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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933967/aid-biology-a-pathological-and-clinical-perspective
#1
Meenal Choudhary, Anubhav Tamrakar, Amit Kumar Singh, Monika Jain, Ankit Jaiswal, Prashant Kodgire
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), primarily expressed in activated mature B lymphocytes in germinal centers, is the key factor in adaptive immune response against foreign antigens. AID is responsible for producing high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies against an infectious agent, through the physiological DNA alteration processes of antibody genes by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) and functions by deaminating deoxycytidines (dC) to deoxyuridines (dU), thereby introducing point mutations and double-stranded chromosomal breaks (DSBs)...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933554/rational-targeting-of-cellular-cholesterol-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-dlbcl-enabled-by-functional-lipoprotein-nanoparticles-a-therapeutic-strategy-dependent-on-cell-of-origin
#2
Jonathan S Rink, Shuo Yang, Osman Cen, Tim Taxter, Kaylin M McMahon, Sol Misener, Amir Behdad, Richard Longnecker, Leo I Gordon, C Shad Thaxton
Cancer cells have altered metabolism and, in some cases, an increased demand for cholesterol. It is important to identify novel, rational treatments based on biology, and cellular cholesterol metabolism as a potential target for cancer is an innovative approach. Toward this end, we focused on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as a model because there is differential cholesterol biosynthesis driven by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in germinal center (GC) versus activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL. To specifically target cellular cholesterol homeostasis, we employed high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles (HDL NP) that can generally reduce cellular cholesterol by targeting and blocking cholesterol uptake through the high-affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor type B-1 (SCARB1)...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876038/-preparation-of-catalitaxol-deficient-defective-strains-by-using-ultraviolet-mutagenesis
#3
Dan Hu, Kexuan Tang, Zhiqi Miao
Secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi FSN002 from Juglans mandshurica Maxim have excellent liver cancer resistance. Preparation of mutant strains is an important means to study the biosynthesis mechanism of catalitaxol. Fungal spores germinating young hyphae with 4 to 6 cells after culturing for 13 hours were used as starting materials of ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. UV light intensity and irradiation time have a linear relationship with fungal mortality. The two factors had no obvious interactions. When UV light was 90 000 μJ/cm2 and irradiation time for 6 s, the mortality of fungi was around 95%...
May 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875978/il4-and-il21-cooperate-to-induce-the-high-bcl6-protein-level-required-for-germinal-center-formation
#4
Stéphane Chevrier, Tobias Kratina, Dianne Emslie, David M Tarlinton, Lynn M Corcoran
Bcl6 is a transcriptional repressor and critical mediator of the germinal center reaction during a T cell dependent antibody response, where it enables somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and inhibits terminal differentiation via repression of Blimp1. It can also contribute to the development of diffuse large B cell lymphoma when expressed inappropriately. Bcl6 regulation is mediated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and in particular a strong signal through the B cell receptor causes rapid proteasomal degradation of Bcl6...
September 6, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855898/quantitative-analysis-of-repertoire-scale-immunoglobulin-properties-in-vaccine-induced-b-cell-responses
#5
Ilja V Khavrutskii, Sidhartha Chaudhury, Sabrina M Stronsky, Donald W Lee, Jacqueline G Benko, Anders Wallqvist, Sina Bavari, Christopher L Cooper
Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing of B-cell receptors (BCRs) enable the characterization of humoral responses at a repertoire-wide scale and provide the capability for identifying unique features of immune repertoires in response to disease, vaccination, or infection. Immunosequencing now readily generates 10(3)-10(5) sequences per sample; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851627/charting-the-dynamic-epigenome-during-b-cell-development
#6
REVIEW
Jose I Martin-Subero, Christopher C Oakes
The epigenetic landscape undergoes a widespread modulation during embryonic development and cell differentiation. Within the hematopoietic system, B cells are perhaps the cell lineage with a more dynamic DNA methylome during their maturation process, which involves approximately one third of all the CpG sites of the genome. Although each B-cell maturation step displays its own DNA methylation fingerprint, the DNA methylome is more extensively modified in particular maturation transitions. These changes are gradually accumulated in specific chromatin environments as cell differentiation progresses and reflect different features and functional states of B cells...
August 26, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843293/langerhans-cells-orchestrate-tfh-dependent-humoral-immunity
#7
Trupti Vardam, Niroshana Anandasabapathy
T follicular helper cells contribute to the development of long-lasting humoral immunity by germinal center formation. Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation take place in germinal centers leading to the generation of memory B cells and plasma cells. As such, T follicular helper cells impact immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, and cancer. This necessitates further understanding of how T follicular helper cells are regulated in health and disease. The current study by Levin et al. builds on prior work to further substantiate a critical role for skin migratory dendritic cells and in particular Langerhans cells at governing T follicular helper and germinal center formation after intradermal immunization with HIV p24-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles...
