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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454149/study-of-manganese-binding-to-the-ferroxidase-centre-of-human-h-type-ferritin
#1
Matteo Ardini, Barry D Howes, Annarita Fiorillo, Elisabetta Falvo, Silvia Sottini, Donella Rovai, Marco Lantieri, Andrea Ilari, Dante Gatteschi, Gabriele Spina, Emilia Chiancone, Simonetta Stefanini, Maria Fittipaldi
Ferritins are ubiquitous and conserved proteins endowed with enzymatic ferroxidase activity, that oxidize Fe(II) ions at the dimetal ferroxidase centre to form a mineralized Fe(III) oxide core deposited within the apo-protein shell. Herein, the in vitro formation of a heterodimetal cofactor constituted by Fe and Mn ions has been investigated in human H ferritin (hHFt). Namely, Mn and Fe binding at the hHFt ferroxidase centre and its effects on Fe(II) oxidation have been investigated by UV-Vis ferroxidation kinetics, fluorimetric titrations, multifrequency EPR, and preliminary Mössbauer spectroscopy...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453990/atp-activated-p2x7-receptor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-and-as-an-emerging-target-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressant-therapeutics
#2
REVIEW
Linyu Wei, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Jing Yan, Libin Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaling Yin, Chaokun Li, Sylvie Chalon, Patrick Emond, Catherine Belzung, Dongliang Li, Chengbiao Lu, Sebastien Roger, Lin-Hua Jiang
Mood disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that represent leading global disease burdens. Increasing evidence from clinical and preclinical studies supports that innate immune system dysfunction plays an important part in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. P2X7 receptor, belonging to the ligand-gated ion channel P2X subfamily of purinergic P2 receptors for extracellular ATP, is highly expressed in immune cells including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and has a vital role in mediating innate immune response...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451203/a-growing-field-the-regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-wnt-signaling
#3
REVIEW
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449593/hemopexin-is-required-for-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-olfactory-bulb-pathway
#4
Yanling Zhu, Yang Qiu, Mengjia Chen, Yi Zhang, Li Cao, Zhida Su, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Yinyan Pu, Cheng He
The neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone (SVZ) reside within a specialized niche critical for neurogenesis. Hemopexin, a plasma glycoprotein, has been extensively studied as a heme scavenger at the systemic level. However, little is known about its function in the central nervous system, especially in neurogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that deletion of hemopexin leads to neurogenic abnormalities in the SVZ/olfactory bulb (OB) pathway. The lateral ventricle is enlarged in hemopexin-deficient mice, and more apoptosis was observed in Dcx+ cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446379/astroglial-kir4-1-in-the-lateral-habenula-drives-neuronal-bursts-in-depression
#5
Yihui Cui, Yan Yang, Zheyi Ni, Yiyan Dong, Guohong Cai, Alexandre Foncelle, Shuangshuang Ma, Kangning Sang, Siyang Tang, Yuezhou Li, Ying Shen, Hugues Berry, Shengxi Wu, Hailan Hu
Enhanced bursting activity of neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) is essential in driving depression-like behaviours, but the cause of this increase has been unknown. Here, using a high-throughput quantitative proteomic screen, we show that an astroglial potassium channel (Kir4.1) is upregulated in the LHb in rat models of depression. Kir4.1 in the LHb shows a distinct pattern of expression on astrocytic membrane processes that wrap tightly around the neuronal soma. Electrophysiology and modelling data show that the level of Kir4...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445328/hippocampal-atrophy-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-correlates-with-disruption-of-astrocyte-morphology-and-capillary-coverage-by-aqp4
#6
Maryam Anzabi, Maryam Ardalan, Nina K Iversen, Ali H Rafati, Brian Hansen, Leif Østergaard
Despite successful management of ruptured intracranial aneurysm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) remains the main cause of high mortality and morbidity in patients who survive the initial bleeding. Astrocytes play a key role in neurovascular coupling. Therefore, changes in the neurovascular unit including astrocytes following SAH may contribute to the development of DCI and long-term complications. In this study, we characterized morphological changes in hippocampal astrocytes following experimental SAH, with special emphasis on glia-vascular cross-talk and hippocampal volume changes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445286/glia-maturation-factor-%C3%AE-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#7
