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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210849/developmental-changes-in-notch1-and-nle1-expression-in-a-genetic-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#1
Fariba Karimzadeh, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Fatemeh Alipour, Hassan Hosseini Ravandi, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an epilepsy syndrome with seizures occurring in the early childhood, highlighting that seizures susceptibility in CAE is dependent on brain development. The Notch 1 signalling pathway is important in brain development, yet the role of the Notch1 signalling pathway in CAE remains elusive. We here explored Notch1 and its modulator notchless homologue 1 (NLE1) expression in WAG/Rij and control rats using immunohistochemistry. Functional Notch 1 effects were assessed in WAG/Rij rats in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206686/nte-pnpla6-is-expressed-in-mature-schwann-cells-and-is-required-for-glial-ensheathment-of-remak-fibers
#2
Janis McFerrin, Bruce L Patton, Elizabeth R Sunderhaus, Doris Kretzschmar
Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) or patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 6 (PNPLA6) was first linked with a neuropathy occurring after organophosphate poisoning and was later also found to cause complex syndromes when mutated, which can include mental retardation, spastic paraplegia, ataxia, and blindness. NTE/PNPLA6 is widely expressed in neurons but experiments with its Drosophila orthologue Swiss-cheese (SWS) suggested that it may also have glial functions. Investigating whether NTE/PNPLA6 is expressed in glia, we found that NTE/PNPLA6 is expressed by Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve of adult mice with the most prominent expression in nonmyelinating Schwann cells...
February 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205096/pharmacological-effects-of-asiatic-acid-in-glioblastoma-cells-under-hypoxia
#3
Flourina Kumar Thakor, Ka-Wai Wan, Philip John Welsby, Gail Welsby
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current treatment options including surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide and cisplatin, the median survival rate remains low (<16 months). Combined with increasing drug resistance and the inability of some compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier, novel compounds are being sought for the treatment of this disease. Here, we aimed to examine the pharmacological effect of Asiatic acid (AA) in glioblastoma under hypoxia...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#4
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202680/cross-talk-between-lrrk2-and-pka-implication-for-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Elisa Greggio, Luigi Bubacco, Isabella Russo
Evidence indicates that leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) controls multiple processes in neurons and glia cells. Deregulated LRRK2 activity due to gene mutation represents the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated signaling is a key regulator of brain function. PKA-dependent pathways play an important role in brain homeostasis, neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, control of microglia activation and inflammation. On the other hand, a decline of PKA signaling was shown to contribute to the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, including PD...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202084/aprepitant-limits-in-vivo-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-a-rhesus-model-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#6
Alejandra N Martinez, Amanda R Burmeister, Geeta Ramesh, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Ian Marriott, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes. This tachykinin functions to exacerbate inflammatory responses at peripheral sites. Moreover, SP/NK-1R interactions have recently been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199885/evaluation-of-polyesteramide-pea-and-polyester-plga-microspheres-as-intravitreal-drug-delivery-systems-in-albino-rats
#7
Tobias Peters, Seong-Woo Kim, Vinicius Castro, Krunoslav Stingl, Torsten Strasser, Sylvia Bolz, Ulrich Schraermeyer, George Mihov, MengMeng Zong, Vanessa Andres-Guerrero, Rocio Herrero Vanrell, Aylvin A Dias, Neil R Cameron, Eberhart Zrenner
PURPOSE: To study the suitability of injectable microspheres based on poly(ester amide) (PEA) or poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) as potential vehicles for intravitreal drug delivery in rat eyes. Dexamethasone-loaded PEA microspheres (PEA + DEX) were also evaluated. METHODS: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups that received different intravitreally injected microspheres: PEA group (n = 12); PLGA group (n = 12); PEA + DEX group (n = 8); and control group (no injection, n = 8)...
February 7, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196867/synaptic-activity-drives-a-genomic-program-that-promotes-a-neuronal-warburg-effect
#8
Carlos Bas-Orth, Yan-Wei Tan, David Lau, Hilmar Bading
Synaptic activity drives changes in gene expression to promote long-lasting adaptations of neuronal structure and function. One example of such an adaptive response is the buildup of acquired neuroprotection, a synaptic activity- and gene transcription-mediated increase in the resistance of neurons against harmful conditions. A hallmark of acquired neuroprotection is the stabilization of mitochondrial structure and function. We therefore re-examined previously identified sets of synaptic activity-regulated genes to identify genes that are directly linked to mitochondrial function...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195308/ca-2-permeable-ampa-receptors-associated-with-epileptogenesis-of-hypothalamic-hamartoma
#9
Hiroki Kitaura, Masaki Sonoda, Sayaka Teramoto, Hiroshi Shirozu, Hiroshi Shimizu, Tadashi Kimura, Hiroshi Masuda, Yosuke Ito, Hitoshi Takahashi, Shin Kwak, Shigeki Kameyama, Akiyoshi Kakita
Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH), composed of neurons and glia without apparent cytologic abnormalities, is a rare developmental malformation in humans. Patients with HH often have characteristic medically refractory gelastic seizures, and intrinsic epileptogenesis within the lesions has been speculated. Herein we provide evidence to suggest that in HH neurons, Ca(2+) permeability through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors is aberrantly elevated. In needle biopsy specimens of HH tissue, field potential recordings demonstrated spontaneous epileptiform activities similar to those observed in other etiologically distinct epileptogenic tissues...
