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Bruna Demari-Silva, Laura Cristina Multini, Lincoln Suesdek, Tatiane M P Oliveira, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Mauro Toledo Marrelli
Culex coronator Dyar and Knab and Culex usquatus Dyar belong to the Coronator Group of the subgenus Culex. Culex coronator and Cx. usquatus are widespread and sympatric throughout their distribution range, which includes Brazil. Morphological identification of these species is based primarily on the characteristics of the male genitalia; females are indistinguishable using the qualitative characteristics employed in identification keys. The primary objective of this study was to distinguish females of Cx. coronator from those of Cx...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
René M Arvola, Chase A Weidmann, Traci M Tanaka Hall, Aaron C Goldstrohm
Eukaryotes possess a vast array of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that affect mRNAs in diverse ways to control protein expression. Combinatorial regulation of mRNAs by RBPs is emerging as the rule. No example illustrates this as vividly as the partnership of three Drosophila RBPs, Pumilio, Nanos and Brain Tumor, which have overlapping functions in development, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fertility and neurological processes. Here we synthesize thirty years of research with new insights into their molecular functions and mechanisms of action...
March 20, 2017: RNA Biology
Peter A Combs, Michael B Eisen
Patterning in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo is affected by multiple maternal factors, but the effect of these factors on spatial gene expression has not been systematically analyzed. Here we characterize the effect of the maternal factors Zelda, Hunchback and Bicoid by cryosectioning wildtype and mutant blastoderm stage embryos and sequencing mRNA from each slice. The resulting atlas of spatial gene expression highlights the intersecting roles of these factors in regulating spatial patterns, and serves as a resource for researchers studying spatial patterning in the early embryo...
2017: F1000Research
Keiko Hirono, Minoree Kohwi, Matt Q Clark, Ellie S Heckscher, Chris Q Doe
BACKGROUND: Drosophila and mammalian neural progenitors typically generate a diverse family of neurons in a stereotyped order. Neuronal diversity can be generated by the sequential expression of temporal transcription factors. In Drosophila, neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express the temporal transcription factors Hunchback (Hb), Kruppel, Pdm, and Castor. Hb is necessary and sufficient to specify early-born neuronal identity in multiple lineages, and is maintained in the post-mitotic neurons produced during each neuroblast expression window...
January 31, 2017: Neural Development
Emiliano Perez Ipiña, Silvina Ponce Dawson
During early development, the establishment of gradients of transcriptional factors determines the patterning of cell fates. The case of Bicoid (Bcd) in Drosophila melanogaster embryos is well documented and studied. There are still controversies as to whether SDD models in which Bcd is Synthesized at one end, then Diffuses and is Degraded can explain the gradient formation within the timescale observed experimentally. The Bcd gradient is observed in embryos that express a Bicoid-eGFP fusion protein (Bcd-GFP) which cannot differentiate if Bcd is freely diffusing or bound to immobile sites...
February 8, 2017: Physical Biology
Ana M Vélez, Elane Fishilevich, Natalie Matz, Nicholas P Storer, Kenneth E Narva, Blair D Siegfried
Parental RNAi (pRNAi) is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR) via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a successful pRNAi response in WCR for the genes brahma and hunchback...