REVIEW
Junsheng Fan, Tszhei Fong, Xinjie Chen, Chuyun Chen, Peng Luo, Haiting Xie
Glia maturation factor-β (GMFB) is considered to be a growth and differentiation factor for both glia and neurons. GMFB has been found to be upregulated in several neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration conditions. It may function by mediating apoptosis and by modulating the expression of superoxide dismutase, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and neurotrophin. In this review, we mainly discussed the role of GMFB in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. On review of the literature, we propose that GMFB may be a promising therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445232/the-cerebellum-of-patients-with-steatohepatitis-shows-lymphocyte-infiltration-microglial-activation-and-loss-of-purkinje-and-granular-neurons
#8
Tiziano Balzano, Jerónimo Forteza, Pilar Molina, Juan Giner, Ana Monzó, Jennifer Sancho-Jiménez, Amparo Urios, Carmina Montoliu, Vicente Felipo
Peripheral inflammation contributes to minimal hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver diseases, which could be mediated by neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation in cerebellum of patients with chronic liver diseases has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to analyze in cerebellum of patients with different grades of liver disease, from mild steatohepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy: (a) neuronal density in Purkinje and granular layers; (b) microglial activation; (c) astrocyte activation; (d) peripheral lymphocytes infiltration; (e) subtypes of lymphocytes infiltrated...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444850/neurovascular-dysfunction-in-dementia-human-cellular-models-and-molecular-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Isobel Parkes, Satyan Chintawar, M Zameel Cader
From the earliest stages of development, when cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis are entwined, to the end of life, the interplay between vascular and neural systems of the brain is critical in health and disease. Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells constitute the blood-brain barrier and in concert with pericytes or smooth muscle cells, glia and neurons, integrate into a functional neurovascular unit (NVU). This multicellular NVU maintains homoeostasis of the brain's microenvironment by restricting the entry of systemic pathogens and neurotoxins as well as meeting the metabolic demands of neural activity...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444420/perineurial-barrier-glia-physically-respond-to-alcohol-in-an-akap200-dependent-manner-to-promote-tolerance
#10
Sarah J Parkhurst, Pratik Adhikari, Jovana S Navarrete, Arièle Legendre, Miguel Manansala, Fred W Wolf
Ethanol is the most common drug of abuse. It exerts its behavioral effects by acting on widespread neural circuits; however, its impact on glial cells is less understood. We show that Drosophila perineurial glia are critical for ethanol tolerance, a simple form of behavioral plasticity. The perineurial glia form the continuous outer cellular layer of the blood-brain barrier and are the interface between the brain and the circulation. Ethanol tolerance development requires the A kinase anchoring protein Akap200 specifically in perineurial glia...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442324/rodent-zic-genes-in-neural-network-wiring
#11
Eloísa Herrera
The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439238/live-imaging-of-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#12
Gregor-Alexander Pilz, Sara Bottes, Marion Betizeau, David J Jörg, Stefano Carta, Benjamin D Simons, Fritjof Helmchen, Sebastian Jessberger
Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) generate neurons throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus. We used chronic in vivo imaging and followed genetically labeled individual NSPCs and their progeny in the mouse hippocampus for up to 2 months. We show that NSPCs targeted by the endogenous Achaete-scute homolog 1 (Ascl1) promoter undergo limited rounds of symmetric and asymmetric divisions, eliciting a burst of neurogenic activity, after which they are lost. Further, our data reveal unexpected asymmetric divisions of nonradial glia-like NSPCs...