September 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815456/recommendations-for-biomarker-testing-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-national-consensus-statement-by-the-spanish-society-of-pathology-and-the-spanish-society-of-medical-oncology
#8
A Oaknin, R Guarch, P Barretina, D Hardisson, A González, X Matías-Guiu, A Pérez-Fidalgo, B Vieites, I Romero, J Palacios
Because of advances in the understanding of histological and molecular characteristics in ovarian cancer, it is now possible to recognize the existence of five subtypes, which in turn has allowed a more refined therapeutic approach and better design of clinical trials. Each of these five subtypes has specific histological features and a particular biomarker expression, as well as mutations in different genes, some of which have prognostic and predictive value. CA125 and HE4 are examples of ovarian cancer biomarkers used in the diagnosis and follow-up of these malignancies...
August 16, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800074/phellinus-linteus-grown-on-germinated-brown-rice-increases-cetuximab-sensitivity-of-kras-mutated-colon-cancer
#9
Hye-Jin Park, Jeong-Bin Park, Sang-Jae Lee, Minjung Song
Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and it has recently become a leading cause of death worldwide. Among colon cancers, the v-ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated form is notorious for its non-druggable features. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor, has been introduced as an antitumor therapy; however, secondary resistance and side effects significantly limit its effective use in these cancers. In this study, we prepared Phellinuslinteus on germinated brown rice (PBR) extracts to increase the sensitivity of KRAS-mutated colon cancers to cetuximab...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760529/discovery-of-a-novel-b-cell-lymphoma-6-bcl6-corepressor-interaction-inhibitor-by-utilizing-structure-based-drug-design
#10
Takeshi Yasui, Takeshi Yamamoto, Nozomu Sakai, Kouhei Asano, Takafumi Takai, Yayoi Yoshitomi, Melinda Davis, Terufumi Takagi, Kotaro Sakamoto, Satoshi Sogabe, Yusuke Kamada, Weston Lane, Gyorgy Snell, Masashi Iwata, Masayuki Goto, Hiroshi Inooka, Jun-Ichi Sakamoto, Yoshihisa Nakada, Yasuhiro Imaeda
B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) is a transcriptional repressor that can form complexes with corepressors via protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The complexes of BCL6 and corepressors play an important role in the formation of germinal centers (GCs), and differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes. Therefore, BCL6-corepressor interaction inhibitors would be drug candidates for managing autoimmune diseases and cancer. Starting from high-throughput screening hits 1a and 2a, we identified a novel BCL6-corepressor interaction inhibitor 8c (cell-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] IC50=0...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740454/genetic-counselling-brca1-2-status-and-clinico-pathologic-characteristics-of-patients-with-ovarian-cancer-before-50-years-of-age
#11
Mirjam Cvelbar, Marko Hocevar, Srdjan Novakovic, Vida Stegel, Andraz Perhavec, Mateja Krajc
BACKGROUND: In Slovenia like in other countries, till recently, personal history of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not been included among indications for genetic counselling. Recent studies reported up to 17% rate of germinal BRCA1/2 mutation (gBRCA1/2m) within the age group under 50 years at diagnosis. The original aim of this study was to invite to the genetic counselling still living patients with EOC under 45 years, to offer gBRCA1/2m testing and to perform analysis of gBRCA1/2m rate and of clinico-pathologic characteristics...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738086/an-essential-ebv-latent-antigen-3c-binds-bcl6-for-targeted-degradation-and-cell-proliferation
#12
Yonggang Pei, Shuvomoy Banerjee, Hem Chandra Jha, Zhiguo Sun, Erle S Robertson
The latent EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is required for transformation of primary human B lymphocytes. Most mature B-cell malignancies originate from malignant transformation of germinal center (GC) B-cells. The GC reaction appears to have a role in malignant transformation, in which a major player of the GC reaction is Bcl6, a key regulator of this process. We now demonstrate that EBNA3C contributes to B-cell transformation by targeted degradation of Bcl6. We show that EBNA3C can physically associate with Bcl6...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735299/identification-of-the-first-dominant-mutation-of-lama5-gene-causing-a-complex-multisystem-syndrome-due-to-dysfunction-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#13
Simone Sampaolo, Filomena Napolitano, Alfonsina Tirozzi, Mafalda Giovanna Reccia, Luca Lombardi, Olimpia Farina, Adriano Barra, Ferdinando Cirillo, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Fernando Gianfrancesco, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Teresa Esposito
BACKGROUND: The laminin alpha 5 gene (LAMA5) plays a master role in the maintenance and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in mammalian tissues, which is critical in developmental patterning, stem cell niches, cancer and genetic diseases. Its mutations have never been reported in human disease so far. The aim of this study was to associate the first mutation in LAMA5 gene to a novel multisystem syndrome. METHODS: A detailed characterisation of a three-generation family, including clinical, biochemical, instrumental and morphological analysis, together with genetics and expression (WES and RNAseq) studies, was performed...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707393/malaria-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-the-pathogenesis-of-burkitt-s-lymphoma
#14
Anthony R Mawson, Suvankar Majumdar
A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR, Path Global Health 2013;107(3):122-9)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689360/regulatory-myeloid-cells-an-underexplored-continent-in-b-cell-lymphomas
#15
REVIEW
Mikael Roussel, Jonathan M Irish, Cedric Menard, Faustine Lhomme, Karin Tarte, Thierry Fest
In lymphomas arising from the germinal center, prognostic factors are linked to the myeloid compartment. In particular, high circulating monocyte or myeloid-derived suppressor cell counts are associated with poor prognosis for patients with high-grade B-cell lymphomas. Macrophages with an M2 phenotype are enriched within lymphoma tumors. However, the M1/M2 nomenclature is now deprecated and the clinical impact of this phenotype remains controversial. Across cancer types, myeloid cells are primarily thought to function as immune suppressors during tumor initiation and maintenance, but the biological mechanisms behind the myeloid signatures are still poorly understood in germinal center B-cell lymphomas...
