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Ashish K Shah, Claus D Kreibich, Gro V Amdam, Daniel Münch
The honey bee has been extensively studied as a model for neuronal circuit and memory function and more recently has emerged as an unconventional model in biogerontology. Yet, the detailed knowledge of neuronal processing in the honey bee brain contrasts with the very sparse information available on glial cells. In other systems glial cells are involved in nutritional homeostasis, detoxification, and aging. These glial functions have been linked to metabolic enzymes, such as glutamine synthetase and glycogen phosphorylase...
2018: PloS One
Ninotchska M Delvalle, David E Fried, Gretchen Rivera-Lopez, Luke Gaudette, Brian D Gulbransen
The reflexive activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are regulated, in part, by precise interactions between neurons and glia in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Intra-ganglionic enteric glia are a unique type of peripheral glia that surround enteric neurons and regulate neuronal function, activity, and survival. Enteric glia express numerous neurotransmitter receptors that allow them to sense neuronal activity, but it is not clear if enteric glia monitor acetylcholine (ACh), the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the ENS...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Robert Ledeen, Gusheng Wu
This review begins by attempting to recount some of the pioneering discoveries that first identified the presence of gangliosides in the nervous system, their structures and topography. This is presented as prelude to the current emphasis on physiological function, about which much has been learned but still remains to be elucidated. These areas include ganglioside roles in nervous system development including stem cell biology, membranes and organelles within neurons and glia, ion transport mechanisms, receptor modulation including neurotrophic factor receptors, and importantly the pathophysiological role of ganglioside aberrations in neurodegenerative disorders...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Katherine D Gribble, Lauren J Walker, Louis Saint-Amant, John Y Kuwada, Michael Granato
Early during PNS regeneration, regenerating axons emerge from the proximal nerve stump, yet whether they extend simultaneously or whether pioneering axons establish a path for follower axons remains unknown. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying robust regeneration are incompletely understood. Using live imaging, we demonstrate that in zebrafish pioneering axons establish a regenerative path for follower axons. We find this process requires the synaptic receptor lrp4, and in lrp4 mutants pioneers are unaffected while follower axons frequently stall at the injury gap, providing evidence for molecular diversity between pioneering and follower axons in regeneration...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Saori Kikuchihara, Shouta Sugio, Kenji F Tanaka, Takaki Watanabe, Masanobu Kano, Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Mlc1 is a causative gene for megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), and is expressed in astrocytes. Mlc1-overexpressing mice represent an animal model of early-onset leukoencephalopathy, which manifests as astrocytic swelling followed by myelin membrane splitting in the white matter. It has previously reported that Mlc1 is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, while the cerebellar phenotypes of Mlc1-overexpressing mouse have not been characterized. Here, we examined the cerebellum of Mlc1-overexpressing mouse and found that the distribution of BG was normally compacted along the PC layer until postnatal day 10 (P10), while most BG were dispersed throughout the molecular layer by P28...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Silvia Tietz, Therese Périnat, Gretchen Greene, Gaby Enzmann, Urban Deutsch, Ralf Adams, Beat Imhof, Michel Aurrand-Lions, Britta Engelhardt
In multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) autoaggressive CD4+ T cells cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause neuroinflammation. Therapeutic targeting of CD4+ T-cell trafficking into the CNS by blocking α4-integrins has proven beneficial for the treatment of MS but comes with associated risks, probably due to blocking CD8+ T cell mediated CNS immune surveillance. Our recent observations show that CD8+ T cells also rely on α4β1 -integrins to cross the BBB...
June 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Ramasamy Thangavel, Gvindhasamy Pushpavathi Selvakumar, Mohammad Ejaz Ahmed, Smita Zaheer, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Haris Zahoor, Daniyal Saeed, Iuliia Dubova, Gema Giler, Shelby Herr, Shankar S Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Inflammatory mediators released from activated microglia, astrocytes, neurons, and mast cells mediate neuroinflammation. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by inflammation-dependent dopaminergic neurodegeneration in substantia nigra. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ), a metabolite of parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), induces inflammatory mediators' release from brain cells and mast cells. Brain cells' interaction with mast cells is implicated in neuroinflammation...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Marcus K Giacci, Carole A Bartlett, Nicole M Smith, K Swaminathan Iyer, Lillian M Toomey, Haibo Jiang, Paul Guagliardo, Matt R Kilburn, Melinda Fitzgerald
Loss of function following injury to the central nervous system is worsened by secondary degeneration of neurons and glia surrounding the injury and initiated by oxidative damage. However, it is not yet known which cellular populations and structures are most vulnerable to oxidative damage in vivo Using Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), oxidative damage was semi-quantified within cellular subpopulations and structures of optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration, following a partial transection of the optic nerve in adult female PVG rats...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chun Yao, Yaxian Wang, Honghong Zhang, Wei Feng, Qihui Wang, Dingding Shen, Tianmei Qian, Fang Liu, Susu Mao, Xiaosong Gu, Bin Yu
As a major glia in peripheral nerve system, Schwann cells play a critical role in peripheral nerve injury repair. Searching efficient approach to promote Schwann cell activation might facilitate peripheral nerve repair. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to regulate gene expression and take part in many biological processes. However, the role of lncRNAs in peripheral nerve regeneration is not fully understood. In this study, we obtained a global lncRNA portrayal following sciatic nerve injury in male rats using microarray and further investigated one of these dys-regulated lncRNAs, TNXA-PS1, confirming its vital role in regulating Schwann cells...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aline R Dörrbaum, Lisa Kochen, Julian D Langer, Erin M Schuman
