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Germinal cancer

Tolga Mercantepe, Deniz Unal, Levent Tümkaya, Zihni Acar Yazici
Cisplatin is an effective antineoplastic drug that is usually used to treat a number of different types of cancer in the clinic. One of the most notable side effects of cisplatin use is infertility. The present study was designed to determine the non-oxidative testicular effects caused by the use of cisplatin in rats. The rats were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. The untreated rats represented the control group (group I) and the treatment groups were as follows: cisplatin alone (group II), cisplatin+amifostine (group III), cisplatin+curcumin (group IV), and cisplatin+caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE; group V)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yongxia Wu, Steven Schutt, Katelyn Paz, Mengmeng Zhang, Ryan P Flynn, David Bastian, M Hanief Sofi, Hung Nguyen, Min Dai, Chen Liu, Ying-Jun Chang, Bruce R Blazar, Xue-Zhong Yu
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is characterized as autoimmune-like fibrosis and antibody production mediated by pathogenic T-cells and B-cells. MicroRNA (miR)-17-92 influences the survival, differentiation and function of lymphocytes in cancer, infections and autoimmunity. To determine whether miR-17-92 regulates T- and B-cell responses in cGVHD, we generated mice conditionally deficient for miR-17-92 in T-cells, B-cells, or both. Using murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT), we demonstrate that expression of miR-17-92 in donor T- and B-cells is essential for the induction of both scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans in cGVHD...
March 12, 2018: Blood
Pallavi Khattar, Puneet Bedi, Marion Gonzalez, Minghao Zhong, Changhong Yin, Weihua Huang, Humayun K Islam, John T Fallon
Primary (localized) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the ovary is extremely rare; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report two cases of primary ovarian lymphoma (POL), one involving bilateral ovaries in a 15-year-old girl and other involving one ovary in a 5-year-old girl. This report describes detailed clinical, histopathological, and imaging findings, along with the review of literature of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising from an ovary. In addition, we describe findings of targeted capture panel sequencing on both tumors and identify the major genetic mutations that are recurrently mutated in pan-cancers...
January 3, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Lars Peter Sattler, Katja Steiger, Tim Holland-Letz, Marcelo Livorsi da Cunha, Walter Mier, Oliver Neels, Klaus Kopka, Wilko Weichert, Uwe Haberkorn
PURPOSE: Since the introduction of68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer (PC) we have frequently observed mediastinal lymph nodes (LN) showing tracer uptake despite being classified as benign. The aim of this evaluation was to further analyze such LN. METHODS: Two patient groups with biphasic68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT at 1 h and 3 h p.i. were included in this retrospective evaluation. Group A (n = 38) included patients without LN metastases, and group B (n = 43) patients with LN metastases of PC...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yoshiaki Ito, Tadaki Nakahara, Yuichi Nishihara, Junichi Shiraishi, Masahiro Jinzaki
A 38-year-old man with sigmoid colon cancer underwent a preoperative contrast-enhanced CT which incidentally revealed a modestly enhancing splenic mass. FDG PET/CT showed mildly increased uptake in the splenic lesion in contrast to prominently increased uptake in the colonic tumor. In addition, the splenic mass demonstrated only slightly increased signal intensity in diffusion-weighted MRI, suggesting low probability of metastasis. Splenectomy nonetheless was performed at surgery of the colon cancer. The histopathologic examination showed aggregated lymphoid follicles with germinal centers in the splenic lesion and made the diagnosis of localized reactive lymphoid hyperplasia a rare benign lymphoid tumor...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Jorge Melendez-Zajgla, Gabriela E Mercado-Celis, Javier Gaytan-Cervantes, Amada Torres, Nayeli Belem Gabiño, Martha Zapata-Tarres, Luis Enrique Juarez-Villegas, Pablo Lezama, Vilma Maldonado, Karen Ruiz-Monroy, Elvia Mendoza-Caamal
Ovarian fibrosarcomas are extremely rare tumors with little genomic information available to date. In the present report we present the tumoral exome and transcriptome and the germinal exome of an ovarian fibrosarcoma from a 9-years old child. We found a paucity of mutations (0.77/Mb) and CNV alterations. Of these, the most relevant were a point mutation in the metal-binding site of the microRNA-processing DICER1 enzyme and a frame-shift alteration in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. We validated a germinal truncating mutation in DICER1, which was consistent with a DICER1 Syndrome diagnosis, providing the first example of an ovarian fibrosarcoma as the presenting neoplasia in this syndrome...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sara M Centuori, Cecil J Gomes, Samuel S Kim, Charles W Putnam, Brandon T Larsen, Linda L Garland, David W Mount, Jesse D Martinez
