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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149474/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#1
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130757/international-barcode-of-life-focus-on-big-biodiversity-in-south-africa
#2
Sarah J Adamowicz, Peter M Hollingsworth, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Michelle van der Bank
Participants in the 7th International Barcode of Life Conference (Kruger National Park, South Africa, 20-24 November 2017) share the latest findings in DNA barcoding research and its increasingly diversified applications. Here, we review prevailing trends synthesized from among 429 invited and contributed abstracts, which are collated in this open-access special issue of Genome. Hosted for the first time on the African continent, the 7th Conference places special emphasis on the evolutionary origins, biogeography, and conservation of African flora and fauna...
November 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127232/epidemiology-of-hypertension-in-northern-tanzania-a-community-based-mixed-methods-study
#3
Sophie W Galson, Catherine A Staton, Francis Karia, Kajiru Kilonzo, Joseph Lunyera, Uptal D Patel, Julian T Hertz, John W Stanifer
INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to the growing global burden of hypertension, but epidemiological studies are limited and barriers to optimal management are poorly understood. Therefore, we undertook a community-based mixed-methods study in Tanzania to investigate the epidemiology of hypertension and barriers to care. METHODS: In Northern Tanzania, between December 2013 and June 2015, we conducted a mixed-methods study, including a cross-sectional household epidemiological survey and qualitative sessions of focus groups and in-depth interviews...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110756/apol1-nephropathy-a-population-genetics-and-evolutionary-medicine-detective-story
#4
REVIEW
Etty Kruzel-Davila, Walter G Wasser, Karl Skorecki
Common DNA sequence variants rarely have a high-risk association with a common disease. When such associations do occur, evolutionary forces must be sought, such as in the association of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene risk variants with nondiabetic kidney diseases in populations of African ancestry. The variants originated in West Africa and provided pathogenic resistance in the heterozygous state that led to high allele frequencies owing to an adaptive evolutionary selective sweep. However, the homozygous state is disadvantageous and is associated with a markedly increased risk of a spectrum of kidney diseases encompassing hypertension-attributed kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy, sickle cell nephropathy, and progressive lupus nephritis...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095899/a-systematic-review-of-emergency-department-based-hiv-testing-and-linkage-to-care-initiatives-in-low-resource-settings
#5
Bhakti Hansoti, Gabor D Kelen, Thomas C Quinn, Madeleine M Whalen, Taylor T DesRosiers, Steven J Reynolds, Andrew Redd, Richard E Rothman
INTRODUCTION: Only 45% of people currently living with HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa are aware of their HIV status. Unmet testing needs may be addressed by utilizing the Emergency Department (ED) as an innovative testing venue in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of this review is to examine the burden of HIV infection described in EDs in LMICs, with a focus on summarizing the implementation of various ED-based HIV testing strategies. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review of Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library on June 12, 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082016/randomised-controlled-trial-of-two-sequential-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy-regimens-to-treat-uncomplicated-falciparum-malaria-in-african-children-a-protocol-to-investigate-safety-efficacy-and-adherence
#6
Henk Dfh Schallig, Halidou Tinto, Patrick Sawa, Harparkash Kaur, Stephan Duparc, Deus S Ishengoma, Pascal Magnussen, Michael Alifrangis, Colin J Sutherland
BACKGROUND: Management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria relies on artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These highly effective regimens have contributed to reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. However, artemisinin resistance in Asia and changing parasite susceptibility to ACT in Africa have now been well documented. Strategies that retain current ACT as efficacious treatments are urgently needed. METHODS: We present an open-label, randomised three-arm clinical trial protocol in three African settings representative of varying malaria epidemiology to investigate whether prolonged ACT-based regimens using currently available formulations can eliminate potentially resistant parasites...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073202/questionnaire-survey-of-the-pan-african-trade-in-lion-body-parts
#7
Vivienne L Williams, Andrew J Loveridge, David J Newton, David W Macdonald
The African lion is in decline across its range, and consumptive utilisation and trade of their body parts and skins has been postulated as a cause for concern. We undertook a pan-African questionnaire and literature survey to document informed opinion and evidence for the occurrence of domestic and international trade and consumption in African lion body parts across current and former range states. Sixty-five people from 18 countries participated in the online questionnaire survey (run from July 2014 to May 2015), with information provided for 28 countries (including 20 out of 24 countries believed to have extant populations)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072885/cardiopulmonary-ultrasound-for-critically-ill-adults-improves-diagnostic-accuracy-in-a-resource-limited-setting-the-africa-trial
#8
Torben K Becker, Chelsea A Tafoya, Maxwell Osei-Ampofo, Matthew J Tafoya, Ross A Kessler, Nikhil Theyyunni, Hussein A Yakubu, Daniel Opuni, Daniel J Clauw, James A Cranford, Chris K Oppong, Rockefeller A Oteng
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a cardiopulmonary ultrasound (CPUS) examination on diagnostic accuracy for critically ill patients in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: Approximately half of the emergency medicine resident physicians at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana, were trained in a CPUS protocol. Adult patients triaged to the resuscitation area of the emergency department (ED) were enrolled if they exhibited signs or symptoms of shock or respiratory distress...
