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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791980/bicoid-mrna-localises-to-the-drosophila-oocyte-anterior-by-random-dynein-mediated-transport-and-anchoring
#1
Vítor Trovisco, Katsiaryna Belaya, Dmitry Nashchekin, Uwe Irion, George Sirinakis, Richard Butler, Jack J Lee, Elizabeth R Gavis, Daniel St Johnston
bicoid mRNA localises to the Drosophila oocyte anterior from stage 9 of oogenesis onwards to provide a local source for Bicoid protein for embryonic patterning. Live imaging at stage 9 reveals that bicoid mRNA particles undergo rapid Dynein-dependent movements near the oocyte anterior, but with no directional bias. Furthermore, bicoid mRNA localises normally in shot(2A2), which abolishes the polarised microtubule organisation. FRAP and photo-conversion experiments demonstrate that the RNA is stably anchored at the anterior, independently of microtubules...
October 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616358/transcriptional-activity-of-the-short-gastrulation-primary-enhancer-in-the-ventral-midline-requires-its-early-activity-in-the-presumptive-neurogenic-ectoderm
#2
Dong-Hyeon Shin, Joung-Woo Hong
The short gastrulation (sog) shadow enhancer directs early and late sog expression in the neurogenic ectoderm and the ventral midline of the developing Drosophila embryo, respectively. Here, evidence is presented that the sog primary enhancer also has both activities, with the late enhancer activity dependent on the early activity. Computational analyses showed that the sog primary enhancer contains five Dorsal (Dl)-, four Zelda (Zld)-, three Bicoid (Bcd)-, and no Single-minded (Sim)-binding sites. In contrast to many ventral midline enhancers, the primary enhancer can direct lacZ expression in the ventral midline as well as in the neurogenic ectoderm without a canonical Sim-binding site...
September 5, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528040/the-short-gastrulation-shadow-enhancer-employs-dual-modes-of-transcriptional-synergy
#3
Dong-Hyeon Shin, Joung-Woo Hong
It remains unclear how a limited amount of maternal transcription factor Dorsal (Dl) directs broad expression of short gastrulation (sog) throughout the presumptive neurogenic ectoderm in the Drosophila early embryo. Here, we present evidence that the sog shadow enhancer employs dual modes of transcriptional synergy to produce this broad pattern. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that a minimal enhancer region, systematically mapped in vivo, contains five Dl-, three Zelda (Zld)-, and three Bicoid (Bcd)-binding sites; four of these five Dl-binding sites are closed linked to two Zld- and two Bcd-binding sites...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474798/mrna-poly-a-tail-changes-specified-by-deadenylation-broadly-reshape-translation-in-drosophila-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#4
Stephen W Eichhorn, Alexander O Subtelny, Iva Kronja, Jamie C Kwasnieski, Terry L Orr-Weaver, David P Bartel
Because maturing oocytes and early embryos lack appreciable transcription, posttranscriptional regulatory processes control their development. To better understand this control, we profiled translational efficiencies and poly(A)-tail lengths throughout Drosophila oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The correspondence between translational-efficiency changes and tail-length changes indicated that tail-length changes broadly regulate translation until gastrulation, when this coupling disappears...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376588/the-bicoid-mrna-localization-factor-exuperantia-is-an-rna-binding-pseudonuclease
#5
Daniela Lazzaretti, Katharina Veith, Katharina Kramer, Claire Basquin, Henning Urlaub, Uwe Irion, Fulvia Bono
Anterior patterning in Drosophila is mediated by the localization of bicoid (bcd) mRNA at the anterior pole of the oocyte. Exuperantia (Exu) is a putative exonuclease (EXO) associated with bcd and required for its localization. We present the crystal structure of Exu, which reveals a dimeric assembly with each monomer consisting of a 3'-5' EXO-like domain and a sterile alpha motif (SAM)-like domain. The catalytic site is degenerate and inactive. Instead, the EXO-like domain mediates dimerization and RNA binding...
August 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253156/maternal-ap-determinants-in-the-drosophila-oocyte-and-embryo
#6
REVIEW
Jun Ma, Feng He, Gengqiang Xie, Wu-Min Deng
An animal embryo cannot initiate its journey of forming a new life on its own. It must rely on maternally provided resources and inputs to kick-start its developmental process. In Drosophila, the initial polarities of the embryo along both the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes are also specified by maternal determinants. Over the past several decades, genetic and molecular studies have identified and characterized such determinants, as well as the zygotic genetic regulatory networks that control patterning in the early embryo...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193268/hydrodynamic-modeling-of-bicoid-morphogen-gradient-formation-in-drosophila-embryo
#7
Jun Xie, Guo-Hui Hu
Bicoid is a maternal polarity determinant that mediates the anterior-posterior (AP) patterning in early Drosophila embryo. During oogenesis, its mRNA deposits at the anterior pole of the embryo and then translates to establish the Bicoid morphogen gradient soon after fertilization. Previous investigations indicated that the patterning is induced by the spatial gradient of Bicoid morphogen concentration, where the cytoplasmic convection plays a crucial role. The present study examines the effect of advection transport on the formation of the Bicoid morphogen gradient using direct simulation of the cytoplasmic streaming described by Navier-Stokes equations, in which the cytoplasm behaves as an incompressible Newtonian fluid...
