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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728024/origins-of-cell-type-specific-olfactory-processing-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-circuit
#1
Kengo Inada, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama
How cell-type-specific physiological properties shape neuronal functions in a circuit remains poorly understood. We addressed this issue in the Drosophila mushroom body (MB), a higher olfactory circuit, where neurons belonging to distinct glomeruli in the antennal lobe feed excitation to three types of intrinsic neurons, α/β, α'/β', and γ Kenyon cells (KCs). Two-photon optogenetics and intracellular recording revealed that whereas glomerular inputs add similarly in all KCs, spikes were generated most readily in α'/β' KCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726107/studying-a-novel-ecdysone-dependent-enhancer
#2
J V Nikolenko, A N Krasnov, M Y Mazina, S G Georgieva, N E Vorobyeva
Earlier [4], we developed a two-stage scheme of the activation of expression of the ecdysone cascade gene ftz-f1 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. In the first intron of the ftz-f1 gene, we found a binding site for the transcription activator DHR3. In this work, we studied the properties of this genomic element: the change in the histone modification level at different stages of transcription activation were analyzed, and data indicating the interaction of the intron element with the promoter were obtained...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720706/broadly-expressed-repressors-integrate-patterning-across-orthogonal-axes-in-embryos
#3
Theodora Koromila, Angelike Stathopoulos
The role of spatially localized repressors in supporting embryonic patterning is well appreciated, but, alternatively, the role ubiquitously expressed repressors play in this process is not well understood. We investigated the function of two broadly expressed repressors, Runt (Run) and Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], in patterning the Drosophila embryo. Previous studies have shown that Run and Su(H) regulate gene expression along anterior-posterior (AP) or dorsal-ventral (DV) axes, respectively, by spatially limiting activator action, but here we characterize a different role...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716036/short-dna-sequence-patterns-accurately-identify-broadly-active-human-enhancers
#4
Laura L Colbran, Ling Chen, John A Capra
BACKGROUND: Enhancers are DNA regulatory elements that influence gene expression. There is substantial diversity in enhancers' activity patterns: some enhancers drive expression in a single cellular context, while others are active across many. Sequence characteristics, such as transcription factor (TF) binding motifs, influence the activity patterns of regulatory sequences; however, the regulatory logic through which specific sequences drive enhancer activity patterns is poorly understood...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715438/a-sequence-level-model-of-an-intact-locus-predicts-the-location-and-function-of-nonadditive-enhancers
#5
Kenneth A Barr, John Reinitz
Metazoan gene expression is controlled through the action of long stretches of noncoding DNA that contain enhancers-shorter sequences responsible for controlling a single aspect of a gene's expression pattern. Models built on thermodynamics have shown how enhancers interpret protein concentration in order to determine specific levels of gene expression, but the emergent regulatory logic of a complete regulatory locus shows qualitative and quantitative differences from isolated enhancers. Such differences may arise from steric competition limiting the quantity of DNA that can simultaneously influence the transcription machinery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715417/a-hox-complex-activates-and-potentiates-the-epidermal-growth-factor-signaling-pathway-to-specify-drosophila-oenocytes
#6
Guolun Wang, Lisa Gutzwiller, David Li-Kroeger, Brian Gebelein
Hox transcription factors specify distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis of metazoans by regulating target genes that modulate signaling pathways. A well-established example is the induction of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) signaling by an Abdominal-A (Abd-A) Hox complex during the specification of Drosophila hepatocyte-like cells (oenocytes). Previous studies revealed that Abd-A is non-cell autonomously required to promote oenocyte fate by directly activating a gene (rhomboid) that triggers EGF secretion from sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711868/human-ttbk1-ttbk2-and-mark1-kinase-toxicity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-is-exacerbated-by-co-expression-of-human-tau
#7
Josefin Fernius, Annika Starkenberg, Malgorzata Pokrzywa, Stefan Thor
Tau protein is involved in numerous human neurodegenerative diseases, and Tau hyper-phosphorylation has been linked to Tau aggregation and toxicity. Previous studies have addressed toxicity and phospho-biology of human Tau (hTau) in Drosophila melanogaster However, hTau transgenes have most often been randomly inserted in the genome, thus making it difficult to compare between different hTau isoforms and phospho-mutants. In addition, many studies have expressed hTau also in mitotic cells, causing non-physiological toxic effects...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707074/presenilin-1-delta-e9-mutant-induces-stim1-driven-store-operated-calcium-channel-hyperactivation-in-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Maria Ryazantseva, Anna Goncharova, Kseniia Skobeleva, Maksim Erokhin, Axel Methner, Pavel Georgiev, Elena Kaznacheyeva
