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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435980/-glial-cells-function-as-neural-stem-cells-and-progenitor-cells
#1
Zi-Jian Tan, Shu-Hui Ju, Xiao Huang, Ya-Kun Gu, Zhi-Da Su
Glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NG2-glia, etc, are broadly distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Also, it has been well known that glial cells play multi-roles in physiological and pathological processes in the CNS, such as maintaining homeostasis, providing neurotrophins for neurons and regulating neural signal transmission. Recently, increasing evidence showed that glial cells may also function as neural stem/progenitor cells and contribute to adult neurogenesis or neuroregeneration...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434858/stem-cell-intrinsic-seven-up-triggered-temporal-factor-gradients-diversify-intermediate-neural-progenitors
#2
Qingzhong Ren, Ching-Po Yang, Zhiyong Liu, Ken Sugino, Kent Mok, Yisheng He, Masayoshi Ito, Aljoscha Nern, Hideo Otsuna, Tzumin Lee
Building a sizable, complex brain requires both cellular expansion and diversification. One mechanism to achieve these goals is production of multiple transiently amplifying intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) from a single neural stem cell. Like mammalian neural stem cells, Drosophila type II neuroblasts utilize INPs to produce neurons and glia. Within a given lineage, the consecutively born INPs produce morphologically distinct progeny, presumably due to differential inheritance of temporal factors. To uncover the underlying temporal fating mechanisms, we profiled type II neuroblasts' transcriptome across time...
April 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434166/antibody-uptake-assay-in-the-embryonic-zebrafish-forebrain-to-study-notch-signaling-dynamics-in-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vivo
#3
Kai Tong, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo
Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD derives from the asymmetric segregation of fate-determining molecules and/or organelles in the dividing cell. Radial glia in the embryonic zebrafish forebrain are an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms regulating ACD of stem cells in vertebrates, especially for live imaging concerning in vivo molecular and cellular dynamics. Due to the current difficulty in expressing fluorescent reporter-tagged proteins at physiological levels in zebrafish for live imaging, we have developed an antibody uptake assay to label proteins in live embryonic zebrafish forebrain with high specificity...
April 23, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434163/biomarkers-of-epileptogenesis-the-focus-on-glia-and-cognitive-dysfunctions
#4
Annamaria Vezzani, Rosaria Pascente, Teresa Ravizza
The need to find measures that reliably predict the onset of epilepsy after injurious events or how the patient will respond to anti-seizure drugs led to intensive pre-clinical and clinical research to discover non-invasive biomarkers that could increase the sensitivity of existing clinical indicators. The use of experimental models of epileptogenesis and of drug-resistance is instrumental to select the most promising approaches to explore such biomarkers in the pre-clinical setting for further clinical validation...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433113/wilson-disease-brain-pathology
#5
Aurélia Poujois, Jacqueline Mikol, France Woimant
In Wilson disease (WD), brain cellular damage is thought to be due to copper deposition. Striatal lesions are the most characteristic lesions found in the brain of patients with neurologic symptoms, as emphasized in the initial reports of S.A.K. Wilson. WD brain lesions can be more diffuse, including in the pons, midbrain, thalamus, dentate nucleus, and, less frequently, corpus callosum and cortex. In rare cases, extensive cortical-subcortical lesions have been reported. Increased cellularity is noted in the lesions due to the proliferation of modified astrocytes named Alzheimer types of glia and specific cells, called Opalski cells, that are characteristic of WD...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427061/emerging-insights-into-pathogenesis
#6
Edoardo Midena, Elisabetta Pilotto
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Persistent hyperglycemia leads to the activation of multiple cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DR, resulting in increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. DR has been considered a "chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease of the retina". However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and neurodegeneration both occur in human diabetes even before the development of clinical signs of DR...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427055/aquaporin-4-mediates-the-suppressive-effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#7
Rui Liang, Shoulei Yong, Xu Huang, Hui Kong, Gang Hu, Yi Fan
OBJECTIVE: Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a key molecule for water homeostasis in the brain, is associated with adult neurogenesis, but its mechanisms regulating adult neural stem cells (aNSC) remain largely unexplored. Neuroinflammation has a relevant influence on adult neurogenesis, which is a common feature in various neurodegenerative diseases. Considering the possible link between neuroinflammation and AQP4, we speculate that AQP4 may mediate the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines in glia and then indirectly regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
April 21, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424582/hypothalamic-neurogenesis-as-an-adaptive-metabolic-mechanism
#8
REVIEW
Antonia Recabal, Teresa Caprile, María de Los Angeles García-Robles