July 8, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688665/b-cells-in-tertiary-lymphoid-structures-are-associated-with-favorable-prognosis-in-gastric-cancer
#16
Chie Sakimura, Hiroaki Tanaka, Takahiro Okuno, Soichiro Hiramatsu, Kazuya Muguruma, Kosei Hirakawa, Hideki Wanibuchi, Masaichi Ohira
BACKGROUND: The role of tumor-infiltrating B cells in the tumor microenvironment is still unclear. Recent studies have reported that B cells and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) that contain B cell follicles correlate with the favorable prognosis of cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tumor-infiltrating B cells and clinicopathological features in gastric cancer. METHODS: Tumor blocks were obtained from 226 patients with stage Ib to stage IV gastric cancer...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664270/curcin-c-a-novel-type-i-ribosome-inactivating-protein-from-the-post-germinating-cotyledons-of-jatropha-curcas
#17
Yangxue Zhang, Qian Yang, Chenyang Li, Mengmeng Ding, Xueyan Lv, Chengqiu Tao, Hongwu Yu, Fang Chen, Ying Xu
A novel type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), designated as curcin C, was purified from Jatropha curcas, an important feedback source of bio-fuel. Molecular mass and isoelectric point of curcin C were 31.398 kDa and 7.12 as detected by MALTI-TOF assay and capillary electrophoresis assay, respectively. N-terminal sequence and LC-MS/MS analyses confirmed that curcin C is a type I RIP having high homology, but not the exactly the same with curcin, another type 1 RIP isolated from the endosperm of J. curcas...
June 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647921/proteome-profile-of-aspergillus-terreus-conidia-at-germinating-stage-identification-of-probable-virulent-factors-and-enzymes-from-mycotoxin-pathways
#18
Raman Thakur, Jata Shankar
Aspergillus terreus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. The main risk group of individuals for this organism is leukopenic patients, individuals having cancers, bone marrow transplant persons and those who have immunological disorders. The lack of early diagnostic marker for A. terreus and intrinsic resistance to Amphotericin B, further limits the successful therapy of A. terreus-associated infections. The germination of inhaled conidia is the key step to establish successful invasion in host tissues or organs...
June 24, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643319/-progress-of-the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-gastrointestinal-tumor-surgery
#19
Yongsheng Li, Hao Liu, Haipeng Huang, Yu Zhu, Haijun Deng, Jiang Yu, Site Luo, Li Huo, Li Lin, Huikai Xie, Guoxin Li
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time, cross-sectional optical imaging technology. It is analogous to ultrasonography, except that OCT uses light waves instead of sound waves, and can provide three-dimensional morphological images of living tissues with a micrometer resolution. Through the use of endoscopes, needles, catheters and laparoscopes, OCT has demonstrated tremendous imaging potential in tumor surgery. The current studies suggest that OCT has potential for clinical applications in the following fields of gastrointestinal tumor surgery: (1) Early tumor detection and diagnosis: OCT can distinguish differences between polyp tissue, normal tissue and malignant tissue...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570278/cxcl13-producing-tfh-cells-link-immune-suppression-and-adaptive-memory-in-human-breast-cancer
#20
Chunyan Gu-Trantien, Edoardo Migliori, Laurence Buisseret, Alexandre de Wind, Sylvain Brohée, Soizic Garaud, Grégory Noël, Vu Luan Dang Chi, Jean-Nicolas Lodewyckx, Céline Naveaux, Hugues Duvillier, Stanislas Goriely, Denis Larsimont, Karen Willard-Gallo
T follicular helper cells (TFH cells) are important regulators of antigen-specific B cell responses. The B cell chemoattractant CXCL13 has recently been linked with TFH cell infiltration and improved survival in human cancer. Although human TFH cells can produce CXCL13, their immune functions are currently unknown. This study presents data from human breast cancer, advocating a role for tumor-infiltrating CXCL13-producing (CXCR5-) TFH cells, here named TFHX13 cells, in promoting local memory B cell differentiation...
June 2, 2017: JCI Insight
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