Presenilins regulate calcium homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum, and dysregulation of intracellular calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Elevated presenilin-1 (PS1) holoprotein levels have been detected in postmortem brains of patients carrying familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) PS1 mutations. This study examines the effect of the FAD presenilin mutant that lacks the ninth exon (PS1 ∆E9) and does not undergo endoproteolysis on store-operated calcium (SOC) entry. Significant enhancement of SOC channel activation was detected by electrophysiological measurements in hippocampal neurons with PS1 ∆E9 mutant expression...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706074/germ-line-inherited-h3k27me3-restricts-enhancer-function-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#9
Fides Zenk, Eva Loeser, Rosaria Schiavo, Fabian Kilpert, Ozren Bogdanović, Nicola Iovino
Gametes carry parental genetic material to the next generation. Stress-induced epigenetic changes in the germ line can be inherited and can have a profound impact on offspring development. However, the molecular mechanisms and consequences of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance are poorly understood. We found that Drosophila oocytes transmit the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 to their offspring. Maternal contribution of the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of zeste, the enzymatic component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, is required for active propagation of H3K27me3 during early embryogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705899/a-novel-function-for-cactus-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-to-promote-dl-nuclear-localization-and-activity-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#10
Maira Arruda Cardoso, Marcio Fontenele, Bomyi Lim, Paulo Mascarello Bisch, Stanislav Shvartsman, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently respective to Cactus fluctuations...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701782/haeme-oxygenase-protects-against-uv-light-dna-damages-in-the-retina-in-clock-dependent-manner
#11
Milena Damulewicz, Agnieszka Loboda, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak, Elzbieta Pyza
In the present study, we showed that in the retina of Drosophila, the expression of the ho gene, encoding haeme oxygenase (HO), is regulated by light but only at the beginning of the day. This timing must be set by the circadian clock as light pulses applied at other time points during the day do not increase the ho mRNA level. Moreover, light-induced activation of HO does not depend on the canonical phototransduction pathway but instead involves cryptochrome and is enhanced by ultraviolet (UV) light. Interestingly, the level of DNA damage in the retina after UV exposure was inversely related to the circadian oscillation of the ho mRNA level during the night, being the highest when the HO level was low and reversed during the day...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700947/acute-dietary-restriction-acts-via-tor-pp2a-and-myc-signaling-to-boost-innate-immunity-in-drosophila
#12
Jung-Eun Lee, Morsi Rayyan, Allison Liao, Isaac Edery, Scott D Pletcher
Dietary restriction promotes health and longevity across taxa through mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we show that acute yeast restriction significantly improves the ability of adult female Drosophila melanogaster to resist pathogenic bacterial infections through an immune pathway involving downregulation of target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling, which stabilizes the transcription factor Myc by increasing the steady-state level of its phosphorylated forms through decreased activity of protein phosphatase 2A...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700946/sifamide-translates-hunger-signals-into-appetitive-and-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila
#13
Carlotta Martelli, Ulrike Pech, Simon Kobbenbring, Dennis Pauls, Britta Bahl, Mirjam Vanessa Sommer, Atefeh Pooryasin, Jonas Barth, Carmina Warth Perez Arias, Chrystalleni Vassiliou, Abud Jose Farca Luna, Haiko Poppinga, Florian Gerhard Richter, Christian Wegener, André Fiala, Thomas Riemensperger
Animal behavior is, on the one hand, controlled by neuronal circuits that integrate external sensory stimuli and induce appropriate motor responses. On the other hand, stimulus-evoked or internally generated behavior can be influenced by motivational conditions, e.g., the metabolic state. Motivational states are determined by physiological parameters whose homeostatic imbalances are signaled to and processed within the brain, often mediated by modulatory peptides. Here, we investigate the regulation of appetitive and feeding behavior in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693471/spatial-pattern-analysis-of-nuclear-migration-in-remodelled-muscles-during-drosophila-metamorphosis
#14
Kuleesha, Lin Feng, Martin Wasser
BACKGROUND: Many human muscle wasting diseases are associated with abnormal nuclear localization. During metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster, multi-nucleated larval dorsal abdominal muscles either undergo cell death or are remodeled to temporary adult muscles. Muscle remodeling is associated with anti-polar nuclear migration and atrophy during early pupation followed by polar migration and muscle growth during late pupation. Muscle remodeling is a useful model to study genes involved in myonuclear migration...