May 19, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112292/shadow-enhancers-mediate-dynamic-shifts-of-gap-gene-expression-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#8
Ezzat El-Sherif, Michael Levine
Drosophila patterning genes often contain pairs of primary and shadow enhancers that possess overlapping activities [1-5]. It has been suggested that this regulatory "redundancy" helps ensure reliable activation of gene expression under stressful conditions such as increases in temperature [4, 5]. There is also evidence that shadow enhancers help produce sharp on/off boundaries of gene expression in response to small changes in the levels of regulatory factors, such as the maternal Bicoid gradient [6, 7]. Here, we use live-imaging methods to visualize the temporal dynamics of the gap genes Kruppel and knirps, which are essential for the patterning of the thorax and abdomen, respectively [8, 9]...
May 9, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009473/novel-pitx2-gene-mutations-in-patients-with-axenfeld-rieger-syndrome
#9
Morteza Seifi, Tim Footz, Sherry A M Taylor, Ghada M Elhady, Ebtesam M Abdalla, Michael A Walter
PURPOSE: Mutations in the bicoid-like transcription factor PITX2 gene often result in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder. We report here the discovery and characterization of novel PITX2 deletions in a small kindred with ARS. METHODS: Two familial patients (father and son) from a consanguineous family were examined in the present study. Patient DNA samples were screened for PITX2 mutations by DNA sequencing and for copy number variation by SYBR Green quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis...
March 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986359/extending-the-dynamic-range-of-transcription-factor-action-by-translational-regulation
#10
Thomas R Sokolowski, Aleksandra M Walczak, William Bialek, Gašper Tkačik
A crucial step in the regulation of gene expression is binding of transcription factor (TF) proteins to regulatory sites along the DNA. But transcription factors act at nanomolar concentrations, and noise due to random arrival of these molecules at their binding sites can severely limit the precision of regulation. Recent work on the optimization of information flow through regulatory networks indicates that the lower end of the dynamic range of concentrations is simply inaccessible, overwhelmed by the impact of this noise...
February 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970001/positional-information-and-cell-fate-determination-in-the-early-drosophila-embryo
#11
Eric Wieschaus
During early development in Drosophila, the spatial information of maternal gradients is translated into discrete transcriptional states determining cell fate. Information transfer depends on reproducibility of the gradients themselves, as well as the ability of cells to accurately measure and utilize morphogen concentrations in biologically meaning ways. In the following essay, these issues are discussed in context of the Bicoid gradient.
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883601/bicoid-gradient-formation-and-function-in-the-drosophila-pre-syncytial-blastoderm
#12
Zehra Ali-Murthy, Thomas B Kornberg
Bicoid (Bcd) protein distributes in a concentration gradient that organizes the anterior/posterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. It has been understood that bcd RNA is sequestered at the anterior pole during oogenesis, is not translated until fertilization, and produces a protein gradient that functions in the syncytial blastoderm after 9-10 nuclear divisions. However, technical issues limited the sensitivity of analysis of pre-syncytial blastoderm embryos and precluded studies of oocytes after stage 13. We developed methods to analyze stage 14 oocytes and pre-syncytial blastoderm embryos, and found that stage 14 oocytes make Bcd protein, that bcd RNA and Bcd protein distribute in matching concentration gradients in the interior of nuclear cycle 2-6 embryos, and that Bcd regulation of target gene expression is apparent at nuclear cycle 7, two cycles prior to syncytial blastoderm...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714926/pitx2c-increases-in-atrial-myocytes-from-chronic-atrial-fibrillation-patients-enhancing-iks-and-decreasing-ica-l
#13
Marta Pérez-Hernández, Marcos Matamoros, Adriana Barana, Irene Amorós, Ricardo Gómez, Mercedes Núñez, Sandra Sacristán, Ángel Pinto, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Juan Tamargo, Eva Delpón, Ricardo Caballero
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) produces rapid changes in the electrical properties of the atria (electrical remodelling) that promote its own recurrence. In chronic AF (CAF) patients, up-regulation of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKs) and down-regulation of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) are hallmarks of electrical remodelling and critically contribute to the abbreviation of action potential duration and atrial refractory period. Recent evidences suggested that Pitx2c, a bicoid-related homeodomain transcription factor involved in directing cardiac asymmetric morphogenesis, could play a role in atrial remodelling...
