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Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Dimitris Pavlidis, Efstathios Panagou, George-John Nychas
Recently, imaging and machine vision are gaining attention to food stakeholders since these are considered to be the emerging tools for food safety and quality assessment throughout the whole food chain. Herein, multispectral imaging, a surface chemistry sensor type, has been evaluated in terms of monitoring aerobically packaged beef filet spoilage at different storage temperatures (2, 8, and 15°C) and storage time. Spectral data acquired from the surface of meat samples (with/without background flora; +BF/-BF respectively) along with microbiological analysis...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Edmund R Glass, Mikhail G Dozmorov
BACKGROUND: The goal of many human disease-oriented studies is to detect molecular mechanisms different between healthy controls and patients. Yet, commonly used gene expression measurements from blood samples suffer from variability of cell composition. This variability hinders the detection of differentially expressed genes and is often ignored. Combined with cell counts, heterogeneous gene expression may provide deeper insights into the gene expression differences on the cell type-specific level...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Xueyuan Cao, Kristine R Crews, James Downing, Jatinder Lamba, Stanley B Pounds
BACKGROUND: As new technologies allow investigators to collect multiple forms of molecular data (genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, etc) and multiple endpoints on a clinical trial cohort, it will become necessary to effectively integrate all these data in a way that reliably identifies biologically important genes. METHODS: We introduce CC-PROMISE as an integrated data analysis method that combines components of canonical correlation (CC) and projection onto the most interesting evidence (PROMISE)...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
José Pinela, João C M Barreira, Lillian Barros, Sandra Cabo Verde, Amilcar L Antonio, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Ana Maria Carvalho, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The effects of conventional and inert-gas enriched atmospheres, as well as those caused by different γ-irradiation doses, on buckler sorrel (Rumex induratus) leaves quality were evaluated and compared after 12 days of storage at 4 °C. The green colour of the abaxial surface of the leaves was relatively stable, as well as the carbohydrates content and the calorific value. The storage time decreased the amounts of fructose, glucose, trehalose, α-tocopherol, and β-tocopherol and increased the levels of total organic acids and δ-tocopherol...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
J Danielle Sharpe, Richard S Hopkins, Robert L Cook, Catherine W Striley
BACKGROUND: Traditional influenza surveillance relies on influenza-like illness (ILI) syndrome that is reported by health care providers. It primarily captures individuals who seek medical care and misses those who do not. Recently, Web-based data sources have been studied for application to public health surveillance, as there is a growing number of people who search, post, and tweet about their illnesses before seeking medical care. Existing research has shown some promise of using data from Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia to complement traditional surveillance for ILI...
October 20, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Daniel S Budnitz, Maribeth C Lovegrove, Mathew R P Sapiano, Justin Mathew, Scott R Kegler, Andrew I Geller, Christian Hampp
Expanding access to office-based medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid dependence is a key part of the national strategy to address the opioid abuse epidemic (1). However, as buprenorphine/naloxone prescribing increased, emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for unsupervised ingestions by young children began to increase, with buprenorphine/naloxone ingestions becoming the most common cause of hospitalization for medication ingestions by young children during 2010-2011 (2)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Rafael O Alvim, Andréa R V R Horimoto, Camila M Oliveira, Luiz A Bortolotto, José E Krieger, Alexandre C Pereira
BACKGROUND: Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, it has been recognized that arterial stiffness has familial aggregation; however, there are no studies involving Brazilian families. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heritability of arterial stiffness in a Brazilian population. METHODS: In this study, 1675 eligible individuals (both sexes and aged 18-102 years) were distributed in 125 families resident in the municipality of Baependi, a city located in the southeast of Brazil...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Irfan A Butt, Bilal Aslam, Muhammad H Rasool, Humerah B Shafiq, Mohsin Khurshid, Muhammad A Aslam
To test various items in hospital environment as reservoirs of bacteria. Methods: This simple descriptive study was conducted between June and December 2014. Pediatric wards of 4 different hospitals of Faisalabad, Pakistan were selected and 8 different items per hospital were sampled (n=160). Poisson regression analysis was carried out with R software and using lme4 package. Results: There were no differences between the  hospitals regarding total number of bacterial isolates or bacterial isolates per sample source or prevalent bacterial species...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Zhongheng Zhang