December 24, 2016: Genes
Jonathan Desponds, Huy Tran, Teresa Ferraro, Tanguy Lucas, Carmina Perez Romero, Aurelien Guillou, Cecile Fradin, Mathieu Coppey, Nathalie Dostatni, Aleksandra M Walczak
The simultaneous expression of the hunchback gene in the numerous nuclei of the developing fly embryo gives us a unique opportunity to study how transcription is regulated in living organisms. A recently developed MS2-MCP technique for imaging nascent messenger RNA in living Drosophila embryos allows us to quantify the dynamics of the developmental transcription process. The initial measurement of the morphogens by the hunchback promoter takes place during very short cell cycles, not only giving each nucleus little time for a precise readout, but also resulting in short time traces of transcription...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Tsung-Ting Tsai, Chia-Ling Chen, Yee-Shin Lin, Chih-Peng Chang, Cheng-Chieh Tsai, Yi-Lin Cheng, Chao-Ching Huang, Chien-Jung Ho, Yi-Chao Lee, Liang-Tzung Lin, Ming-Kai Jhan, Chiou-Feng Lin
Patients with dengue virus (DENV) infection may also present acute viral encephalitis through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that encephalitic DENV-infected mice exhibited progressive hunchback posture, limbic seizures, limbic weakness, paralysis, and lethality 7 days post-infection. These symptoms were accompanied by CNS inflammation, neurotoxicity, and blood-brain barrier destruction. Microglial cells surrounding the blood vessels and injured hippocampus regions were activated by DENV infection. Pharmacologically depleting microglia unexpectedly increased viral replication, neuropathy, and mortality in DENV-infected mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kade P Pettie, Jacqueline M Dresch, Robert A Drewell
In the development of the Drosophila embryo, gene expression is directed by the sequence-specific interactions of a large network of protein transcription factors (TFs) and DNA cis-regulatory binding sites. Once the identity of the typically 8-10bp binding sites for any given TF has been determined by one of several experimental procedures, the sequences can be represented in a position weight matrix (PWM) and used to predict the location of additional TF binding sites elsewhere in the genome. Often, alignments of large (>200bp) genomic fragments that have been experimentally determined to bind the TF of interest in Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies are trimmed under the assumption that the majority of the binding sites are located near the center of all the aligned fragments...
August 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Junbo Liu, Yanyu Xiao, Tongli Zhang, Jun Ma
In a recent study, we investigated the regulation of hunchback (hb) transcription dynamics in Drosophila embryos. Our results suggest that shutdown of hb transcription at early nuclear cycle (nc) 14 is an event associated with the global changes taking place during the mid-blastula transition (MBT). Here we have developed a simple model of hb transcription dynamics during this transition time. With kinetic parameters estimated from our published experimental data, the model describes the dynamical processes of hb gene transcription and hb mRNA accumulation...
July 2, 2016: Fly
Susanta K Behura, Joseph Sarro, Ping Li, Keshava Mysore, David W Severson, Scott J Emrich, Molly Duman-Scheel
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial progress in mosquito genomic and genetic research, few cis-regulatory elements (CREs), DNA sequences that control gene expression, have been identified in mosquitoes or other non-model insects. Formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements paired with DNA sequencing, FAIRE-seq, is emerging as a powerful new high-throughput tool for global CRE discovery. FAIRE results in the preferential recovery of open chromatin DNA fragments that are not bound by nucleosomes, an evolutionarily conserved indicator of regulatory activity, which are then sequenced...
2016: BMC Genomics
Alexander V Spirov, Ekaterina M Myasnikova, David M Holloway
Gene network simulations are increasingly used to quantify mutual gene regulation in biological tissues. These are generally based on linear interactions between single-entity regulatory and target genes. Biological genes, by contrast, commonly have multiple, partially independent, cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) for regulator binding, and can produce variant transcription and translation products. We present a modeling framework to address some of the gene regulatory dynamics implied by this biological complexity...
April 2016: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
Antoine Desseaux, Michel Pionnier, Bernard Guillemin, Alain Charles Masquelet, Didier Maynart, Frédéric Dubrana
François Humbert (1776-1850) created in 1817 the first French orthopaedic institution, at a great turning point in orthopedics. Interested in "lame people" and "hunchbacks", he treated congenital hip dislocation and scoliosis, for about 30 years. Humbert's medical practice illustrated very well the deep transformation which occured in orthopedics at the beginning of the 19th century. As testimonies of Humbert's work, there are the books he published, his Memoirs, some buildings of his institution which have been reconverted into houses, but above all thirty-eight models of his "machines"...