February 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439117/the-pericyte-glia-interface-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#13
REVIEW
Patrizia Giannoni, Jerome Badaut, Cyril Dargazanli, Alexis Fayd'Herbe De Maudave, Wendy Klement, Vincent Costalat, Nicola Marchi
The cerebrovasculature is a multicellular structure with varying rheological and permeability properties. The outer wall of the brain capillary endothelium is enclosed by pericytes and astrocyte end feet, anatomically assembled to guarantee barrier functions. We, here, focus on the pericyte modifications occurring in disease conditions, reviewing evidence supporting the interplay amongst pericytes, the endothelium, and glial cells in health and pathology. Deconstruction and reactivity of pericytes and glial cells around the capillary endothelium occur in response to traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders, impacting vascular permeability and participating in neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438738/the-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-axis-regulates-the-astrocyte-glutathione-system-to-protect-against-oxidative-and-metabolic-injury
#14
Xiaoxin Guo, Qi Jiang, Alessandra Tuccitto, Darren Chan, Samih Alqawlaq, Gah-Jone Won, Jeremy M Sivak
Neurons are highly sensitive to metabolic and oxidative injury, but endogenous astrocyte mechanisms have a critical capacity to provide protection from these stresses. We previously reported that the master regulator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α) is necessary for retinal astrocytes to mount effective injury responses, with particular regard to oxidative stress. Yet, this pathway has not been well studied in glia. PGC-1α is a transcriptional co-activator that is dysregulated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434647/the-complex-simplicity-of-the-brittle-star-nervous-system
#15
Olga Zueva, Maleana Khoury, Thomas Heinzeller, Daria Mashanova, Vladimir Mashanov
Background: Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Results: Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434029/de-novo-fatty-acid-synthesis-by-schwann-cells-is-essential-for-peripheral-nervous-system-myelination
#16
Laura Montani, Jorge A Pereira, Camilla Norrmén, Hartmut B F Pohl, Elisa Tinelli, Martin Trötzmüller, Gianluca Figlia, Penelope Dimas, Belinda von Niederhäusern, Rachel Schwager, Sebastian Jessberger, Clay F Semenkovich, Harald C Köfeler, Ueli Suter
Myelination calls for a remarkable surge in cell metabolism to facilitate lipid and membrane production. Endogenous fatty acid (FA) synthesis represents a potentially critical process in myelinating glia. Using genetically modified mice, we show that Schwann cell (SC) intrinsic activity of the enzyme essential for de novo FA synthesis, fatty acid synthase (FASN), is crucial for precise lipid composition of peripheral nerves and fundamental for the correct onset of myelination and proper myelin growth. Upon FASN depletion in SCs, epineurial adipocytes undergo lipolysis, suggestive of a compensatory role...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431645/subretinal-human-umbilical-tissue-derived-cell-transplantation-preserves-retinal-synaptic-connectivity-and-attenuates-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-reactivity
#17
Sehwon Koh, William J Chen, Nadine S Dejneka, Ian R Harris, Bin Lu, Sergey Girman, Joshua Saylor, Shaomei Wang, Cagla Eroglu
Human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC or palucorcel) are currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of geographic atrophy, a late stage of macular degeneration, but how hUTC transplantation mediates vision recovery is not fully elucidated. Subretinal administration of hUTC preserves visual function in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, a genetic model of retinal degeneration caused by Mertk loss-of-function. hUTC secrete synaptogenic and neurotrophic factors that improve the health and connectivity of the neural retina...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428972/the-role-of-brain-barriers-in-fluid-movement-in-the-cns-is-there-a-glymphatic-system
#18
REVIEW
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+, Ca2+, and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426929/selective-pegylation-of-parylene-c-sio2-substrates-for-improved-astrocyte-cell-patterning
#19
B J Raos, C S Doyle, M C Simpson, E S Graham, C P Unsworth
Controlling the spatial distribution of glia and neurons in in vitro culture offers the opportunity to study how cellular interactions contribute to large scale network behaviour. A recently developed approach to cell-patterning uses differential adsorption of animal-serum protein on parylene-C and SiO2 surfaces to enable patterning of neurons and glia. Serum, however, is typically poorly defined and generates reproducibility challenges. Alternative activation methods are highly desirable to enable patterning without relying on animal serum...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425908/enteric-glia-diversity-or-plasticity
#20
Simon Valès, Melissa Touvron, Laurianne Van Landeghem
Glial cells of the enteric nervous system correspond to a unique glial lineage distinct from other central and peripheral glia and form a vast and abundant network spreading throughout all the layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Research over the last two decades has demonstrated that enteric glia regulates all major gastrointestinal functions via multiple bi-directional crosstalk with enteric neurons and other neighboring cell types. Recent studies propose that enteric glia represents a heterogeneous population associated with distinct localization within the gut wall, phenotype and activity...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research
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