Case-crossover design is a variation of case-control design that it employs persons' history periods as controls. Case-crossover design can be viewed as the hybrid of case-control study and crossover design. Characteristic confounding that is constant within one person can be well controlled with this method. The relative risk and odds ratio, as well as their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), can be estimated using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method. R codes for the calculation are provided in the main text. Readers may adapt these codes to their own task...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Anne Rochtus, Raf Winand, Griet Laenen, Elise Vangeel, Benedetta Izzi, Christine Wittevrongel, Yves Moreau, Carla Verpoorten, Katrien Jansen, Chris Van Geet, Kathleen Freson
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations that arise from failure of neurulation during early embryonic development. The molecular basis underlying most human NTDs still remains largely unknown. Based on the hypothesis that folic acid prevents NTDs by stimulating methylation reactions, DNA methylation changes could play a role in NTDs. We performed a methylome analysis for patients with myelomeningocele (MMC). Using a candidate CpG analysis for HOX genes, a significant association between HOXB7 hypomethylation and MMC was found...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Matthew Stephens
SummaryWe introduce a new Empirical Bayes approach for large-scale hypothesis testing, including estimating false discovery rates (FDRs), and effect sizes. This approach has two key differences from existing approaches to FDR analysis. First, it assumes that the distribution of the actual (unobserved) effects is unimodal, with a mode at 0. This "unimodal assumption" (UA), although natural in many contexts, is not usually incorporated into standard FDR analysis, and we demonstrate how incorporating it brings many benefits...
October 17, 2016: Biostatistics
Nuredin Abduselam, Ahmed Zeynudin, Nicole Berens-Riha, Dinberu Seyoum, Michael Pritsch, Habtewold Tibebu, Kasahun Eba, Michael Hoelscher, Andreas Wieser, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Around half of the global population is living in areas at risk of malaria infection. Plasmodium vivax malaria has become increasingly prevalent and responsible for a high health and socio-economic burden in Ethiopia. The availability of gametocyte carriers and mosquito species susceptible to P. vivax infection are vital for malaria transmission. Determining the susceptibility of vector species to parasite infection in space and time is important in vector control programs...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Anthony G Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J Ward, Chase C Wilker, Brett B Smith, Daniel P Vezina, Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness:- anaesthetic drug regimens; and- intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Yujie Jia, Kun Nie, Jing Li, Xinyue Liang, Xuezhu Zhang
In order to investigate the pathogenic targets and associated biological process of Alzheimer's disease in the present study, mRNA expression profiles (GSE28146) and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles (GSE16759) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. In GSE28146, eight control samples, and Alzheimer's disease samples comprising seven incipient, eight moderate, seven severe Alzheimer's disease samples, were included. The Affy package in R was used for background correction and normalization of the raw microarray data...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Carl Brunius, Lin Shi, Rikard Landberg
INTRODUCTION: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a commonly used technique in untargeted metabolomics owing to broad coverage of metabolites, high sensitivity and simple sample preparation. However, data generated from multiple batches are affected by measurement errors inherent to alterations in signal intensity, drift in mass accuracy and retention times between samples both within and between batches. These measurement errors reduce repeatability and reproducibility and may thus decrease the power to detect biological responses and obscure interpretation...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Meghan R Longacre, Keith M Drake, Linda J Titus, Jennifer Harris, Lauren P Cleveland, Gail Langeloh, Kristy Hendricks, Madeline A Dalton
Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013...
October 13, 2016: Appetite
Elisa Salviato, Vera Djordjilović, Monica Chiogna, Chiara Romualdi
: In the omic era, one of the main aims is to discover groups of functionally related genes that drive the difference between different conditions. To this end, a plethora of potentially useful multivariate statistical approaches has been proposed, but their evaluation is hindered by the absence of a gold standard. Here, we propose a method for simulating biological data-gene expression, RPKM/FPKM or protein abundances-from two conditions, namely, a reference condition and a perturbation of it...
October 14, 2016: Bioinformatics
Liming Wang, L Zhu, R Luan, L Wang, J Fu, X Wang, L Sui
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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