July 2015: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
Hajime Nakao
Insect segment number within species appears to be fixed irrespective of germ types: long vs. short/intermediate. The present study showed induction of supernumerary segment formation by the knockdown of Bombyx hunchback (Bm-hb), presumably by terminal segment addition, a short/intermediate-like-segmentation mode that is not observed in normal Bombyx embryogenesis. This suggests that Bm-hb suppresses segmentation. The results obtained also suggest that the gap gene Bm-Kr (Bombyx Krüppel) provides a permissive environment for the progression of segmentation by suppressing the expression Bm-hb, which terminates segmentation...
May 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Bruce R Southey, Ping Zhu, Morgan K Carr-Markell, Zhengzheng S Liang, Amro Zayed, Ruiqiang Li, Gene E Robinson, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas
Among forager honey bees, scouts seek new resources and return to the colony, enlisting recruits to collect these resources. Differentially expressed genes between these behaviors and genetic variability in scouting phenotypes have been reported. Whole-genome sequencing of 44 Apis mellifera scouts and recruits was undertaken to detect variants and further understand the genetic architecture underlying the behavioral differences between scouts and recruits. The median coverage depth in recruits and scouts was 10...
2016: PloS One
Jean-Michel Carter, Melanie Gibbs, Casper J Breuker
The maternal effect genes responsible for patterning the embryo along the antero-posterior (AP) axis are broadly conserved in insects. The precise function of these maternal effect genes is the result of the localisation of their mRNA in the oocyte. The main developmental mechanisms involved have been elucidated in Drosophila melanogaster, but recent studies have shown that other insect orders often diverge in RNA localisation patterns. A recent study has shown that in the butterfly Pararge aegeria the distinction between blastodermal embryonic (i...
2015: PloS One
B Kladny
Hippocrates was the first to intensively describe and document the principles for the treatment of injuries and diseases of the spine. His principles for abrupt treatment of the "hunchback" were followed by physicians even up to the end of the nineteenth century. The non-operative treatment of scoliosis was improved in the beginning of the sixteenth century by the introduction of mechanical devices that started the development of corsets which are still in use in modern scoliosis treatment. Stretching beds were only in temporary use...
December 2015: Der Unfallchirurg
David Cheung, Jun Ma
A well-appreciated general feature of development is the ability to achieve a normal outcome despite the inevitable variability at molecular, genetic, or environmental levels. But it is not well understood how changes in a global factor such as temperature bring about specific challenges to a developmental system in molecular terms. Here we address this question using early Drosophila embryos where the maternal gradient Bicoid (Bcd) instructs anterior-patterning (AP) patterning. We show that temperature can impact the amplitude of the Bcd gradient in the embryo...
August 19, 2015: Scientific Reports
Jacques P Bothma, Hernan G Garcia, Samuel Ng, Michael W Perry, Thomas Gregor, Michael Levine
Metazoan genes are embedded in a rich milieu of regulatory information that often includes multiple enhancers possessing overlapping activities. In this study, we employ quantitative live imaging methods to assess the function of pairs of primary and shadow enhancers in the regulation of key patterning genes-knirps, hunchback, and snail-in developing Drosophila embryos. The knirps enhancers exhibit additive, sometimes even super-additive activities, consistent with classical gene fusion studies. In contrast, the hunchback enhancers function sub-additively in anterior regions containing saturating levels of the Bicoid activator, but function additively in regions where there are diminishing levels of the Bicoid gradient...
August 12, 2015: ELife
Heng Xu, Leonardo A Sepúlveda, Lauren Figard, Anna Marie Sokac, Ido Golding
We combine immunofluorescence and single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH), followed by automated image analysis, to quantify the concentration of nuclear transcription factors, number of transcription factors bound, and number of nascent mRNAs synthesized at individual gene loci. A theoretical model is used to decipher how transcription factor binding modulates the stochastic kinetics of mRNA production. We demonstrate this approach by examining the regulation of hunchback in the early Drosophila embryo...
August 2015: Nature Methods
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