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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236326/knockdown-of-ski-decreased-the-reactive-astrocytes-proliferation-in-vitro-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation
#1
Xin Zhao, Kai-Sheng Zhou, Zhong-Hao Li, Wei Nan, Jing Wang, Ya-Yi Xia, Hai-Hong Zhang
Glia scar is a pathological marker in late phase of brain ischemia disease, which constitutes a major physical biochemical barrier to impede axonal regrowth. Astrocytes are known to be critically involved in the formation of glial scar. However, their response to ischemia and their role in neuroprotection after central nervous system (CNS) injury are not completely clear. Recently, we have demonstrated for the first time that Ski was up-regulated in reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury in vivo and in vitro, which indicates Ski may be a new molecule that control astrocytes biologic properties after CNS injury...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235698/retracted-metallothionein-i-ii-expression-and-their-role-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#2
(no author information available yet)
Following on from the Expression of Concern (10.1002/glia.22466) previously published by GLIA, the following Original Article has been retracted by the journal Editors and Publisher: Metallothionein I+II expression and their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis By Milena Penkowa and Juan Hidalgo GLIA (2000), 32(3), 247-263 DOI: 10.1002/1098-1136(200012)32:3<247::AID-GLIA50>3.0.CO;2-T Discrepancies in the type and number of animals used in experiments performed by Milena Penkowa and reported in Table 1, identified during the course of investigations into Ms Penkowa's research, render the data and conclusions drawn from them unreliable...
February 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234492/no-preliminary-evidence-of-differences-in-astrocyte-density-within-the-white-matter-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-autism
#3
Ting Ting Lee, Efstratios Skafidas, Mirella Dottori, Daniela Zantomio, Christos Pantelis, Ian Everall, Gursharan Chana
Background: While evidence for white matter and astrocytic abnormalities exist in autism, a detailed investigation of astrocytes has not been conducted. Such an investigation is further warranted by an increasing role for neuroinflammation in autism pathogenesis, with astrocytes being key players in this process. We present the first study of astrocyte density and morphology within the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals with autism. Methods: DLPFC formalin-fixed sections containing white matter from individuals with autism (n = 8, age = 4-51 years) and age-matched controls (n = 7, age = 4-46 years) were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230100/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-prevents-the-disruption-of-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-via-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-following-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Binbin Zheng, Yulong Zhou, Hongyu Zhang, Guangyong Yang, Zhenghua Hong, Dandan Han, Qingqing Wang, Zili He, Yanlong Liu, Fenzan Wu, Xie Zhang, Songlin Tong, Huazi Xu, Jian Xiao
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the destruction of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is shown to accelerate gathering of noxious blood-derived components in the nervous system, leading to secondary neurodegenerative damages. SCI activates endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), which is considered to evoke secondary damages of neurons and glia. Recent evidence indicates that Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) has the neuroprotective effect in ischaemic brain injury, but whether it has protective effects on SCI or not is largely unclear...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227284/cografting-astrocytes-improves-cell-therapeutic-outcomes-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model
#5
Jae-Jin Song, Sang-Min Oh, Oh-Chan Kwon, Noviana Wulnansari, Hyun-Seob Lee, Mi-Yoon Chang, Eunsoo Lee, Woong Sun, Sang-Eun Lee, Sunghoe Chang, Heeyoung An, C Justin Lee, Sang-Hun Lee
Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is a potential therapy for treating neurodegenerative disorders, but this approach has faced many challenges and limited success, primarily because of inhospitable host brain environments that interfere with enriched neuron engraftment and function. Astrocytes play neurotrophic roles in the developing and adult brain, making them potential candidates for helping with modification of hostile brain environments. In this study, we examined whether astrocytic function could be utilized to overcome the current limitations of cell-based therapies in a murine model of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is characterized by dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in the midbrain...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225183/ca2-mediates-axotomy-induced-necrosis-and-apoptosis-of-satellite-glial-cells-remote-from-the-transection-site-in-the-isolated-crayfish-mechanoreceptor
#6
Andrey Khaitin, Mikhail Rudkovskii, Anatoly Uzdensky
Severe nerve injury such as axotomy induces neuron degeneration and death of surrounding glial cells. Using a crayfish stretch receptor that consists of a single mechanoreceptor neuron enveloped by satellite glia, we showed that axotomy not only mechanically injures glial cells at the transection location, but also induces necrosis or apoptosis of satellite glial cells remote from the transection site. We studied Ca2+role in spontaneous or axotomy-induced death of remote glial cells. Stretch receptors were isolated using the original technique that kept the neuron connected to the ventral cord ganglion (control preparations)...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222773/central-nervous-system-neuron-glia-co-culture-models-and-application-to-neuroprotective-agents
#7
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci
