-cancer-cells-proliferation-and-inflammation
#8
Marcela González-Montoya, Blanca Hernández-Ledesma, Jose Manuel Silván, Rosalva Mora-Escobedo, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
The aim was to investigate the potential of germinated soybean proteins asa source of peptides with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities produced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Protein concentrate from germinated soybean was hydrolysed with pepsin/pancreatin and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Whole digest and fractions>10, 5-10, and<5kDa caused cytotoxicity to Caco-2, HT-29, HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, and reduced inflammatory response caused by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages RAW 264...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942695/ovarian-stimulation-under-the-effect-of-isotretinoin
#9
Mauro Cozzolino, Javier Domingo, Sérgio Reis Soares
Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) is a pharmaceutical vitamin A analog that is frequently used in the treatment of severe cystic acne, many women at reproductive age being exposed to this substance. This drug has a clearly documented teratogenicity and data from rodents and humans indicate that a direct aggression to ovarian follicles also occurs. Here we report the case of a 29-year-old woman with breast cancer referred for emergency preservation of reproductive potential that used isotretinoin up to the day before the initiation of ovarian stimulation...
September 23, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933967/aid-biology-a-pathological-and-clinical-perspective
#10
Meenal Choudhary, Anubhav Tamrakar, Amit Kumar Singh, Monika Jain, Ankit Jaiswal, Prashant Kodgire
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), primarily expressed in activated mature B lymphocytes in germinal centers, is the key factor in adaptive immune response against foreign antigens. AID is responsible for producing high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies against an infectious agent, through the physiological DNA alteration processes of antibody genes by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) and functions by deaminating deoxycytidines (dC) to deoxyuridines (dU), thereby introducing point mutations and double-stranded chromosomal breaks (DSBs)...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933554/rational-targeting-of-cellular-cholesterol-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-dlbcl-enabled-by-functional-lipoprotein-nanoparticles-a-therapeutic-strategy-dependent-on-cell-of-origin
#11
Jonathan S Rink, Shuo Yang, Osman Cen, Tim Taxter, Kaylin M McMahon, Sol Misener, Amir Behdad, Richard Longnecker, Leo I Gordon, C Shad Thaxton
Cancer cells have altered metabolism and, in some cases, an increased demand for cholesterol. It is important to identify novel, rational treatments based on biology, and cellular cholesterol metabolism as a potential target for cancer is an innovative approach. Toward this end, we focused on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as a model because there is differential cholesterol biosynthesis driven by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in germinal center (GC) versus activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL. To specifically target cellular cholesterol homeostasis, we employed high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles (HDL NP) that can generally reduce cellular cholesterol by targeting and blocking cholesterol uptake through the high-affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor type B-1 (SCARB1)...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876038/-preparation-of-catalitaxol-deficient-defective-strains-by-using-ultraviolet-mutagenesis
#12
Dan Hu, Kexuan Tang, Zhiqi Miao
Secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi FSN002 from Juglans mandshurica Maxim have excellent liver cancer resistance. Preparation of mutant strains is an important means to study the biosynthesis mechanism of catalitaxol. Fungal spores germinating young hyphae with 4 to 6 cells after culturing for 13 hours were used as starting materials of ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. UV light intensity and irradiation time have a linear relationship with fungal mortality. The two factors had no obvious interactions. When UV light was 90 000 μJ/cm2 and irradiation time for 6 s, the mortality of fungi was around 95%...
May 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875978/il4-and-il21-cooperate-to-induce-the-high-bcl6-protein-level-required-for-germinal-center-formation
#13
Stéphane Chevrier, Tobias Kratina, Dianne Emslie, David M Tarlinton, Lynn M Corcoran
Bcl6 is a transcriptional repressor and critical mediator of the germinal center reaction during a T cell dependent antibody response, where it enables somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and inhibits terminal differentiation via repression of Blimp1. It can also contribute to the development of diffuse large B cell lymphoma when expressed inappropriately. Bcl6 regulation is mediated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and in particular a strong signal through the B cell receptor causes rapid proteasomal degradation of Bcl6...