BACKGROUND: The presence of B cells in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with longer survival, however, the role these cells play in the generation and maintenance of anti-tumor immunity is unclear. B cells differentiate into a variety of subsets with differing characteristics and functions. To date, there is limited information on the specific B cell subsets found within NSCLC. To better understand the composition of the B cell populations found in NSCLC we have begun characterizing B cells in lung tumors and have detected a population of B cells that are CD79A + CD27 - IgD - ...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Qian Ye, Chenglong Wang, Jie Xian, Ming Zhang, Yijia Cao, Youde Cao
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) are both immunosuppressive proteins. Here, we investigated the relationship between PD-1 and IDO in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) in breast cancer patients. First, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PD-1 and IDO in 20 frozen tissues were examined using Western blotting and RT-PCR. Second, 151 paraffin-embedded breast samples and 52 lymph node samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
February 12, 2018: Human Pathology
Florian Posch, Karina Silina, Sebastian Leibl, Axel Mündlein, Holger Moch, Alexander Siebenhüner, Panagiotis Samaras, Jakob Riedl, Michael Stotz, Joanna Szkandera, Herbert Stöger, Martin Pichler, Roger Stupp, Maries van den Broek, Peter Schraml, Armin Gerger, Ulf Petrausch, Thomas Winder
Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are associated with favorable outcome in non-metastatic colorectal carcinoma (nmCRC), but the dynamics of TLS maturation and its association with effective anti-tumor immune surveillance in nmCRC are unclear. Here, we hypothesized that not only the number of TLS but also their composition harbors information on recurrence risk in nmCRC. In a comprehensive molecular, tissue, laboratory, and clinical analysis of 109 patients with stage II/III nmCRC, we assessed TLS numbers and degree of maturation in surgical specimens by multi-parameter immunofluorescence of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) and germinal center (GC) markers...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Anita Grigoriadis, Patrycja Gazinska, Trupti Pai, Sheeba Irhsad, Yin Wu, Rosemary Millis, Kalnisha Naidoo, Julie Owen, Cheryl E Gillett, Andrew Tutt, Anthonius Cc Coolen, Sarah E Pinder
The prognostic importance of lymph node (LN) status and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), is well established, particularly TILs in triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). So far, few studies have interrogated changes in involved and uninvolved LNs and evaluated if their morphological patterns add valuable information for the prediction of disease progression in breast cancer. In a cohort of 309 patients enriched for TNBCs (170/309), we histologically characterised immune and stromal features in primary tumours and associated involved and uninvolved axillary LNs on routine haematoxylin and eosin stained sections...
January 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
Troy Sukhu, Sherry Ross, R Matthew Coward
BACKGROUND: Urological survivorship issues encompass an area that may potentially be overlooked after treatment of childhood cancer in adolescent boys and young men. Side effects of cancer therapy may include subsequent development of erectile dysfunction (ED), hypogonadism, and infertility in adulthood. AIM: The purpose of this review is to focus on the etiology and prevalence of the range of sexual and gonadal dysfunction in adolescent boys and young men who are cancer survivors, while discussing current recommendations for evaluation and treatment...
January 27, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Yao-Wen Chang, Mika K Kaneko, Shinji Yamada, Yukinari Kato
The mucin-type membrane glycoprotein podoplanin (PDPN) is frequently overexpressed in numerous malignant cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma, germinal neoplasia, mesothelioma, lung cancer, oral cancer, and brain tumor. PDPN expression is strongly associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis. Furthermore, PDPN binds to C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets, followed by PDPN-mediated platelet aggregation to facilitate tumor metastasis. We have previously reported a novel anti-cat PDPN (cPDPN) monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-52, which specifically detects cPDPN using flow cytometry analysis and successfully identifies cPDPN in feline squamous cell carcinomas...
February 2, 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Toru Miyazaki, Tomoko Yamazaki, Ryoichi Sugisawa, M Eric Gershwin, Satoko Arai
Circulating immunoglobulin M (IgM) exists in a pentameric form, possessing a polyreactive nature that responds not only to foreign antigens but also to autoantigens; thus, it is involved in both beneficial and detrimental immune responses, including protection from infection and the progression of autoimmunity. On the other hand, IgM also behaves as a carrier of the apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) protein, storing a large amount of the inactivated form of AIM in the blood through this association. Under different disease conditions, AIM can dissociate from IgM locally or systemically to exert its function, inducing the removal of various biological debris such as excess fat, bacteria, cancer cells or dead cell debris...