February 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194645/expression-of-a-novel-ciliary-protein-iiig9-during-the-differentiation-and-maturation-of-ependymal-cells
#10
M Cifuentes, V Baeza, P M Arrabal, R Visser, J M Grondona, N Saldivia, F Martínez, F Nualart, K Salazar
IIIG9 is the regulatory subunit 32 of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R32), a key phosphatase in the regulation of ciliary movement. IIIG9 localization is restricted to cilia in the trachea, fallopian tube, and testicle, suggesting its involvement in the polarization of ciliary epithelium. In the adult brain, IIIG9 mRNA has only been detected in ciliated ependymal cells that cover the ventricular walls. In this work, we prepared a polyclonal antibody against rat IIIG9 and used this antibody to show for the first time the ciliary localization of this protein in adult ependymal cells...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194183/regulation-of-stem-cell-properties-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-by-jak-stat-and-mapk-signaling-in-the-mammalian-retina
#11
REVIEW
Krista M Beach, Jianbo Wang, Deborah C Otteson
In humans and other mammals, the neural retina does not spontaneously regenerate, and damage to the retina that kills retinal neurons results in permanent blindness. In contrast to embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic/fetal retinal stem cells, Müller glia offer an intrinsic cellular source for regenerative strategies in the retina. Müller glia are radial glial cells within the retina that maintain retinal homeostasis, buffer ion flux associated with phototransduction, and form the blood/retinal barrier within the retina proper...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193453/energy-and-the-alzheimer-brain
#12
REVIEW
Mortimer Mamelak
The high energy demands of the poorly myelinated long axon hippocampal and cortical neurons render these neurons selectively vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. However, pathology engages all of the major elements of the neurovascular unit of the mature Alzheimer brain, the neurons, glia and blood vessels. Neurons present with retrograde degeneration of the axodendritic tree, capillaries with string vessels and markedly reduced densities and glia with signs of inflammatory activation. The neurons, capillaries and astrocytes of the mature Alzheimer brain harbor structurally defective mitochondria...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193238/transient-ikk2-activation-in-astrocytes-initiates-selective-non-cell-autonomous-neurodegeneration
#13
Michael Lattke, Stephanie N Reichel, Alexander Magnutzki, Alireza Abaei, Volker Rasche, Paul Walther, Dinis P Calado, Boris Ferger, Thomas Wirth, Bernd Baumann
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is associated with a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders, however the specific contribution to individual disease pathogenesis and selective neuronal cell death is not well understood. Inflammatory cerebellar ataxias are neurodegenerative diseases occurring in various autoimmune/inflammatory conditions, e.g. paraneoplastic syndromes. However, how inflammatory insults can cause selective cerebellar neurodegeneration in the context of these diseases remains open, and appropriate animal models are lacking...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192065/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-and-leptin-expression-associated-with-ectopic-proliferation-and-retinal-dysplasia-in-zebrafish-optic-pathway-tumors
#14
Laura E Schultz, Staci L Solin, Wesley A Wierson, Janna M Lovan, Judith Syrkin-Nikolau, Deborah E Lincow, Andrew J Severin, Donald S Sakaguchi, Maura McGrail
In the central nervous system injury induces cellular reprogramming and progenitor proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms that limit regeneration and prevent tumorigenesis are not completely understood. We previously described a zebrafish optic pathway tumor model in which transgenic Tg(flk1:RFP)is18/+ adults develop nonmalignant retinal tumors. Key pathways driving injury-induced glial reprogramming and regeneration contributed to tumor formation. In this study, we examine a time course of proliferation and present new analyses of the Tg(flk1:RFP)is18/+ dysplastic retina and tumor transcriptomes...