Glial cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. This article presents a protocol for the preparation of cultures consisting of rat embryonic cortical neurons grown in the presence of cortical microglia, in which the glia are present in physical contact with the neurons or separated by a semipermeable membrane barrier. An example of how such systems can be used to evaluate potential neuroprotective agents will also be described.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221640/threshold-based-segmentation-of-fluorescent-and-chromogenic-images-of-microglia-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-fiji
#8
Sinead Healy, Jill McMahon, Peter Owens, Peter Dockery, Una FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Image segmentation is often imperfect, particularly in complex image sets such z-stack micrographs of slice cultures and there is a need for sufficient details of parameters used in quantitative image analysis to allow independent repeatability and appraisal. NEW METHOD: For the first time, we have critically evaluated, quantified and validated the performance of different segmentation methodologies using z-stack images of ex vivo glial cells. The BioVoxxel toolbox plugin, available in FIJI, was used to measure the relative quality, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of 16 global and 9 local threshold automatic thresholding algorithms...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218544/the-molecular-pathway-regulating-bergmann-glia-and-folia-generation-in-the-cerebellum
#9
REVIEW
Alan W Leung, James Y H Li
Evolution of complex behaviors in higher vertebrates and primates require the development of sophisticated neuronal circuitry and the expansion of brain surface area to accommodate the vast number of neuronal and glial populations. To achieve these goals, the neocortex in primates and the cerebellum in amniotes have developed specialized types of basal progenitors to aid the folding of their cortices. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia constitute such a basal progenitor population, having a distinctive morphology and playing a critical role in cerebellar corticogenesis...
December 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218002/xenopus-laevis-as-a-model-organism-for-the-study-of-spinal-cord-formation-development-function-and-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Laura N Borodinsky
The spinal cord is the first central nervous system structure to develop during vertebrate embryogenesis, underscoring its importance to the organism. Because of its early formation, accessibility to the developing spinal cord in amniotes is challenging, often invasive and the experimental approaches amenable to model systems like mammals are limited. In contrast, amphibians, in general and the African-clawed frog Xenopus laevis, in particular, offer model systems in which the formation of the spinal cord, the differentiation of spinal neurons and glia and the establishment of spinal neuron and neuromuscular synapses can be easily investigated with minimal perturbations to the whole organism...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217575/spatiotemporal-gene-expression-trajectories-reveal-developmental-hierarchies-of-the-human-cortex
#11
Tomasz J Nowakowski, Aparna Bhaduri, Alex A Pollen, Beatriz Alvarado, Mohammed A Mostajo-Radji, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Maximilian Haeussler, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Siyuan John Liu, Dmitry Velmeshev, Johain Ryad Ounadjela, Joe Shuga, Xiaohui Wang, Daniel A Lim, Jay A West, Anne A Leyrat, W James Kent, Arnold R Kriegstein
Systematic analyses of spatiotemporal gene expression trajectories during organogenesis have been challenging because diverse cell types at different stages of maturation and differentiation coexist in the emerging tissues. We identified discrete cell types as well as temporally and spatially restricted trajectories of radial glia maturation and neurogenesis in developing human telencephalon. These lineage-specific trajectories reveal the expression of neurogenic transcription factors in early radial glia and enriched activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in outer radial glia...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216454/fibrinogen-in-the-nervous-system-glia-beware
#12
Erin H Norris, Sidney Strickland
Re-myelination of CNS nerves after injury is ineffective. Here, Petersen et al. (2017) show that the blood clotting protein fibrinogen inhibits nerve repair by preventing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from differentiating into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Targeting fibrinogen or its downstream BMP signaling pathway may help with CNS repair.
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212271/inhibition-of-astrocytic-activity-alleviates-sequela-in-acute-stages-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#13
Cheng-Di Chiu, Nai-Wei Yao, Jeng-Hung Guo, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Hsu-Tung Lee, You-Pen Chiu, Hui-Ru Ji, Xianxiu Chen, Chun-Chung Chen, Chen Chang
Neurological deterioration of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) mostly occurs within the first 24 hours. Together with the microglia/macrophages (MMΦ), astrocytes are important cell population responsible for many brain injuries but rarely being highlighted in acute stage of ICH. In present study, we induced rats ICH either by collagenase or autologous blood injection. Experimental groups were classified as vehicle or Ethyl-1-(4-(2,3,3-trichloroacrylamide)phenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (Pyr3) treatment group (n = 9, each group)...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208348/nuclear-migration-in-mammalian-brain-development
#14
REVIEW
Chiara Bertipaglia, João Carlos Gonçalves, Richard Bert Vallee
During development of the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide and give rise to adult stem cells, glia and neurons, which migrate to their final locations. Nuclear migration is an important feature of neural stem cell (radial glia progenitor) proliferation and subsequent postmitotic neuronal migration. Defects in nuclear migration contribute to severe neurodevelopmental disorders such as microcephaly and lissencephaly. In this review, we address the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nuclear migration during the radial glia cell cycle and postmitotic neuronal migration, with a particular focus on the role of molecular motors and cytoskeleton dynamics in regulating nuclear behavior...