In the adult brain, well-characterized neurogenic niches are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. In both regions, neural precursor cells (NPCs) share markers of embryonic radial glia and astroglial cells, and in vitro clonal expansion of these cells leads to neurosphere formation. It has also been more recently demonstrated that neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, a brain structure that integrates peripheral signals to control energy balance and dietary intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424571/metabolic-vulnerability-in-the-neurodegenerative-disease-glaucoma
#9
REVIEW
Denise M Inman, Mohammad Harun-Or-Rashid
Axons can be several orders of magnitude longer than neural somas, presenting logistical difficulties in cargo trafficking and structural maintenance. Keeping the axon compartment well supplied with energy also presents a considerable challenge; even seemingly subtle modifications of metabolism can result in functional deficits and degeneration. Axons require a great deal of energy, up to 70% of all energy used by a neuron, just to maintain the resting membrane potential. Axonal energy, in the form of ATP, is generated primarily through oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417467/retraction-statement-cxcl12-cxcr4-chemokine-signaling-in-spinal-glia-induces-pain-hypersensitivity-through-mapks-mediated-neuroinflammation-in-bone-cancer-rats
#10
(no author information available yet)
'CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine signaling in spinal glia induces pain hypersensitivity through MAPKs-mediated neuroinflammation in bone cancer rats' by Hu X.-M., Liu Y.-N., Zhang H.-L., Cao S.-B., Zhang T., Chen L.-P. and Shen W. The above article from Journal of Neurochemistry, published online on 26 January 2015 and in volume 132, issue 4, pages 452-463 (available through www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com), and its subsequent Corrigendum, published online on 5 February 2015 and in volume 132, issue 4, p. 487, have been retracted by agreement between the Journal's Editor-in-Chief, Jörg Schulz, corresponding author Wen Shen on behalf of the authors, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd...
May 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416692/immunomodulation-accelerated-neuronal-regeneration-following-selective-rod-photoreceptor-cell-ablation-in-the-zebrafish-retina
#11
David T White, Sumitra Sengupta, Meera T Saxena, Qingguo Xu, Justin Hanes, Ding Ding, Hongkai Ji, Jeff S Mumm
Müller glia (MG) function as inducible retinal stem cells in zebrafish, completely repairing the eye after damage. The innate immune system has recently been shown to promote tissue regeneration in which classic wound-healing responses predominate. However, regulatory roles for leukocytes during cellular regeneration-i.e., selective cell-loss paradigms akin to degenerative disease-are less well defined. To investigate possible roles innate immune cells play during retinal cell regeneration, we used intravital microscopy to visualize neutrophil, macrophage, and retinal microglia responses to induced rod photoreceptor apoptosis...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411046/different-influence-of-antipsychotics-on-the-balance-between-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-depends-on-glia-activation-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Ewa Obuchowicz, Anna M Bielecka-Wajdman, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Marta Nowacka
The microglial hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that its neuropathology is closely associated with neuroinflammation manifested, inter alia, by an increased expression of cytokines. However, clinical investigations imply that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease and in some groups of patients the activated inflammatory process does not contribute to the disease-associated impairment of brain function. Clinical studies revealed also an equivocal impact of antipsychotics on peripheral and CSF cytokines, whereas experimental research performed on the stimulated glia cultures showed their inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408487/tspan2-a-tetraspanin-protein-involved-in-oligodendrogenesis-and-cancer-metastasis
#13
REVIEW
Ibrahim H Yaseen, Peter N Monk, Lynda J Partridge
Tetraspanin 2 (Tspan2) is one of the less well-characterised members of the tetraspanin superfamily, and its precise function in different human tissue types remains to be explored. Initial studies have highlighted its possible association in neuroinflammation and carcinogenesis. In the central nervous system, Tspan2 may contribute to the early stages of the oligodendrocyte differentiation into myelin-forming glia. Furthermore, in human lung cancer, Tspan2 could be involved in the progression of the tumour metastasis by modulating cancer cell motility and invasion functions...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407732/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-expression-signatures-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-arising-from-different-axial-levels
#14
Rachael Lumb, Sam Buckberry, Genevieve Secker, David Lawrence, Quenten Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique embryonic cell type which give rise to a diverse array of derivatives extending from neurons and glia through to bone and cartilage. Depending on their point of origin along the antero-posterior axis cranial NCCs are rapidly sorted into distinct migratory streams that give rise to axial specific structures. These migratory streams mirror the underlying segmentation of the brain with NCCs exiting the diencephalon and midbrain following distinct paths compared to those exiting the hindbrain rhombomeres (r)...
