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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913184/tolerance-of-hyperammonemia-in-brain-of-heteropneustes-fossilis-is-supported-by-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#1
Suman Mishra, Rajnikant Mishra
This report presents analysis of molecular switches associated with tolerance to hyperammonemia in Heteropneustes fossilis because it tolerates about 100-fold more ammonia than mammals. Brains of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to 100mM ammonium chloride were dissected after Zero hour as control, 16hrs and 20hrs exposure. The status of neuron and glia were analysed by Golgi staining, Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl's staining. The expression patterns of genes associated to homeostasis of neuron and glia, management of oxidative stress and inflammation, ammonia metabolism and brain derived neurotrophic factor were analysed through reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#2
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911416/the-indirect-neuron-astrocyte-coculture-assay-an-in-vitro-set-up-for-the-detailed-investigation-of-neuron-glia-interactions
#3
Christine Gottschling, Egor Dzyubenko, Maren Geissler, Andreas Faissner
Proper neuronal development and function is the prerequisite of the developing and the adult brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the highly controlled formation and maintenance of complex neuronal networks are not completely understood thus far. The open questions concerning neurons in health and disease are diverse and reaching from understanding the basic development to investigating human related pathologies, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia. The most detailed analysis of neurons can be performed in vitro...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911395/preparation-of-primary-mixed-glial-cultures-from-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-tissue
#4
Jennifer T Malon, Ling Cao
It has been well-accepted that spinal cord glial responses contribute significantly to the development of neuropathic pain. Tremendous information regarding glial activities at the cellular and molecular levels has been obtained through in vitro cell culture systems. The in vitro systems utilized, mainly include primary glia derived from neonatal brain cortical tissue and immortalized cell lines. However, these systems may not reflect the characteristics of spinal cord glial cells in vivo. In order to further investigate the roles of spinal cord glial cells in the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using a culture system that better reflects the in vivo condition, our laboratory has developed a method to establish primary spinal cord mixed glial cultures from adult mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910899/glial-pannexin1-contributes-to-tactile-hypersensitivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-orofacial-pain
#5
Regina Hanstein, Menachem Hanani, Eliana Scemes, David C Spray
Drug studies in animal models have implicated pannexin1 (Panx1) in various types of pain, including trigeminal hypersensitivity, neuropathic pain and migraine. However, the tested drugs have limited specificity and efficacy so that direct evidence for Panx1 contribution to pain has been lacking. We here show that tactile hypersensitivity is markedly attenuated by deletion of Panx1 in a mouse model of chronic orofacial pain; in this model, trigeminal ganglion Panx1 expression and function are markedly enhanced...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908976/a-novel-method-for-culturing-stellate-astrocytes-reveals-spatially-distinct-ca2-signaling-and-vesicle-recycling-in-astrocytic-processes
#6
Anne C Wolfes, Saheeb Ahmed, Ankit Awasthi, Markus A Stahlberg, Ashish Rajput, Daniel S Magruder, Stefan Bonn, Camin Dean
Interactions between astrocytes and neurons rely on the release and uptake of glial and neuronal molecules. But whether astrocytic vesicles exist and exocytose in a regulated or constitutive fashion is under debate. The majority of studies have relied on indirect methods or on astrocyte cultures that do not resemble stellate astrocytes found in vivo. Here, to investigate vesicle-associated proteins and exocytosis in stellate astrocytes specifically, we developed a simple, fast, and economical method for growing stellate astrocyte monocultures...
