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Africa emergency medicine

Maria Baudin, Ammar M Jumaa, Huda J E Jomma, Mubarak S Karsany, Göran Bucht, Jonas Näslund, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander, Nahla Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes infections in animals and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever lead to mass abortions in livestock, but such abortions have not been identified in human beings. Our aim was to investigate the cause of miscarriages in febrile pregnant women in an area endemic for Rift Valley fever. METHODS: Pregnant women with fever of unknown origin who attended the governmental hospital of Port Sudan, Sudan, between June 30, 2011, and Nov 17, 2012, were sampled at admission and included in this cross-sectional study...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Glendon Diehl, Nicole Bradstreet, Felicia Monahan
Tasked with analyzing the effectiveness of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) global health engagements, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) used the Measures Of Effectiveness in Defense Engagement and Learning (MODEL) study to conduct a qualitative analysis of the DoD's response efforts to the Ebola pandemic in West Africa. The research aims to summarize the findings of studies that monitor and evaluate the DoD's response to the Ebola pandemic or compare the effectiveness of different DoD response activities; it further aims to identify common themes around positive and negative lessons learned and recommendations that can be applied to future DoD humanitarian assistance and disaster response efforts...
September 2016: Health Security
Sami Aziz Brahmi, Ziani Fatima Zahra, Youssef Seddik, Said Afqir
Cancer is a major public health problem in Africa. The progress in cancer treatment over the past decade is undeniable. The emergence of targeted therapies in oncology made it possible to modify the natural history of some cancers associated with a poor prognosis. Despite their efficiency, these therapies pose a major health care problem that makes them inaccessible to most patients in developing countries. In Morocco, cancer is considered a long-term condition and for this reasons patients have health insurance coverage...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Bruck M Habte, Tedla Kebede, Teferi G Fenta, Heather Boon
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, which is increasing as a public health problem in the low resource settings of Africa has been associated with the high prevalence of micro-vascular complications and increasing levels of macro-vascular complications. There is evidence from the developed world that understanding patient perceptions of chronic illness is important to design effective strategies for helping patients manage these conditions. This study utilized Kleinman's model to explore the illness perceptions of type 2 diabetes patients attending treatment in Addis Ababa and Butajira (Ethiopia) and better understand how they manage their illness...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Sophie Witter, Patrick G Ilboudo, Nadia Cunden, Chakib Boukhalfa, Patrick Makoutode, Zoumana Daou
Many countries, especially in Africa, have in recent years introduced fee exemptions or subsidies targeting deliveries and emergency obstetric care. A number of aspects of these policies have been studied but there are few studies which look at how staff have been affected and how they have responded. This article focuses on this question, comparing data from Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Morocco. It is nested in wider evaluation of the policies. The article analyses responses to a health worker survey, carried out in 2012 on 683 health staff (doctors, nurses, midwives and others such as auxiliaries) across the four countries...
August 30, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
L E Higham, W Ongeri, K Asena, M V Thrusfield
A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise drug-dispensing practices amongst staff at animal health outlets and to explore perceptions of veterinary medicines amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of local animal health services by a Maasai pastoralist group and a dairy farmer cooperative...
August 31, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Anthony R Fehr, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Stanley Perlman
In 2012, a zoonotic coronavirus was identified as the causative agent of Middle East respiratory syndrome and was named MERS coronavirus (MERSCoV). As of June 27, 2016, the virus has infected 1,768 patients, with a mortality rate of 35.6%. Although MERS-CoV generally causes subclinical or mild disease, infection can result in serious outcomes, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure in patients with comorbidities. The virus is endemic in camels in the Arabian Peninsula and Africa and thus poses a consistent threat of frequent reintroduction into human populations...
August 26, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Deeksha Singh, Uttam Singh Baghel, Anshoo Gautam, Dheeraj Singh Baghel, Divya Yadav, Jai Malik, Rakesh Yadav
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Anogeissus (axlewood tree, ghatti tree, button tree and chewing stick tree) belongs to Combretaceae, includes eight species that are distributed in Asia and Africa. Plants are used as an ethnomedicine in Asia and Africa to treat various ailments like diabetes, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, tuberculosis, wound healing, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis), snake and scorpion venom. Based on the traditional knowledge, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities have been at the focus of research...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Frederick M Wekesah, Chidozie E Mbada, Adamson S Muula, Caroline W Kabiru, Stella K Muthuri, Chimaraoke O Izugbara
BACKGROUND: Many interventions have been implemented to improve maternal health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Currently, however, systematic information on the effectiveness of these interventions remains scarce. We conducted a systematic review of published evidence on non-drug interventions that reported effectiveness in improving outcomes and quality of care in maternal health in SSA. METHODS: African Journals Online, Bioline, MEDLINE, Ovid, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched for studies published in English between 2000 and 2015 and reporting on the effectiveness of interventions to improve quality and outcomes of maternal health care in SSA...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Jeremiah Chikovore, Natasha Gillespie, Nuala McGrath, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Thembelihle Zuma
Men's poorer engagement with healthcare generally and HIV care specifically, compared to women, is well-described. Within the HIV public health domain, interest is growing in universal test and treat (UTT) strategies. UTT strategies refer to the expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in order to reduce onward transmission and incidence of HIV in a population, through a "treatment as prevention" (TasP). This paper focuses on how masculinity influences engagement with HIV care in the context of an on-going TasP trial...