December 2, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204745/heterogeneity-and-function-of-hippocampal-macroglia
#15
REVIEW
Gerald Seifert, Christian Steinhäuser
The contribution of glial cells to normal and impaired hippocampal function is increasingly being recognized, although important questions as to the mechanisms that these cells use for their crosstalk with neurons and capillaries are still unanswered or lead to controversy. Astrocytes in the hippocampus are morphologically variable and a single cell contacts with its processes more than 100,000 synapses. They predominantly express inward rectifier K+ channels and transporters serving homeostatic function but may also release gliotransmitters to modify neuronal signaling and brain circulation...
December 4, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199072/maternal-brain-tnf-%C3%AE-programs-innate-fear-in-the-offspring
#16
Bojana Zupan, Bingfang Liu, Faten Taki, Judit Gal Toth, Miklos Toth
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that not only coordinates local and systemic immune responses [1, 2] but also regulates neuronal functions. Most prominently, glia-derived TNF-α has been shown to regulate homeostatic synaptic scaling [3-6], but TNF-α-null mice exhibited no apparent cognitive or emotional abnormalities. Instead, we found a TNF-α-dependent intergenerational effect, as mothers with a deficit in TNF-α programmed their offspring to exhibit low innate fear. Cross-fostering and conditional knockout experiments indicated that a TNF-α deficit in the maternal brain, rather than in the hematopoietic system, and during gestation was responsible for the low-fear offspring phenotype...
November 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199028/sex-dependent-influences-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-on-pain-sensitivity-in-the-rat
#17
H H Doyle, A Z Murphy
Preclinical studies report that the effective dose for morphine is approximately 2-fold higher in females than males. Following systemic administration, morphine is metabolized via Phase II glucuronidation in the liver and brain into two active metabolites: morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), each possessing distinct pharmacological profiles. M6G binds to μ opioid receptors and acts as a potent analgesic. In contrast, M3G binds to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), initiating a neuroinflammatory response that directly opposes the analgesic effects of morphine and M6G...
November 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196813/sense-encoded-poly-gr-dipeptide-repeat-proteins-correlate-to-neurodegeneration-and-uniquely-co-localize-with-tdp-43-in-dendrites-of-repeat-expanded-c9orf72-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Shahram Saberi, Jennifer E Stauffer, Jie Jiang, Sandra Diaz Garcia, Amy E Taylor, Derek Schulte, Takuya Ohkubo, Cheyenne L Schloffman, Marcus Maldonado, Michael Baughn, Maria J Rodriguez, Don Pizzo, Don Cleveland, John Ravits
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9 ALS). The main hypothesized pathogenic mechanisms are C9orf72 haploinsufficiency and/or toxicity from one or more of bi-directionally transcribed repeat RNAs and their dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) poly-GP, poly-GA, poly-GR, poly-PR and poly-PA. Recently, nuclear import and/or export defects especially caused by arginine-containing poly-GR or poly-PR have been proposed as significant contributors to pathogenesis based on disease models...
December 1, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196262/collagen-vi-suppresses-fibronectin-induced-enteric-neural-crest-cell-migration-by-downregulation-of-focal-adhesion-proteins
#19
Shoichi Nishida, Hisayoshi Yoshizaki, Yoshitomo Yasui, Tsuyoshi Kuwahara, Etsuko Kiyokawa, Miyuki Kohno
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia that are derived from enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) and essential for regulating peristaltic activity of the colon. ENCCs migrate along the gastrointestinal tract to form the ENS, and disruption of ENCC motility leads to ENS disorders, such as Hirschsprung's disease. Previous ENCC-transplant experiments show that ENCCs can invade into isolated mouse intestines by age E13.5, but not after E15.5. We hypothesized that altered age-specific micro-environments in the intestine are responsible for ENCC invasion/migration...
November 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196188/nervous-system-development-and-disease-a-focus-on-trithorax-related-proteins-and-chromatin-remodelers
#20
REVIEW
Amanda Moccia, Donna M Martin
The nervous system comprises many different cell types including neurons, glia, macrophages, and immune cells, each of which is defined by specific patterns of gene expression, morphology, function, and anatomical location. Establishment of these complex and highly regulated cell fates requires spatial and temporal coordination of gene transcription. Open chromatin (euchromatin) allows transcription factors to interact with gene promoters and activate lineage specific genes, whereas closed chromatin (heterochromatin) remains inaccessible to transcriptional activation...
November 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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