February 13, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191785/impact-of-the-secretome-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-brain-structure-and-animal-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Fábio G Teixeira, Miguel M Carvalho, Krishna M Panchalingam, Ana J Rodrigues, Bárbara Mendes-Pinheiro, Sandra Anjo, Bruno Manadas, Leo A Behie, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
Research in the last decade strongly suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapeutic benefits are mainly due to their secretome, which has been proposed as a possible therapeutic tool for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, it has been shown that the MSC secretome increases neurogenesis and cell survival, and has numerous neuroprotective actions under different conditions. Additionally, using dynamic culturing conditions (through computer-controlled bioreactors) can further modulate the MSC secretome, thereby generating a more potent neurotrophic factor cocktail (i...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185966/disturbed-mitochondrial-function-restricts-glutamate-uptake-in-the-human-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-cell-line-mio-m1
#16
Rupali Vohra, Iswariyaraja Sridevi Gurubaran, Ulrik Henriksen, Linda Hildegaard Bergersen, Lene Juel Rasmussen, Claus Desler, Dorte Marie Skytt, Miriam Kolko
Using the human Müller cell line, MIO-M1, the aim was to study the impact of mitochondrial inhibition in Müller glia through antimycin A treatment. MIO-M1 cell survival, levels of released lactate, mitochondrial function, and glutamate uptake were studied in response to mitochondrial inhibition and glucose restriction. Lactate release decreased in response to glucose restriction. Combined glucose restriction and blocked mitochondrial activity decreased survival and caused collapse of the respiratory chain measured by oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate...
February 6, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184993/pathogenic-implications-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-pathology-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#17
Yong Guo, Stephen D Weigand, Bogdan F Popescu, Vanda A Lennon, Joseph E Parisi, Sean J Pittock, Natalie E Parks, Stacey L Clardy, Charles L Howe, Claudia F Lucchinetti
Pathogenic autoantibodies associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) induce disease by targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels enriched on astrocytic endfeet at blood-brain interfaces. AQP4 is also expressed at cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-brain interfaces, such as the pial glia limitans and the ependyma and at the choroid plexus blood-CSF barrier. However, little is known regarding pathology at these sites in NMO. Therefore, we evaluated AQP4 expression, microglial reactivity, and complement deposition at pial and ependymal surfaces and in the fourth ventricle choroid plexus in 23 autopsy cases with clinically and/or pathologically confirmed NMO or NMO spectrum disorder...
February 9, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183698/constitutively-active-notch1-converts-cranial-neural-crest-derived-frontonasal-mesenchyme-to-perivascular-cells-in-vivo
#18
Sophie R Miller, Surangi N Perera, Clare V H Baker
Perivascular/mural cells originate from either the mesoderm or the cranial neural crest. Regardless of their origin, Notch signalling is necessary for their formation. Furthermore, in both chicken and mouse, constitutive Notch1 activation (via expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain) is sufficient in vivo to convert trunk mesoderm-derived somite cells to perivascular cells, at the expense of skeletal muscle. In experiments originally designed to investigate the effect of premature Notch1 activation on the development of neural crest-derived olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OECs), we used in ovo electroporation to insert a tetracycline-inducible NotchΔE construct (encoding a constitutively active mutant of mouse Notch1) into the genome of chicken cranial neural crest cell precursors, and activated NotchΔE expression by doxycycline injection at embryonic day 4...
February 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181394/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-the-interactions-of-neuron-and-glia-like-cells-toxicity-uptake-mechanisms-and-lysosomal-tracking
#19
I-Lun Hsiao, Yi-Kong Hsieh, Chun-Yu Chuang, Chu-Fang Wang, Yuh-Jeen Huang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly used nanomaterials in consumer products. Previous studies focused on its effects on neurons; however, little is known about their effects and uptake mechanisms on glial cells under normal or activated states. Here, ALT astrocyte-like, BV-2 microglia and differentiated N2a neuroblastoma cells were directly or indirectly exposed to 10 nm AgNPs using mono- and co-culture system. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was pretreated to activate glial cells before AgNP treatment for mimicking NP exposure under brain inflammation...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181299/phospholipid-localization-implies-microglial-morphology-and-function-via-cdc42-in-vitro
#20
Kyohei Tokizane, Hiroyuki Konishi, Kumiko Makide, Hiroki Kawana, Shinichi Nakamuta, Kozo Kaibuchi, Tomohiko Ohwada, Junken Aoki, Hiroshi Kiyama
Under a quiescent state, microglia exhibit a ramified shape, rather than the amoeboid-like morphology following injury or inflammation. The manipulation of microglial morphology in vitro has not been very successful, which has impeded the progress of microglial studies. We demonstrate that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), a kind of lysophospholipids, rapidly and substantially alters the morphology of primary cultured microglia to an in vivo-like ramified shape in a receptor independent manner. This mechanism is mediated by Cdc42 activity...
February 9, 2017: Glia
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