2016: AIDS Care
Bronwyne Coetzee, Ashraf Kagee, Ruth Bland
For children younger than five years, caregivers are responsible for the measurement and administration of antiretroviral medication doses to children. Failure to adhere to the regimen as prescribed may lead to high viral loads (VLs), immune suppression and ultimately drug resistance. In the content of this study, adherence refers to adequate dosing of the medication by a caregiver. Acquired drug resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is prevalent amongst children in South Africa, and poor adherence to the dosing regimen by caregivers may be associated with this problem...
March 2016: AIDS Care
Shabir Moosa, John Luiz, Teresa Carmichael, Wim Peersman, Anselme Derese
BACKGROUND: The South African government intends to contract with 'accredited provider groups' for capitated primary care under National Health Insurance (NHI). South African solo general practitioners (GPs) are unhappy with group practice. There is no clarity on the views of GPs in group practice on contracting to the NHI. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographic and practice profile of GPs in group practice in South Africa, and evaluate their views on NHI, compared to solo GPs...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Ester Innocent
The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems...
June 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Sarah Finocchario-Kessler, Catherine Wexler, May Maloba, Natabhona Mabachi, Florence Ndikum-Moffor, Elizabeth Bukusi
BACKGROUND: Women living in Africa experience the highest burden of cervical cancer. Research and investment to improve vaccination, screening, and treatment efforts are critically needed. We systematically reviewed and characterized recent research within a broader public health framework to organize and assess the range of cervical cancer research in Africa. METHODS: We searched online databases and the Internet for published articles and cervical cancer reports in African countries...
2016: BMC Women's Health
Surendra Jain, Melissa Jacob, Larry Walker, Babu Tekwani
BACKGROUND: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a protozoan parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei. The disease is endemic in regions of sub-Saharan Africa, covering 36 countries and more than 60 million people at the risk. Only few drugs are available for the treatment of HAT. Current drugs suffer from severe toxicities and require intramuscular or intravenous administrations. The situation is further aggravated due to the emergence of drug resistance. There is an urgent need of new drugs that are effective orally against both stages of HAT...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Weyinshet Gossa, Dawit Wondimagegn, Demeke Mekonnen, Wondwossen Eshetu, Zerihun Abebe, Michael D Fetters
As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Kelsey B Loeliger, Linda M Niccolai, Lillian N Mtungwa, Anthony Moll, Sheela V Shenoi
South Africa has the largest global HIV/AIDS epidemic, but barriers along the HIV care continuum prevent patients from initiating and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART). To qualitatively explore reasons for poor ART initiation and adherence rates from the unique perspective of community health workers (CHWs), we conducted focus groups during May-August 2014 with 21 CHWs in rural Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated from Zulu into English. Hybrid deductive and inductive analytical methods were applied to identify emergent themes...
August 2016: AIDS Care
Ritu Shrivastava, Renuka Gadde, John N Nkengasong
After the launch of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in 2003, it became evident that inadequate laboratory systems and services would severely limit the scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention, care, and treatment programs. Thus, the Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Becton, Dickinson and Company developed a public-private partnership (PPP). Between October 2007 and July 2012, the PPP combined the competencies of the public and private sectors to boost sustainable laboratory systems and develop workforce skills in 4 African countries...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jason Yamaki, Kalyan C Nagulapalli Venkata, Animesh Mandal, Piyali Bhattacharyya, Anupam Bishayee
It is estimated that 80% of the world population depends on traditional medicine for primary healthcare need. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (family: Aizoaceae) is a small perennial weed found in the Americas, Africa, India, and other regions of the world. This plant is used extensively in Indian traditional medicines and is also consumed as a vegetable throughout Asia for its perceived health benefits. Phytochemical analysis of T. portulacastrum reveals the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds...
March 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Lawrence Liberti, Alasdair Breckenridge, Jarno Hoekman, Hubert Leufkens, Murray Lumpkin, Neil McAuslane, Pieter Stolk, Kaining Zhi, Lembit Rägo
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the characteristics of currently implemented expedited (facilitated) regulatory pathways (FRPs) used by national regulatory authorities (NRAs) in emerging economies to speed access to important new medicines. METHODS: We identified NRAs with FRPs through Thomson Reuters Cortellis Regulatory Intelligence and through agency Websites. We developed a list of 27 FRP characteristics. We categorised characteristics as procedural or substantive and based them on five sequential regulatory activities...
March 10, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
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