Regulation of protein turnover allows cells to react to their environment and maintain homeostasis. Proteins can show different turnover rates in different tissue, but little is known about protein turnover in different brain cell types. We used dynamic SILAC to determine half-lives of over 5100 proteins in rat primary hippocampal cultures as well as in neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cultures ranging from <1 to >20 days. In contrast to synaptic proteins, membrane proteins were relatively shorter-lived and mitochondrial proteins were longer-lived compared to the population...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Wenhui Huang, Xianshu Bai, Laura Stopper, Bogdan Catalin, Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff
NG2 glia are self-renewal cells widely populating the entire central nervous system (CNS). The differentiation potential of NG2 glia in the brain has been systematically studied. However, the fate of NG2 glia in the spinal cord during development and after injury is still unclear. Here, we took advantage of faithful expression of Cre in NG2-CreERT2 knock-in mice to demonstrate that spinal NG2 glia remain committed to the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage and generate OLs, but not astrocytes or neurons, during development...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Ling Zhu, Weiyong Shen, Ting Zhang, Ying Wang, Bobak Bahrami, Fanfan Zhou, Mark C Gillies
Müller cells are the primary glia in the retina, playing a critical role in retinal homeostasis and retinal pathology. This study evaluated the canonical Wnt signalling pathway and its downstream effects on retinal degeneration in a transgenic mouse model of inducible Müller cell disruption. Increased expression of the LacZ reporter gene in the retina suggested Wnt signalling had been activated after induced Müller cell disruption. Activation was validated by observing nuclear translocation of β-Catenin...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
N M Agalave, S AbdelMoaty, P Lundback, U Andersson, H Harris, C I Svensson
Aims Increasing evidence indicates that extracellular high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune disease. Data from our laboratory demonstrates that HMGB1 contributes to nociceptive behavior in a model of rheumatoid arthritis-induced pain. HMGB1 binds to multiple receptors, including toll like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). When the cysteine in position C106 is in the reduced thiol form and C23 and C45 are engaged in a disulfide bridge (disulfide HMGB1), the molecule functions as a cytokine-inducing TLR4 ligand...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Brian E Cairns, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Paola Sacerdote
Background It is unknown why an acute pain condition under various circumstances can transition into a chronic pain condition. There has been a shift towards neuroinflammation and hence glial cell activations specifically in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord as a mechanism possibly driving the transition to chronic pain. This has led to a focus on non-neuronal cells in the peripheral and central nervous system. Besides infiltrating macrophages, Schwann cells and satellite glial cells release cytokines and therefore important mechanisms in the maintenance of pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Yosra Bedoui, Jim W Neal, Philippe Gasque
An effective protective inflammatory response in the brain is crucial for the clearance of pathogens (e.g. microbes, amyloid fibrils, prionSC ) and should be closely regulated. However, the CNS seems to have limited tissue resilience to withstand the detrimental effects of uncontrolled inflammation compromising functional recovery and tissue repair. Newly described neuro-immune-regulators (NIREGs) are functionally related proteins regulating the severity and duration of the host inflammatory response. NIREGs such as CD200, CD47 and CX3CL1 are vital for increasing tissue resilience and are constitutively expressed by neurons...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Isabel Martínez-Hernández, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Libia Vega, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate Central Nervous System, is involved in almost every aspect of brain physiology, and its signaling properties are severely affected in most neurodegenerative diseases. This neurotransmitter has to be efficiently removed from the synaptic cleft in order to prevent an over-stimulation of glutamate receptors that leads to neuronal death. Specific sodium-dependent membrane transporters, highly enriched in glial cells, elicit the clearance of glutamate...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Anthony J Treichel, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract's normal function depends on its ability to propel, mix, and store contents in a highly coordinated fashion. An ability to sense mechanical forces is therefore fundamental to normal GI tract operation. There are several mechanosensory circuits distributed throughout the GI tract. These circuits rely on a range of proposed specialized and non-specialized mechanosensory cells that include epithelial enterochromaffin (EC) cells, both intrinsic and extrinsic sensory neurons, glia, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Benjamin W Lindsey, Zachary J Hall, Aurélie Heuzé, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Vincent Tropepe, Jan Kaslin
Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) are the primary source of new neurons in the brain and serve critical roles in tissue homeostasis and plasticity throughout life. Within the vertebrate brain, NSPCs are located within distinct neurogenic niches differing in their location, cellular composition, and proliferative behaviour. Heterogeneity in the NSPC population is hypothesized to reflect varying capacities for neurogenesis, plasticity and repair between different neurogenic zones. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, studies have predominantly focused on the behaviour and biological significance of adult NSPCs (aNSPCs) in rodents...
June 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Iya Prytkova, Alison Goate, Ronald P Hart, Paul A Slesinger
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects millions of people and costs nearly 250 billion dollars annually. Few effective FDA-approved treatments exist, and more are needed. AUDs have a strong heritability, but only a few genes have been identified with a large effect size on disease phenotype. Genome wide association studies (GWASs) have identified common variants with low effect sizes, most of which are in non-coding regions of the genome. Animal models frequently fail to recapitulate key molecular features of neuropsychiatric disease due to the polygenic nature of the disease, partial conservation of coding regions, and significant disparity in non-coding regions...
June 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Nathalie Vergnolle, Carla Cirillo
The intestinal epithelial barrier is the largest exchange surface between the body and the external environment. Its functions are regulated by luminal, and also internal, components including the enteric nervous system. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of the digestive "neuronal-glial-epithelial unit" on epithelial barrier function.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
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