September 6, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855898/quantitative-analysis-of-repertoire-scale-immunoglobulin-properties-in-vaccine-induced-b-cell-responses
#14
Ilja V Khavrutskii, Sidhartha Chaudhury, Sabrina M Stronsky, Donald W Lee, Jacqueline G Benko, Anders Wallqvist, Sina Bavari, Christopher L Cooper
Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing of B-cell receptors (BCRs) enable the characterization of humoral responses at a repertoire-wide scale and provide the capability for identifying unique features of immune repertoires in response to disease, vaccination, or infection. Immunosequencing now readily generates 10(3)-10(5) sequences per sample; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851627/charting-the-dynamic-epigenome-during-b-cell-development
#15
REVIEW
Jose I Martin-Subero, Christopher C Oakes
The epigenetic landscape undergoes a widespread modulation during embryonic development and cell differentiation. Within the hematopoietic system, B cells are perhaps the cell lineage with a more dynamic DNA methylome during their maturation process, which involves approximately one third of all the CpG sites of the genome. Although each B-cell maturation step displays its own DNA methylation fingerprint, the DNA methylome is more extensively modified in particular maturation transitions. These changes are gradually accumulated in specific chromatin environments as cell differentiation progresses and reflect different features and functional states of B cells...
August 26, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843293/langerhans-cells-orchestrate-tfh-dependent-humoral-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Trupti Vardam, Niroshana Anandasabapathy
T follicular helper cells contribute to the development of long-lasting humoral immunity by germinal center formation. Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation take place in germinal centers leading to the generation of memory B cells and plasma cells. As such, T follicular helper cells impact immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, and cancer. This necessitates further understanding of how T follicular helper cells are regulated in health and disease. The current study by Levin et al. builds on prior work to further substantiate a critical role for skin migratory dendritic cells and in particular Langerhans cells at governing T follicular helper and germinal center formation after intradermal immunization with HIV p24-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles...
September 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815456/recommendations-for-biomarker-testing-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-national-consensus-statement-by-the-spanish-society-of-pathology-and-the-spanish-society-of-medical-oncology
#17
A Oaknin, R Guarch, P Barretina, D Hardisson, A Gonzáles-Martín, X Matías-Guiu, A Pérez-Fidalgo, B Vieites, I Romero, J Palacios
Because of advances in the understanding of histological and molecular characteristics in ovarian cancer, it is now possible to recognize the existence of five subtypes, which in turn has allowed a more refined therapeutic approach and better design of clinical trials. Each of these five subtypes has specific histological features and a particular biomarker expression, as well as mutations in different genes, some of which have prognostic and predictive value. CA125 and HE4 are examples of ovarian cancer biomarkers used in the diagnosis and follow-up of these malignancies...
August 16, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800074/phellinus-linteus-grown-on-germinated-brown-rice-increases-cetuximab-sensitivity-of-kras-mutated-colon-cancer
#18
Hye-Jin Park, Jeong-Bin Park, Sang-Jae Lee, Minjung Song
Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and it has recently become a leading cause of death worldwide. Among colon cancers, the v-ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated form is notorious for its non-druggable features. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor, has been introduced as an antitumor therapy; however, secondary resistance and side effects significantly limit its effective use in these cancers. In this study, we prepared Phellinuslinteus on germinated brown rice (PBR) extracts to increase the sensitivity of KRAS-mutated colon cancers to cetuximab...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760529/discovery-of-a-novel-b-cell-lymphoma-6-bcl6-corepressor-interaction-inhibitor-by-utilizing-structure-based-drug-design
#19
Takeshi Yasui, Takeshi Yamamoto, Nozomu Sakai, Kouhei Asano, Takafumi Takai, Yayoi Yoshitomi, Melinda Davis, Terufumi Takagi, Kotaro Sakamoto, Satoshi Sogabe, Yusuke Kamada, Weston Lane, Gyorgy Snell, Masashi Iwata, Masayuki Goto, Hiroshi Inooka, Jun-Ichi Sakamoto, Yoshihisa Nakada, Yasuhiro Imaeda
B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) is a transcriptional repressor that can form complexes with corepressors via protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The complexes of BCL6 and corepressors play an important role in the formation of germinal centers (GCs), and differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes. Therefore, BCL6-corepressor interaction inhibitors would be drug candidates for managing autoimmune diseases and cancer. Starting from high-throughput screening hits 1a and 2a, we identified a novel BCL6-corepressor interaction inhibitor 8c (cell-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] IC50=0...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740454/genetic-counselling-brca1-2-status-and-clinico-pathologic-characteristics-of-patients-with-ovarian-cancer-before-50-years-of-age
#20
Mirjam Cvelbar, Marko Hocevar, Srdjan Novakovic, Vida Stegel, Andraz Perhavec, Mateja Krajc
BACKGROUND: In Slovenia like in other countries, till recently, personal history of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not been included among indications for genetic counselling. Recent studies reported up to 17% rate of germinal BRCA1/2 mutation (gBRCA1/2m) within the age group under 50 years at diagnosis. The original aim of this study was to invite to the genetic counselling still living patients with EOC under 45 years, to offer gBRCA1/2m testing and to perform analysis of gBRCA1/2m rate and of clinico-pathologic characteristics...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
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