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Lin Fu, Jinlong Shi, Anqi Liu, Lei Zhou, Mengmeng Jiang, Huaping Fu, Keman Xu, Dandan Li, Ailing Deng, Qingyi Zhang, Yifan Pang, Yujie Guo, Kai Hu, Jiansuo Zhou, Yapeng Wang, Wenrong Huang, Yu Jing, Liping Dou, Lili Wang, Kailin Xu, Xiaoyan Ke, Clara Nervi, Yonghui Li, Li Yu
MicroRNA-9-1(miR-9-1) plays an important role in the mechanism that regulates the lineage fate of differentiating hematopoietic cells. Recent studies have shown that miR-9-1 is downregulated in t (8; 21) AML. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying miR-9-1 down-regulation and the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion protein, generated from the translocation of t (8; 21) in AML, remain unclear. RUNX1-RUNX1T1 can induce leukemogenesis through resides in and functions as a stable RUNX1-RUNX1T1-containing transcription factor complex...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Hai-Qiang Dai, Bang-An Wang, Lu Yang, Jia-Jia Chen, Guo-Chun Zhu, Mei-Ling Sun, Hao Ge, Rui Wang, Deborah L Chapman, Fuchou Tang, Xin Sun, Guo-Liang Xu
Mammalian genomes undergo epigenetic modifications, including cytosine methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by the Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases can lead to demethylation. Although cytosine methylation has key roles in several processes such as genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation, the functional significance of cytosine methylation and demethylation in mouse embryogenesis remains to be fully determined. Here we show that inactivation of all three Tet genes in mice leads to gastrulation phenotypes, including primitive streak patterning defects in association with impaired maturation of axial mesoderm and failed specification of paraxial mesoderm, mimicking phenotypes in embryos with gain-of-function Nodal signalling...
October 19, 2016: Nature
E Balada, L Felip, J Ordi-Ros, M Vilardell-Tarrés
We evaluated the transcriptional expression of DUSP23 in CD4+ T cells from 30 SLE patients and 30 healthy controls. DUSP23 mRNA levels were considerably higher in the patients group: 1,490 ± 1,713 versus 294,1 ± 204,2. None association was found between DUSP23 mRNA expression and the presence of typical serological and clinical parameters associated to SLE. Meaningful statistical values were obtained in the patients group between the levels of DUSP23 and ITGAL, PRF1, and CD40L. Similarly, transcript levels of different DNA methylation-related enzymes (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, MBD2, and MBD4) were also positively correlated to the expression of DUSP23...
October 13, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Nidal E Muvarak, Khadiza Chowdhury, Limin Xia, Carine Robert, Eun Yong Choi, Yi Cai, Marina Bellani, Ying Zou, Zeba N Singh, Vu H Duong, Tyler Rutherford, Pratik Nagaria, Søren M Bentzen, Michael M Seidman, Maria R Baer, Rena G Lapidus, Stephen B Baylin, Feyruz V Rassool
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) are clinically effective predominantly for BRCA-mutant tumors. We introduce a mechanism-based strategy to enhance PARPi efficacy based on DNA damage-related binding between DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and PARP1. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and breast cancer cells, DNMT inhibitors (DNMTis) alone covalently bind DNMTs into DNA and increase PARP1 tightly bound into chromatin. Low doses of DNMTis plus PARPis, versus each drug alone, increase PARPi efficacy, increasing amplitude and retention of PARP1 directly at laser-induced DNA damage sites...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Cell
Xiaowu Zhong, Yuanhong Peng, Chengjiao Yao, Yufeng Qing, Qibin Yang, Xiaolan Guo, Wenguang Xie, Mingcai Zhao, Xiaoming Cai, Jing-Guo Zhou
Gouty arthritis is the most common type of inflammatory and immune disease, and the prevalence and incidence of gout increases annually. Genetic variations in the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) gene have not, to the best of our knowledge, been reported to influence gene expression and to participate in the pathogenesis of gout. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B polymorphisms contribute to gout susceptibility. These polymorphisms were screened for in 336 gout patients and 306 healthy control subjects (from a South China population) for association with gout...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Mathilde Cheray, Romain Pacaud, Arulraj Nadaradjane, Lisa Oliver, François M Vallette, Pierre-François Cartron
DNA methylation is a fundamental feature of genomes and is a candidate for pharmacological manipulation that might have important therapeutic advantage. Thus, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) appear to be ideal targets for drug intervention. By focusing on interactions existing between DNMT3A and DNMT3A-binding protein (D3A-BP), our work identifies the DNMT3A/ISGF3γ interaction such as a biomarker whose the presence level is associated with a poor survival prognosis and with a poor prognosis of response to the conventional chemotherapeutic treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (radiation plus temozolomide)...