December 1, 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908425/copper-accumulation-in-rodent-brain-astrocytes-a-species-difference
#7
Brendan Sullivan, Gregory Robison, Yulia Pushkar, John K Young, Kebreten F Manaye
Changes in Cu homeostasis have been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Factors controlling and regulating the distribution of Cu in the brain remain largely unknown. We have previously reported that a sub-set of astrocytes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) contain Cu-rich aggregates. Here we expand previous studies with detailed X-ray fluorescent imaging (XRF) analysis of the additional brain areas of hippocampus (HP) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also use conventional DAB (3,3'-diaminobenzidine) staining which accesses both peroxidase and pseudo-peroxidase activities...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905561/anti-hu-antibodies-activate-enteric-and-sensory-neurons
#8
Qin Li, Klaus Michel, Anita Annahazi, Ihsan E Demir, Güralp O Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Lars Komorowski, Winfried Stöcker, Michael J Beyak, David Grundy, Gianrico Farrugia, Roberto De Giorgio, Michael Schemann
IgG of type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, anti-Hu) specificity is a serological marker of paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity (including enteric/autonomic) usually related to small-cell lung carcinoma. We show here that IgG isolated from such sera and also affinity-purified anti-HuD label enteric neurons and cause an immediate spike discharge in enteric and visceral sensory neurons. Both labelling and activation of enteric neurons was prevented by preincubation with the HuD antigen. Activation of enteric neurons was inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium and dihydro-β-erythroidine and reduced by the P2X antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo (benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS) but not by the 5-HT3 antagonist tropisetron or the N-type Ca-channel blocker ω-Conotoxin GVIA...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905510/remarkable-alterations-of-nav1-6-in-reactive-astrogliosis-during-epileptogenesis
#9
Hongyan Zhu, Yuxiao Zhao, Hao Wu, Nan Jiang, Ziyi Wang, Weide Lin, Jiahui Jin, Yonghua Ji
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a vital role in controlling neuronal excitability. Nav1.6 is the most abundantly expressed VGSCs subtype in the adult central nervous system and has been found to contribute to facilitate the hyperexcitability of neurons after electrical induction of status epilepticus (SE). To clarify the exact expression patterns of Nav1.6 during epileptogenesis, we examined the expression of Nav1.6 at protein and mRNA levels in two distinct animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) including a post-SE model induced by kainic acid (KA) intrahippocampal injection and a kindling model evoked by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904994/rapamycin-protects-sepsis-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-enhancing-autophagy
#10
Wenyu Liu, Jia'nan Guo, Jie Mu, Linyu Tian, Dong Zhou
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway might mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy and also to identify the role of autophagy. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or a sham operation, and all 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, CLP+ saline, CLP+ rapamycin (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Two weeks after the operation, Morris water maze was conducted for behavioral test; Nissl staining was used for observing glia infiltration; immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measures in hippocampi were performed to detect mTOR targets and autophagy indicators...
December 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896839/dopamine-elevates-and-lowers-astroglial-ca-2-through-distinct-pathways-depending-on-local-synaptic-circuitry
#11
Alistair Jennings, Olga Tyurikova, Lucie Bard, Kaiyu Zheng, Alexey Semyanov, Christian Henneberger, Dmitri A Rusakov
Whilst astrocytes in culture invariably respond to dopamine with cytosolic Ca(2+) rises, the dopamine sensitivity of astroglia in situ and its physiological roles remain unknown. To minimize effects of experimental manipulations on astroglial physiology, here we monitored Ca(2+) in cells connected via gap junctions to astrocytes loaded whole-cell with cytosolic indicators in area CA1 of acute hippocampal slices. Aiming at high sensitivity of [Ca(2+) ] measurements, we also employed life-time imaging of the Ca(2+) indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1...