October 26, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992388/impact-of-nutrition-interventions-on-pediatric-mortality-and-nutrition-outcomes-in-humanitarian-emergencies
#9
REVIEW
Kamna S Balhara, David M Silvestri, W Tyler Winders, Anand Selvam, Sean M Kivlehan, Torben K Becker, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition contributes to pediatric morbidity and mortality in disasters and complex emergencies, but summary data describing specific nutritional interventions in these settings are lacking. This systematic review aims to characterize such interventions and their effects on pediatric mortality, anthropometric measures, and serum markers of nutrition. METHODS: A systematic search of OVID Medline, Cochrane Library, and relevant grey literature was conducted...
October 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986822/global-spread-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-predicting-pandemics
#10
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926584/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-molecular-anthelmintic-effects-of-procyanidins-in-c-elegans
#11
Verena Spiegler, Andreas Hensel, Jochen Seggewiß, Milena Lubisch, Eva Liebau
Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are affected by infestations with soil-transmitted helminths and also in veterinary medicine helminthiases are a severe threat to livestock due to emerging resistances against the common anthelmintics. Proanthocyanidins have been increasingly investigated for their anthelmintic properties, however, except for an interaction with certain proteins of the nematodes, not much is known about their mode of action. To investigate the anthelmintic activity on a molecular level, a transcriptome analysis was performed in Caenorhabditis elegans after treatment with purified and fully characterized oligomeric procyanidins (OPC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922959/compliance-to-the-primary-health-care-treatment-guidelines-and-the-essential-medicines-list-in-the-management-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-correctional-centres-in-south-africa-findings-and-implications
#12
Tammy B Matsitse, Elvera Helberg, Johanna C Meyer, Brian Godman, Amos Massele, Natalie Schellack
BACKGROUND: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global concern and a growing health crisis. Additionally, evidence has shown that non-compliance to treatment guidelines, especially in the management of communicable diseases such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), has the potential of further enhancing AMR rates. Data on the extent of these challenges in Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in correctional centres in South Africa (SA) is limited. Hence this study was conducted to determine the level of compliance with the 2008 PHC Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List (PHC STGs/EML) in the management of STIs, and to identify potential factors contributing to the compliance and non-compliance to guide future strategies...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798200/wearable-physiological-monitoring-for-human-thermal-work-strain-optimization
#13
Mark J Buller, Alexander Pearson Welles, Karl E Friedl
Safe performance limits of soldiers and athletes have typically relied on predictive work-rest models of ambient conditions, average work intensity, and characteristics of the population. Bioengineering advances in noninvasive sensor technologies including miniaturization, reduced cost, power requirements, and comfort now make it possible to produce individual predictions of safe thermal-work limits. These precision medicine assessments depend on the development of thoughtful algorithms based on physics and physiology...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774809/towards-diversity-in-genomics-the-emergence-of-neurogenomics-in-africa
#14
Emmanuel Quansah, Nathaniel W McGregor
There is a high burden of mental and neurological disorders in Africa. Nevertheless, there appears to be an under-representation of African ancestry populations in large-scale genomic studies. Here, we evaluated the extent of under-representation of Africans in neurogenomic studies in the GWAS Catalog. We found 569 neurogenomic studies, of which 88.9% were exclusively focused on people with European ancestry and the remaining 11.1% having African ancestry cases included. In terms of population, only 1.2% of the total populations involved in these 569 GWAS studies were of African descent...