April 13, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404878/activation-of-liver-x-receptor-delayed-the-retinal-degeneration-of-rd1-mice-through-modulation-of-the-immunological-function-of-glia
#15
Xiao He, Dayu Sun, Siyu Chen, Haiwei Xu
Retinal degeneration (RD), including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is an inherited eye disease characterized by progressive degeneration of photoreceptors. Recently, immune cells, including microglia, Müller cells and astrocytes, in degenerative retina are demonstrated to play key roles in the development of RD and can be used as potential therapeutic targets. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important immuno-inflammatory response transcription factors that have been reported to be a new potential therapeutic drug target for neurodegenerative diseases...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403399/the-role-of-microglia-in-the-pathobiology-of-neuropathic-pain-development-what-do-we-know
#16
H Zhao, A Alam, Q Chen, M A Eusman, A Pal, S Eguchi, L Wu, D Ma
Neuropathic pain, a maladaptive and chronic condition that can develop after a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, is characterized by allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain, and comorbidities such as sleep deprivation, depression and anxiety. The activation of microglial cells in response to nerve injury has been implicated in the development of neuropathic pain. Mediators such as Neuregulin-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and fractalkine are released after nerve injury and are involved in the activation of microglial cells...
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401839/caregiver-maltreatment-causes-altered-neuronal-dna-methylation-in-female-rodents
#17
Jennifer Blaze, Tania L Roth
Negative experiences with a caregiver during infancy can result in long-term changes in brain function and behavior, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. It is our central hypothesis that brain and behavior changes are conferred by early childhood adversity through epigenetic changes involving DNA methylation. Using a rodent model of early-life caregiver maltreatment (involving exposure to an adverse caregiving environment for postnatal days 1-7), we have previously demonstrated abnormal methylation of DNA associated with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult rats...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400476/gad1-upregulation-programs-aggressive-features-of-cancer-cell-metabolism-in-the-brain-metastatic-microenvironment
#18
Patricia M Schnepp, Dennis D Lee, Ian H Guldner, Treasa K O'Tighearnaigh, Erin N Howe, Bhavana Palakurthi, Kaitlyn E Eckert, Tiffany A Toni, Brandon L Ashfeld, Siyuan Zhang
The impact of altered amino acid metabolism on cancer progression is not fully understood. We hypothesized that a metabolic transcriptome shift during metastatic evolution is crucial for brain metastasis. Here we report a powerful impact in this setting caused by epigenetic upregulation of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), a regulator of the GABA neurotransmitter metabolic pathway. In cell-based culture and brain metastasis models, we found that downegulation of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 induced by the brain microenvironment-derived clusterin resulted in decreased GAD1 promoter methylation and subsequent upregulation of GAD1 expression in brain metastatic tumor cells...
April 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397197/neurons-other-than-motor-neurons-in-motor-neuron-disease
#19
Riccardo Ruffoli, Francesca Biagioni, Carla L Busceti, Anderson Gaglione, Larisa Ryskalin, Stefano Gambardella, Alessandro Frati, Francesco Fornai
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS...
April 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394114/ovarian-teratoma-in-routine-biopsy-material-during-a-five-year-period
#20
Marina Kos, Jasmina Nikić, Tanja Leniček
Teratomas are tumors derived from germ cells, most frequently arising in the gonads. The aim of this study was to determine the number of ovarian teratomas diagnosed in the routine biopsy material at Ljudevit Jurak Clinical Department of Pathology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center during a 5-year period, as well as their clinical, gross and microscopic characteristics. Teratomas accounted for 48.6% (n=166) of primary ovarian tumors. The patient mean age was 34.74±12.37 years. Difference in the incidence of teratoma between the left and right ovary was not significant; bilateral teratoma was found in 13 patients...
June 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
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