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Germinal cancer

Zhangguo Chen, Katherine Gowan, Sonia M Leach, Sawanee S Viboolsittiseri, Ameet K Mishra, Tanya Kadoishi, Katrina Diener, Bifeng Gao, Kenneth Jones, Jing H Wang
BACKGROUND: Whole genome next generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly employed to detect genomic rearrangements in cancer genomes, especially in lymphoid malignancies. We recently established a unique mouse model by specifically deleting a key non-homologous end-joining DNA repair gene, Xrcc4, and a cell cycle checkpoint gene, Trp53, in germinal center B cells. This mouse model spontaneously develops mature B cell lymphomas (termed G1XP lymphomas). RESULTS: Here, we attempt to employ whole genome NGS to identify novel structural rearrangements, in particular inter-chromosomal translocations (CTXs), in these G1XP lymphomas...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Gareth W Jones, David G Hill, Simon A Jones
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are frequently observed in tissues affected by non-resolving inflammation as a result of infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and allograft rejection. These highly ordered structures resemble the cellular composition of lymphoid follicles typically associated with the spleen and lymph node compartments. Although TLOs within tissues show varying degrees of organization, they frequently display evidence of segregated T and B cell zones, follicular dendritic cell networks, a supporting stromal reticulum, and high endothelial venules...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Irma Virant-Klun, Martin Stimpfel
Small stem cells with diameters of up to 5 μm previously isolated from adult human ovaries indicated pluripotency and germinal lineage, especially primordial germ cells, and developed into primitive oocyte-like cells in vitro. Here, we show that a comparable population of small stem cells can be found in the ovarian tissue of women with borderline ovarian cancer, which, in contrast to small stem cells in "healthy" ovaries, formed spontaneous tumour-like structures and expressed some markers related to pluripotency and germinal lineage...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Susan J Lee, Ivan Borrello
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer derived from malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow. Unlike most solid tumors, which originate from epithelial cells, the myeloma tumor is a plasma cell derived from the lymphoid cell lineage originating from a post-germinal B-cell. As such, the MM plasma cell represents an integral component of the immune system in terms of both antibody production and antigen presentation, albeit not efficiently. This fundamental difference has significant implications when one considers the implications of immunotherapy...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
Keisuke Kataoka, Seishi Ogawa
RHOA is one of the most extensively investigated members of the Rho GTPase family of proteins and has long been implicated in malignant transformation as well as tumor invasion and metastasis. Recently, revolutionized sequencing platforms have revealed frequent RHOA mutations in a wide variety of human cancers, including angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, germinal center B-cell lymphoma, diffuse-type gastric cancer, and other solid tumors. With their discrete positional distributions and types of amino acid substitution depending on cancer type, different RHOA mutations seem to have unique functional and biological properties...
September 29, 2016: Experimental Hematology
Michael Boice, Darin Salloum, Frederic Mourcin, Viraj Sanghvi, Rada Amin, Elisa Oricchio, Man Jiang, Anja Mottok, Nicolas Denis-Lagache, Giovanni Ciriello, Wayne Tam, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Elisa de Stanchina, Wing C Chan, Sami N Malek, Daisuke Ennishi, Renier J Brentjens, Randy D Gascoyne, Michel Cogné, Karin Tarte, Hans-Guido Wendel
The HVEM (TNFRSF14) receptor gene is among the most frequently mutated genes in germinal center lymphomas. We report that loss of HVEM leads to cell-autonomous activation of B cell proliferation and drives the development of GC lymphomas in vivo. HVEM-deficient lymphoma B cells also induce a tumor-supportive microenvironment marked by exacerbated lymphoid stroma activation and increased recruitment of T follicular helper (TFH) cells. These changes result from the disruption of inhibitory cell-cell interactions between the HVEM and BTLA (B and T lymphocyte attenuator) receptors...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Rakesh Reddy, Ajay Gogia, Lalit Kumar, Atul Sharma, Sameer Bakhshi, Mehar C Sharma, Saumyaranjan Mallick, Ranjit Sahoo