August 1, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760166/quantifying-network-dynamics-and-information-flow-across-chinese-social-media-during-the-african-ebola-outbreak
#15
Shihui Feng, Liaquat Hossain, John W Crawford, Terry Bossomaier
OBJECTIVE: Social media provides us with a new platform on which to explore how the public responds to disasters and, of particular importance, how they respond to the emergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola. Provided it is appropriately informed, social media offers a potentially powerful means of supporting both early detection and effective containment of communicable diseases, which is essential for improving disaster medicine and public health preparedness. METHODS: The 2014 West African Ebola outbreak is a particularly relevant contemporary case study on account of the large number of annual arrivals from Africa, including Chinese employees engaged in projects in Africa...
August 1, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685669/understanding-how-domestic-health-policy-is-integrated-into-foreign-policy-in-south-africa-a-case-for-accelerating-access-to-antiretroviral-medicines
#16
Simon Moeketsi Modisenyane, Stephen James Heinrich Hendricks, Harvey Fineberg
BACKGROUND: South Africa, as an emerging middle-income country, is becoming increasingly influential in global health diplomacy (GHD). However, little empirical research has been conducted to inform arguments for the integration of domestic health into foreign policy by state and non-state actors. This study seeks to address this knowledge gap. It takes the form of an empirical case study which analyses how South Africa integrates domestic health into its foreign policy, using the lens of access to antiretroviral (ARV) medicines...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595645/ethnobotanical-survey-of-medicinal-plants-used-as-insects-repellents-in-six-malaria-endemic-localities-of-cameroon
#17
Roger Ducos Fokouo Youmsi, Patrick Valère Tsouh Fokou, Elisabeth Zeuko'o Menkem, Issakou Bakarnga-Via, Rodrigue Keumoe, Victor Nana, Fabrice Fekam Boyom
BACKGROUND: The combined efforts to combat outdoor/indoor transmission of malaria parasites are hampered by the emerging vector resistance in a wide variety of malaria-endemic settings of Africa and the rest of the world, stressing the need for alternative control measures. This study aimed at documenting insect's repellent plant species used by indigenous populations of 6 localities of East, South, West and Centre regions of Cameroon. METHODS: Information was gathered through face-to-face interviews guided by a semi-structured questionnaire on the knowledge of medicinal plants with insect repellent properties...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592923/omics-based-molecular-techniques-in-oral-pathology-centred-cancer-prospect-and-challenges-in-africa
#18
REVIEW
Henry A Adeola, Olujide O Soyele, Anthonio O Adefuye, Sikiru A Jimoh, Azeez Butali
BACKGROUND: The completion of the human genome project and the accomplished milestones in the human proteome project; as well as the progress made so far in computational bioinformatics and "big data" processing have contributed immensely to individualized/personalized medicine in the developed world. MAIN BODY: At the dawn of precision medicine, various omics-based therapies and bioengineering can now be applied accurately for the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and risk stratification of cancer in a manner that was hitherto not thought possible...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582978/detection-and-prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-i-campylobacter-i-spp-isolated-from-chickens-and-humans
#19
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Campylobacter spp. are common pathogenic bacteria in both veterinary and human medicine. Infections caused by Campylobacter spp. are usually treated using antibiotics. However, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been proven to spearhead the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from chickens and human clinical cases in South Africa. One hundred and sixty one isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were collected from chickens and human clinical cases and then screened for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes...
May 29, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464937/seasonal-vaccination-against-malaria-a-potential-use-for-an-imperfect-malaria-vaccine
#20
REVIEW
Brian Greenwood, Alassane Dicko, Issaka Sagara, Issaka Zongo, Halidou Tinto, Matthew Cairns, Irene Kuepfer, Paul Milligan, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo, Ogobara Doumbo, Daniel Chandramohan
In many parts of the African Sahel and sub-Sahel, where malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity, transmission of the infection is highly seasonal. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), which involves administration of a full course of malaria treatment to young children at monthly intervals during the high transmission season, is proving to be an effective malaria control measure in these areas. However, SMC does not provide complete protection and it is demanding to deliver for both families and healthcare givers...
May 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
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