March 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26649896/biophysical-characterization-of-g-quadruplex-recognition-in-the-pitx1-mrna-by-the-specificity-domain-of-the-helicase-rhau
#14
Emmanuel O Ariyo, Evan P Booy, Trushar R Patel, Edis Dzananovic, Ewan K McRae, Markus Meier, Kevin McEleney, Jorg Stetefeld, Sean A McKenna
Nucleic acids rich in guanine are able to fold into unique structures known as G-quadruplexes. G-quadruplexes consist of four tracts of guanylates arranged in parallel or antiparallel strands that are aligned in stacked G-quartet planes. The structure is further stabilized by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds and monovalent cations centered between the planes. RHAU (RNA helicase associated with AU-rich element) is a member of the ATP-dependent DExH/D family of RNA helicases and can bind and resolve G-quadruplexes. RHAU contains a core helicase domain with an N-terminal extension that enables recognition and full binding affinity to RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644070/temporal-and-spatial-dynamics-of-scaling-specific-features-of-a-gene-regulatory-network-in-drosophila
#15
Honggang Wu, Manu, Renjie Jiao, Jun Ma
A widely appreciated aspect of developmental robustness is pattern formation in proportion to size. But how such scaling features emerge dynamically remains poorly understood. Here we generate a data set of the expression profiles of six gap genes in Drosophila melanogaster embryos that differ significantly in size. Expression patterns exhibit size-dependent dynamics both spatially and temporally. We uncover a dynamic emergence of under-scaling in the posterior, accompanied by reduced expression levels of gap genes near the middle of large embryos...
December 8, 2015: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26406117/cortical-microtubule-nucleation-can-organise-the-cytoskeleton-of-drosophila-oocytes-to-define-the-anteroposterior-axis
#16
Philipp Khuc Trong, Hélène Doerflinger, Jörn Dunkel, Daniel St Johnston, Raymond E Goldstein
Many cells contain non-centrosomal arrays of microtubules (MTs), but the assembly, organisation and function of these arrays are poorly understood. We present the first theoretical model for the non-centrosomal MT cytoskeleton in Drosophila oocytes, in which bicoid and oskar mRNAs become localised to establish the anterior-posterior body axis. Constrained by experimental measurements, the model shows that a simple gradient of cortical MT nucleation is sufficient to reproduce the observed MT distribution, cytoplasmic flow patterns and localisation of oskar and naive bicoid mRNAs...
September 25, 2015: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26286011/probing-the-impact-of-temperature-on-molecular-events-in-a-developmental-system
#17
David Cheung, Jun Ma
A well-appreciated general feature of development is the ability to achieve a normal outcome despite the inevitable variability at molecular, genetic, or environmental levels. But it is not well understood how changes in a global factor such as temperature bring about specific challenges to a developmental system in molecular terms. Here we address this question using early Drosophila embryos where the maternal gradient Bicoid (Bcd) instructs anterior-patterning (AP) patterning. We show that temperature can impact the amplitude of the Bcd gradient in the embryo...
August 19, 2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26267217/enhancer-additivity-and-non-additivity-are-determined-by-enhancer-strength-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#18
Jacques P Bothma, Hernan G Garcia, Samuel Ng, Michael W Perry, Thomas Gregor, Michael Levine
Metazoan genes are embedded in a rich milieu of regulatory information that often includes multiple enhancers possessing overlapping activities. In this study, we employ quantitative live imaging methods to assess the function of pairs of primary and shadow enhancers in the regulation of key patterning genes-knirps, hunchback, and snail-in developing Drosophila embryos. The knirps enhancers exhibit additive, sometimes even super-additive activities, consistent with classical gene fusion studies. In contrast, the hunchback enhancers function sub-additively in anterior regions containing saturating levels of the Bicoid activator, but function additively in regions where there are diminishing levels of the Bicoid gradient...
August 12, 2015: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26197438/bicoid-signal-extraction-with-a-selection-of-parametric-and-nonparametric-signal-processing-techniques
#19
Zara Ghodsi, Emmanuel Sirimal Silva, Hossein Hassani
The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid...
June 2015: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25953821/embryo-development-a-cysteine-clamp-gene-drives-embryo-polarity-in-the-midge-chironomus
#20
Jeff Klomp, Derek Athy, Chun Wai Kwan, Natasha I Bloch, Thomas Sandmann, Steffen Lemke, Urs Schmidt-Ott
In the fruit fly Drosophila, head formation is driven by a single gene, bicoid, which generates head-to-tail polarity of the main embryonic axis. Bicoid deficiency results in embryos with tail-to-tail polarity and no head. However, most insects lack bicoid, and the molecular mechanism for establishing head-to-tail polarity is poorly understood. We have identified a gene that establishes head-to-tail polarity of the mosquito-like midge, Chironomus riparius. This gene, named panish, encodes a cysteine-clamp DNA binding domain and operates through a different mechanism than bicoid...
May 29, 2015: Science
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