CONTEXT AND AIM: Data on HIV associated hematologic malignancies is sparse from India. This study attempts to analyze the spectrum and features of this disease at a tertiary cancer center in India. SETTING AND METHODS: Retrospective study from case records of patients registered with a diagnosis of hematologic malignancy and HIV infection between January 2010 and June 2015. RESULTS: Thirteen cases of HIV associated hematologic malignancies were identified, six of them pediatric...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Carlos Andrés Ossa, Gustavo Molina, Alicia María Cock-Rada
The Li-Fraumeni syndrome is characterized clinically by the appearance of tumors in multiple organs generally at an early age. This hereditary condition is caused by germinal mutations in the TP53 gene, which codifies for the tumoural suppressor gene p53. We present the case of a patient aged 31 with clinical and molecular diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who presented two synchronous tumors: a leiomyosarcoma on the forearm and a phyllodes breast tumour. She had a family history of cancer, including a son diagnosed with a cortical adrenal carcinoma when he was three years old, who died at five from the disease...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Jae Gwang Park, Wie-Soo Kang, Kyung Tae Park, Dong Jun Park, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Joboksansam, Korean bird wild ginseng, is an artificially cultivated wild ginseng germinated from bird feces. Although numerous pharmacologic activities of wild ginsengs have been reported, the beneficial effect of joboksansam in cancer has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro anticancer activities of joboksansam powder. METHODS: To evaluate the in vivo anticancer activity of joboksansam, we established a xenograft mouse model bearing RMA cell-derived cancer...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Poonam Nagpal, Mohamed R Akl, Nehad M Ayoub, Tatsunari Tomiyama, Tasheka Cousins, Betty Tai, Nicole Carroll, Themba Nyrenda, Pritish Bhattacharyya, Michael B Harris, Andre Goy, Andrew Pecora, K Stephen Suh
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid malignancy that is typically derived from germinal-center B cells. EBV infection, mutations in NF-κB pathway genes, and genetic susceptibility are known risk factors for developing HL. CD30 and NF-κB have been identified as potential biomarkers in pediatric HL patients, and these molecules may represent therapeutic targets. Although current risk adapted and response based treatment approaches yield overall survival rates of >95%, treatment of relapse or refractory patients remains challenging...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Fang Cheng, Zhihui Cheng, Huanwen Meng, Xiangwei Tang
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bernd B Zeisig, Chi Wai Eric So
Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) are key to normal development and are frequently deregulated in human cancer. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Béguelin et al. report a mechanism of non-canonical PRC1 recruitment by BCL6 in collaboration with EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 for establishment of stable repressive complexes in germinal center B cells.
August 8, 2016: Cancer Cell
Sandeep Steven Reddy, Hui-Chen Chang Foreman, Thubten Ozula Sioux, Gee Ho Park, Valeria Poli, Nancy C Reich, Laurie T Krug
UNLABELLED: A challenging property of gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish lifelong persistence. The establishment of latency in B cells is thought to involve active virus engagement of host signaling pathways. Pathogenic effects of these viruses during latency or following reactivation can be devastating to the host. Many cancers, including those associated with members of the gammaherpesvirus family, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus, express elevated levels of active host signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3)...