January 29, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Roberta La Starza, Tiziana Pierini, Lorenza Pastorino, Elisa Albi, Caterina Matteucci, Barbara Crescenzi, Paolo Sportoletti, Piero Covarelli, Franca Falzetti, Giovanni Roti, Stefano Ascani, Cristina Mecucci
Background: Collision tumors are rare entities that consist of two histologically distinct tumor types arising in the same anatomic site. An association between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and malignant melanoma (MM) has been already described. Up to now, they have been documented only at positive regional lymph nodes while we focused on collision tumor in a skin lesion. Case presentation: We characterized the genomic profile of a skin CLL/MM collision tumor in a patient with a 9-years story of CLL...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
David D W Twa, Anja Mottok, Kerry J Savage, Christian Steidl
Primary testicular lymphomas (PTL) are the most prevalent type of testicular cancer arising in men over the age of 60. PTL accounts for approximately 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas and most present with localized disease but despite this, outcome is poor. The majority of cases represent an extranodal manifestation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), known as primary testicular DLBCL (PT-DLBCL). Gene expression profiling has established that over 75% of PT-DLBCLs resemble the activated B-cell-like (ABC) or non-germinal center subtype of nodal DLBCL...
December 20, 2017: Blood Reviews
Karina Silina, Alex Soltermann, Farkhondeh Movahedian Attar, Ruben Casanova, Zina M Uckeley, Helen Thut, Muriel Wandres, Sergejs Isajevs, Phil F Cheng, Alessandra Curioni Fontecedro, Periklis Foukas, Mitchell P Levesque, Holger Moch, Aija Linē, Maries van den Broek
In solid tumors, the presence of lymph node-like structures called tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) is associated with improved patient survival. However, little is known about how TLS form in cancer, how their function affects survival, and whether they are affected by cancer therapy. In this study, we used multi-spectral microscopy, quantitative pathology and gene expression profiling to analyze TLS formation in human lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and in an experimental model of lung TLS induction...
December 26, 2017: Cancer Research
Liang Yin, Zhan Meng, Yuxiao Zhang, Kaikai Hu, Wuya Chen, Kaibin Han, Bao-Yan Wu, Rong You, Chu-Hua Li, Ying Jin, Yan-Qing Guan
Oral drug delivery has attracted substantial attention due to its advantages over other administration routes. Bacillus spores, as oral probiotic agents, are applied widely. In this paper, a novel Bacillus spore-based oral colon targeted carrier loading curcumin was developed for colon cancer treatment. Curcumin was linked covalently with the outer coat of Bacillus spore and folate, respectively (SPORE-CUR-FA). Bacillus spores are capable of delivering drugs to the colon area through gastric barrier, taking the advantage of its tolerance to the harsh conditions and disintegration of the outer coat of spores after germination in the colon...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Diana Parma, Marcela Ferrer, Leonela Luce, Florencia Giliberto, Irene Szijan
Retinoblastoma (RB) is an inherited childhood ocular cancer caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor RB1 gene. Identification of RB1 mutations is essential to assess the risk of developing retinoblastoma in the patients´ relatives. Retinoblastoma is a potentially curable cancer and an early diagnosis is critical for survival and eye preservation. Unilateral retinoblastoma is mostly non-heritable and results from two somatic mutations whereas bilateral retinoblastoma is heritable and results from one germline and one somatic mutation, both have high penetrance, 90%...
2017: PloS One
Li-Yang Hu, Xiao-Lu Xu, Hui-Lan Rao, Jie Chen, Ren-Chun Lai, Hui-Qiang Huang, Wen-Qi Jiang, Tong-Yu Lin, Zhong-Jun Xia, Qing-Qing Cai
BACKGROUND: The programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway inhibits the activation of T cells and plays a crucial role in the negative regulation of cellular and humoral immune responses. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults. In the present study, we aimed to detect the expression of PD-L1 in DLBCL and to analyze its relationship with prognosis. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 204 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between October 2005 and August 2012...
December 16, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
Siok-Bian Ng, Shuangyi Fan, Shoa-Nian Choo, Michal Hoppe, Hoang Mai Phuong, Sanjay De Mel, Anand D Jeyasekharan
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) provides clinically useful information on protein expression in cancer cells. However, quantification of colocalizing signals using conventional IHC and visual scores is challenging. Here we describe the application of quantitative immunofluorescence in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma characterized by cellular heterogeneity that impedes IHC interpretation and quantification. A multiplexed immunofluorescence (IF) panel comprising T- and B-lymphocyte markers along with T-follicular helper (TFH) markers was validated for appropriate cellular localization in sections of benign tonsillar tissue and tested in two samples of AITL, using a Vectra microscope for spectral imaging and InForm software for analysis...
December 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
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