November 29, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#12
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895551/oct4-methylation-mediated-silencing-as-an-epigenetic-barrier-preventing-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-dedifferentiation-in-a-murine-model-of-retinal-injury
#13
Luis I Reyes-Aguirre, Monica Lamas
Müller glia (MG) is the most abundant glial type in the vertebrate retina. Among its many functions, it is capable of responding to injury by dedifferentiating, proliferating, and differentiating into every cell types lost to damage. This regenerative ability is notoriously absent in mammals. We have previously reported that cultured mammalian MG undergoes a partial dedifferentiation, but fails to fully acquire a progenitor phenotype and differentiate into neurons. This might be explained by a mnemonic mechanism comprised by epigenetic traits, such as DNA methylation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893875/can-sustained-glia-mediated-brain-inflammation-after-repeated-concussive-brain-injury-be-detected-in-vivo
#14
Kristina G Witcher, Jonathan P Godbout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891578/dual-specificity-phosphatase-15-regulates-erk-activation-in-schwann-cells
#15
José F Rodríguez-Molina, Camila Lopez-Anido, Ki H Ma, Chongyu Zhang, Tyler Olson, Katharina N Muth, Matthias Weider, John Svaren
Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the peripheral and central nervous system, respectively. Despite having different myelin components and different transcription factors driving their terminal differentiation there are shared molecular mechanisms between the two. Sox10 is one common transcription factor required for several steps in development of myelinating glia. However, other factors are divergent as Schwann cells need the transcription factor Egr2/Krox20 and oligodendrocytes require Myrf...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891070/monoaminergic-mechanisms-in-epilepsy-may-offer-innovative-therapeutic-opportunity-for-monoaminergic-multi-target-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Dubravka Svob Strac, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has strongly suggested that monoamines play an important role in regulating epileptogenesis, seizure susceptibility, convulsions, and comorbid psychiatric disorders commonly seen in people with epilepsy (PWE). However, neither the relative significance of individual monoamines nor their interaction has yet been fully clarified due to the complexity of these neurotransmitter systems. In addition, epilepsy is diverse, with many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, and the role played by monoamines may vary from one condition to another...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890430/tar-dna-binding-protein-43-inhibits-inflammatory-response-and-protects-chondrocyte-function-by-modulating-rack1-expression-in-osteoarthritis
#17
Yongming Huang, Qiming Huang, Haitao Su, Xiujun Mai, Enhui Feng, Zhenwu Cao, Xiuyun Zeng
BACKGROUND: TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43, transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa) accumulates in the cytoplasm of affected neurons and glia, as large inclusions of stress granules (SGs). However, the mechanism of TDP-43 interaction with the target genes and its specific role in osteoarthritis (OA) progression is still unknown. The goal of this study was to identify the role of TDP-43 in OA progression by modulating its target genes. METHODS: MSCs were transfected with TDP-43 gene lentivirus...
November 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889927/sp2-is-the-only-glutamine-rich-specificity-protein-with-minor-impact-on-development-and-differentiation-in-myelinating-glia
#18
Amélie Wegener, Melanie Küspert, Elisabeth Sock, Sjaak Philipsen, Guntram Suske, Michael Wegner
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are the myelinating glia of the vertebrate nervous system and by generation of myelin sheaths allow rapid saltatory conduction. Previous in vitro work had pointed to a role of the C2H2 zinc finger Specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 as major regulators of glial differentiation and myelination. Here, we asked whether such a role is also evident in vivo using mice with specific deletions of Sp1 or Sp3 in myelinating glia. We also studied glia-specific conditional Sp2- and constitutive Sp4-deficient mice to include all related glutamine-rich Sp factors into our analysis...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889318/neurogenic-radial-glia-like-cells-in-meninges-migrate-and-differentiate-into-functionally-integrated-neurons-in-the-neonatal-cortex
#19
Francesco Bifari, Ilaria Decimo, Annachiara Pino, Enric Llorens-Bobadilla, Sheng Zhao, Christian Lange, Gabriella Panuccio, Bram Boeckx, Bernard Thienpont, Stefan Vinckier, Sabine Wyns, Ann Bouché, Diether Lambrechts, Michele Giugliano, Mieke Dewerchin, Ana Martin-Villalba, Peter Carmeliet
Whether new neurons are added in the postnatal cerebral cortex is still debated. Here, we report that the meninges of perinatal mice contain a population of neurogenic progenitors formed during embryonic development that migrate to the caudal cortex and differentiate into Satb2(+) neurons in cortical layers II-IV. The resulting neurons are electrically functional and integrated into local microcircuits. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified meningeal cells with distinct transcriptome signatures characteristic of (1) neurogenic radial glia-like cells (resembling neural stem cells in the SVZ), (2) neuronal cells, and (3) a cell type with an intermediate phenotype, possibly representing radial glia-like meningeal cells differentiating to neuronal cells...
November 17, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888531/fate-of-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection-from-activation-to-senescence
#20
REVIEW
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
Microglia support productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disturbed microglial function could contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Better understanding of how HIV-1 infection and viral protein exposure modulate microglial function during the course of infection could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for both the eradication of HIV-1 reservoir and treatment of neurocognitive deficits. This review first describes microglial origins and function in the normal central nervous system (CNS), and the changes that occur during aging...
November 26, 2016: Glia
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