2016: MBio
Wenya Linda Bi, Michael Zhang, Winona W Wu, Yu Mei, Ian F Dunn
There has been a recent revolution in our understanding of the genetic factors that drive meningioma, punctuating an equilibrium that has existed since Cushing's germinal studies nearly a century ago. A growing appreciation that meningiomas share similar biologic features with other malignancies has allowed extrapolation of management strategies and lessons from intra-axial central nervous system neoplasms and systemic cancers to meningiomas. These features include a natural proclivity for invasion, frequent intratumoral heterogeneity, and correlation between biologic profile and clinical behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Nilushi S De Silva, Michael M Anderson, Amanda Carette, Kathryn Silva, Nicole Heise, Govind Bhagat, Ulf Klein
The NF-κB signaling cascade relays external signals essential for B-cell growth and survival. This cascade is frequently hijacked by cancers that arise from the malignant transformation of germinal center (GC) B cells, underscoring the importance of deciphering the function of NF-κB in these cells. The NF-κB signaling cascade is comprised of two branches, the canonical and alternative NF-κB pathways, mediated by distinct transcription factors. The expression and function of the transcription factors of the alternative pathway, RELB and NF-κB2, in late B-cell development is incompletely understood...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Witawat Jangiam, Montree Tungjai, Chris Gordon, Louise Honikel, Elbert B Whorton
Although the lung is one of the target organs at risk for cancer induction from exposure to heavy ions found in space, information is insufficient on cellular/molecular responses linked to increased cancer risk. Knowledge of such events may aid in the development of new preventive measures. Furthermore, although it is known that germinal cells are sensitive to X- or γ-rays, there is little information on the effects of heavy ions on germinal cells. Our goal was to investigate in vivo effects of 1 GeV/n (48)Ti ions (one of the important heavy ions found in the space environment) on somatic (lung) and germinal (testis) tissues collected at various times after a whole body irradiation of CBA/CaJ mice (0, 0...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Daowan Lai, Ali Wang, Yuheng Cao, Kaiyi Zhou, Ziling Mao, Xuejiao Dong, Jin Tian, Dan Xu, Jungui Dai, Yu Peng, Ligang Zhou, Yang Liu
Six new dibenzo-α-pyrones, rhizopycnolides A (1) and B (2) and rhizopycnins A-D (3-6), together with eight known congeners (7-14), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Rhizopycnis vagum Nitaf22 obtained from Nicotiana tabacum. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated using NMR, HRESIMS, TDDFT ECD calculation, and X-ray crystallography data. Rhizopycnolides A (1) and B (2) feature an uncommon γ-butyrolactone-fused dibenzo-α-pyrone tetracyclic skeleton (6/6/6/5), while rhizopycnin B (4) was the first amino group containing dibenzo-α-pyrone...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
González-Montoya Marcela, Ramón-Gallegos Eva, Robles-Ramírez María Del Carmen, Mora-Escobedo Rosalva
Soybeans are an important source of bioactive molecules, such as peptides, which generation can improve through germination. In this study, the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of three peptide fractions (>10 kDa, 5-10 kDa and <5 kDa) that were obtained by ultrafiltration of soybean protein hydrolysate after six days of germination were evaluated. The antioxidant activities of the peptide fractions were assessed by reducing power, Cu(+2) and Fe(+2) chelation and OH· scavenging assays, whereas their antiproliferative effects against cervical (HeLa, SiHa, CasKi) and breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines were evaluated by the MTT assay...
July 11, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Joanna Rupa-Matysek, Lidia Gil, Renata Kroll-Balcerzak, Marta Barańska, Mieczysław Komarnicki
It has been suggested that mean platelet volume (MPV) is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and increased mortality in patients with cancer. We evaluated the association of MPV with VTE and mortality in patients treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Retrospective analyses were performed on 184 adult patients (median age 59, 55% men), of whom 141 were newly diagnosed, and 43 had relapse/refractory DLBCL. During the observation period (median 499 days), 39 (21.2%) patients developed VTE...
July 5, 2016: Hematological Oncology
Alexandra M Mowday, Christopher P Guise, David F Ackerley, Nigel P Minton, Philippe Lambin, Ludwig J Dubois, Jan Theys, Jeff B Smaill, Adam V Patterson
Most solid cancers contain regions of necrotic tissue. The extent of necrosis is associated with poor survival, most likely because it reflects aggressive tumour outgrowth and inflammation. Intravenously injected spores of anaerobic bacteria from the genus Clostridium infiltrate and selectively germinate in these necrotic regions, providing cancer-specific colonisation. The specificity of this system was first demonstrated over 60 years ago and evidence of colonisation has been confirmed in multiple tumour models...
2016: Cancers
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