2016: Theranostics
Zhiying Huang, Qiuju Huang, Liyan Ji, Ying Wang, Xiaoxiao Qi, Liang Liu, Zhongqiu Liu, Linlin Lu
Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and other patterns. These processes are associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Thus, epigenetic modification-related enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), histone demethylases (HDMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone deacetylases (HDACs), as well as some related proteins, including methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBPs) and DNMT1-associated protein (DMAP 1), are considered as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Stephanie D Biergans, Charles Claudianos, Judith Reinhard, C G Galizia
The activity of the epigenetic writers DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) after olfactory reward conditioning is important for both stimulus-specific long-term memory (LTM) formation and extinction. It, however, remains unknown which components of memory formation Dnmts regulate (e.g., associative vs. non-associative) and in what context (e.g., varying training conditions). Here, we address these aspects in order to clarify the role of Dnmt-mediated DNA methylation in memory formation. We used a pharmacological Dnmt inhibitor and classical appetitive conditioning in the honeybee Apis mellifera, a well characterized model for classical conditioning...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Chao Huang, Hong Liu, Xiu-Li Gong, Liyun Wu, Bin Wen
Tissue microenvironment functions as a pivotal mediator in colorectal carcinogenesis, and its alteration can cause some important cellular responses including epigenetic events. The present study examined histologically altered tissue structure, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and their corresponding expression of target microRNAs (miRNA). Tissues resected by surgery were from primary colorectal carcinoma. These samples were from three locations: and were ≥10, 5 and ≤2 cm away from the proximal lesion of colon cancer, and marked as no...
September 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Zhuxia Zhang, Jie Yang, Xiaolei Liu, Xiaoe Jia, Shengdi Xu, Kerui Gong, Shaochun Yan, Chunyang Zhang, Guo Shao
BACKGROUND: Learning and memory is a complex process. Some reports have shown that protein kinases (PKs) and phosphatases (PPs) are important mediators in this process. And it is also well known that protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 (PP1) and DNA methylation are critically involved in learning and memory. METHODS: In the current study, the mice and cultured cells (NG108-15) were treated with vehicle or 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-cdR), a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor...
September 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
A M O'Doherty, L C O'Shea, O Sandra, P Lonergan, T Fair, N Forde
The endometrium plays a key role in providing an optimal environment for attachment of the preimplantation embryo during the early stages of pregnancy. Investigations over the past 2 decades have demonstrated that vital epigenetic processes occur in the embryo during the preimplantation stages of development. However, few studies have investigated the potential role of imprinted genes and their associated modulators, the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), in the bovine endometrium during the pre- and peri-implantation period...
September 21, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jie Zhu, Feng Zhu, Na Zhao, Xin Mu, Pingping Li, Wei Wang, Jian Liu, Xiancang Ma
Previous studies demonstrated that dysfunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis played an important role in morphine dependence. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanism underlying morphine-induced HPA axis dysfunction and morphine dependence remains unclear. In the current study, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), was used to examine the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) promoter 17 methylation on chronic morphine-induced HPA axis dysfunction and behavioral changes in rats and the underlying mechanism...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Heba M Gouda, Nermine M Kamel, Safa S Meshaal
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an epigenetic process that refers to chromatin-based mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression without DNA alternation. It is mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) gene contains a C-to-T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2424913) in the Promotor region, 149 base pairs from the transcription start site, which is reported to significantly increase the Promotor activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalance of rs2424913 single nucleotide polymorphism located in the DNMT3B gene Promotor...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
F D Prieto-Martínez, A Peña-Castillo, O Méndez-Lucio, E Fernández-de Gortari, J L Medina-Franco
In light of the emerging field of Epi-informatics, ie, computational methods applied to epigenetic research, molecular docking, and dynamics, pharmacophore and activity landscape modeling and QSAR play a key role in the development of modulators of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), one of the major epigenetic target families. The increased chemical information available for modulators of DNMTs has opened up the avenue to explore the epigenetic relevant chemical space (ERCS). Herein, we discuss recent progress on the identification and development of inhibitors of DNMTs as potential epi-drugs and epi-probes that have been driven by molecular modeling and chemoinformatics methods...