July 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691661/drosophila-microrna-modulates-viral-replication-by-targeting-a-homologue-of-mammalian-cjun
#15
Verna Monsanto-Hearne, Sultan Asad, Sassan Asgari, Karyn N Johnson
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of biological processes, including host-virus interaction. This study investigated the involvement of Drosophila melanogaster miR-8-5p in host-virus interaction. Drosophila flies and cells challenged with Drosophila C virus (DCV) were found to have lower miR-8-5p abundance compared to uninfected samples. Lowering miR-8-5p abundance by experimental inhibition of the miRNA led to an increase in viral accumulation, suggesting that the observed decrease in the miR-8-5p abundance during DCV infection enhances viral replication...
July 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689657/wnt-dependent-inactivation-of-the-groucho-tle-co-repressor-by-the-hect-e3%C3%A2-ubiquitin-ligase-hyd-ubr5
#16
Joshua E Flack, Juliusz Mieszczanek, Nikola Novcic, Mariann Bienz
Extracellular signals are transduced to the cell nucleus by effectors that bind to enhancer complexes to operate transcriptional switches. For example, the Wnt enhanceosome is a multiprotein complex associated with Wnt-responsive enhancers through T cell factors (TCF) and kept silent by Groucho/TLE co-repressors. Wnt-activated β-catenin binds to TCF to overcome this repression, but how it achieves this is unknown. Here, we discover that this process depends on the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase Hyd/UBR5, which is required for Wnt signal responses in Drosophila and human cell lines downstream of activated Armadillo/β-catenin...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680483/drosophila-cp190-and-dctcf-mediated-enhancer-blocking-is-augmented-by-sumoylation
#17
Theresa Jox, Melanie K Buxa, Dorte Bohla, Ikram Ullah, Igor Mačinković, Alexander Brehm, Marek Bartkuhn, Rainer Renkawitz
BACKGROUND: Chromatin insulators shield promoters and chromatin domains from neighboring enhancers or chromatin regions with opposing activities. Insulator-binding proteins and their cofactors mediate the boundary function. In general, covalent modification of proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is an important mechanism to control the interaction of proteins within complexes. RESULTS: Here we addressed the impact of dSUMO in respect of insulator function, chromatin binding of insulator factors and formation of insulator speckles in Drosophila...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676322/cleavage-of-the-drosophila-seminal-protein-acp36de-in-mated-females-enhances-its-sperm-storage-activity
#18
Frank W Avila, Mariana F Wolfner
Sperm storage in the mated female reproductive tract (RT) is required for optimal fertility in numerous species with internal fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, sperm storage is dependent on female receipt of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) during mating. The seminal fluid protein Acp36DE is necessary for the accumulation of sperm into storage. In the female RT, Acp36DE localizes to the anterior mating plug and also to a site in the common oviduct, potentially "corralling" sperm near the entry sites into the storage organs...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676122/genome-wide-search-for-zelda-like-chromatin-signatures-identifies-gaf-as-a-pioneer-factor-in-early-fly-development
#19
Arbel Moshe, Tommy Kaplan
BACKGROUND: The protein Zelda was shown to play a key role in early Drosophila development, binding thousands of promoters and enhancers prior to maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), and marking them for transcriptional activation. Recently, we showed that Zelda acts through specific chromatin patterns of histone modifications to mark developmental enhancers and active promoters. Intriguingly, some Zelda sites still maintain these chromatin patterns in Drosophila embryos lacking maternal Zelda protein...
July 4, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676099/drosophila-cp190-and-dctcf-mediated-enhancer-blocking-is-augmented-by-sumoylation
#20
Theresa Jox, Melanie K Buxa, Dorte Bohla, Ikram Ullah, Igor Mačinković, Alexander Brehm, Marek Bartkuhn, Rainer Renkawitz
BACKGROUND: Chromatin insulators shield promoters and chromatin domains from neighboring enhancers or chromatin regions with opposing activities. Insulator-binding proteins and their cofactors mediate the boundary function. In general, covalent modification of proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is an important mechanism to control the interaction of proteins within complexes. RESULTS: Here we addressed the impact of dSUMO in respect of insulator function, chromatin binding of insulator factors and formation of insulator speckles in Drosophila...
July 4, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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