2016: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
Michael J Morris, Elisa S Na, Anita E Autry, Lisa M Monteggia
DNA methylation has been shown to impact certain forms of synaptic and behavioral plasticity that have been implicated in the development in psychiatric disorders. DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes that continue to be expressed in postmitotic neurons in the forebrain. Using a conditional forebrain knockout of DNMT1 or DNMT3a we assessed the role of these DNMTs in anxiety and depressive-like behavior in mice using an array of behavioral testing paradigms. Forebrain deletion of DNMT1 had anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties as assessed by elevated plus maze, novelty suppressed feeding, forced swim, and social interaction tests...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
T Pócza, T Krenács, E Turányi, J Csáthy, Z Jakab, P Hauser
Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in cancer development. DNA methylation modulates gene expression, which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The objective of our study was to evaluate expression of DNMTs in medulloblastoma and analyze its correlation with clinical features. Nuclear expression of DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B was analyzed in human primary medulloblastoma of 44 patients using immunohistochemistry. Correlation of expression of DNMT levels with classical histological subtypes, novel molecular subgroups and survival of patients was analyzed...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Albert Jeltsch, Renata Z Jurkowska
In mammals, DNA methylation is introduced by the DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B methyltransferases, which are all large multi-domain proteins containing a catalytic C-terminal domain and an N-terminal part with regulatory functions. Recently, two novel regulatory principles of DNMTs were uncovered. It was shown that their catalytic activity is under allosteric control of N-terminal domains with autoinhibitory function, the RFT and CXXC domains in DNMT1 and the ADD domain in DNMT3. Moreover, targeting and activity of DNMTs were found to be regulated in a concerted manner by interactors and posttranslational modifications (PTMs)...
October 14, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Yanchun Pan, Takuji Daito, Yo Sasaki, Yong Hee Chung, Xiaoyun Xing, Santhi Pondugula, S Joshua Swamidass, Ting Wang, Albert H Kim, Hiroko Yano
Although epigenetic abnormalities have been described in Huntington's disease (HD), the causal epigenetic mechanisms driving neurodegeneration in HD cortex and striatum remain undefined. Using an epigenetic pathway-targeted drug screen, we report that inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), decitabine and FdCyd, block mutant huntingtin (Htt)-induced toxicity in primary cortical and striatal neurons. In addition, knockdown of DNMT3A or DNMT1 protected neurons against mutant Htt-induced toxicity, together demonstrating a requirement for DNMTs in mutant Htt-triggered neuronal death and suggesting a neurodegenerative mechanism based on DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional repression...
2016: Scientific Reports
Natwadee Poomipark, Janet E Flatley, Marilyn H Hill, Barbara Mangnall, Elnaz Azar, Peter Grabowski, Hilary J Powers
BACKGROUND: Methyl donor status influences DNA stability and DNA methylation although little is known about effects on DNA methyltransferases. The aim of this study was to determine whether methyldonor status influences DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) gene expression in cervical cancer cells, and if so, whether there are associated effects on global DNA methylation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human cervical cancer cell line, C4 II, was grown in complete medium and medium depleted of folate (FM+) and folate and methionine (FM)...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Lauren Prusinski, Ayman Al-Hendy, Qiwei Yang
Endocrine disruptions induced by environmental toxicants have placed an immense burden on society to properly diagnose, treat and attempt to alleviate symptoms and disease. Environmental exposures during critical periods of development can permanently reprogram normal physiological responses, thereby increasing susceptibility to disease later in life - a process known as developmental reprogramming. During development, organogenesis and tissue differentiation occur through a continuous series of tightly-regulated and precisely-timed molecular, biochemical and cellular events...
July 2016: Gynecol Obstet Res
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