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Enhancer drosophila

Yan Chen, Jude Juventus Aweya, Wanwei Sun, Xiaoyuan Wei, Yi Gong, Hongyu Ma, Yueling Zhang, Xiaobo Wen, Shengkang Li
Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) identified to play key roles in host innate immunity. However, relatively little is known about other types of Toll-like receptors in Scylla paramamosain, although a Toll-like receptor (SpToll1) has recently been cloned. In this study, we cloned and characterized another novel Toll-like receptor 2 (SpToll2) from S. paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of SpToll2 is 3391 bp with a 2646 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 881 amino acids, and predicted to contain six extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
June 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
John C Lucchesi
Dosage compensation is a regulatory system designed to equalize the transcription output of the genes of the sex chromosomes that are present in different doses in the sexes (X or Z chromosome, depending on the animal species involved). Different mechanisms of dosage compensation have evolved in different animal groups. In Drosophila males, a complex (male-specific lethal) associates with the X chromosome and enhances the activity of most X-linked genes by increasing the rate of RNAPII elongation. In Caenorhabditis, a complex (dosage compensation complex) that contains a number of proteins involved in condensing chromosomes decreases the level of transcription of both X chromosomes in the XX hermaphrodite...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
Yves F Widmer, Adem Bilican, Rémy Bruggmann, Simon G Sprecher
Memory formation is achieved by genetically tightly controlled molecular pathways that result in a change of synaptic strength and synapse organization. While for short-term memory traces rapidly acting biochemical pathways are in place, the formation of long-lasting memories requires changes in the transcriptional program of a cell. Although many genes involved in learning and memory formation have been identified, little is known about the genetic mechanisms required for changing the transcriptional program during different phases of long-term memory formation...
June 20, 2018: Genetics
Nikita Deshpande, Victoria H Meller
Many heterogametic organisms adjust sex chromosome expression to accommodate differences in gene dosage. This requires selective recruitment of regulatory factors to the modulated chromosome. How these factors are localized to a chromosome with requisite accuracy is poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster males increase expression from their single X chromosome. Identification of this chromosome involves cooperation between different classes of X-identity elements. The Chromatin Entry Sites (CES) recruit a chromatin-modifying complex that spreads into nearby genes and increases expression...
June 19, 2018: Genetics
Jessica Mandrioli, Roberto D'Amico, Elisabetta Zucchi, Annalisa Gessani, Nicola Fini, Antonio Fasano, Claudia Caponnetto, Adriano Chiò, Eleonora Dalla Bella, Christian Lunetta, Letizia Mazzini, Kalliopi Marinou, Gianni Sorarù, Sara de Biasi, Domenico Lo Tartaro, Marcello Pinti, Andrea Cossarizza
INTRODUCTION: Misfolded aggregated proteins and neuroinflammation significantly contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis, hence representing therapeutic targets to modify disease expression. Rapamycin inhibits mechanistic target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and enhances autophagy with demonstrated beneficial effects in neurodegeneration in cell line and animal models, improving phenotype in SQSTM1 zebrafish, in Drosophila model of ALS-TDP, and in the TDP43 mouse model, in which it reduced neuronal loss and TDP43 inclusions...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Najla El Fissi, Manuel Rojo, Aїcha Aouane, Esra Karatas, Gabriela Poliacikova, Claudine David, Julien Royet, Thomas Rival
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A) is caused by dominant alleles of the mitochondrial pro-fusion factor Mitofusin 2 (MFN2). To address the consequences of these mutations on mitofusin activity and neuronal function, we generate Drosophila models expressing in neurons the two most frequent substitutions (R94Q and R364W, the latter never studied before) and two others localizing to similar domains (T105M and L76P). All alleles trigger locomotor deficits associated with mitochondrial depletion at neuromuscular junctions, decreased oxidative metabolism and increased mtDNA mutations, but they differently alter mitochondrial morphology and organization...
June 13, 2018: EMBO Reports
Beppe Aquilina, Ruben J Cauchi
OBJECTIVE: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) results from insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Drosophila is conducive to large-scale genetic-modifier screens which can reveal novel pathways underpinning the disease mechanism. We tested the ability of a large collection of genomic deletions to enhance SMN-dependent lethality. To test our design, we asked whether our study can identify loci containing genes identified in previous genetic screens. Our objective was to find a common link between genes flagged in independent screens, which would allow us to expose novel functions for SMN in vivo...
June 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Jung-Eun Park, Eun Ji Lee, Jung Kwan Kim, Youngsup Song, Jang Hyun Choi, Min-Ji Kang
Triglyceride homeostasis is a key process of normal development and is essential for the maintenance of energy metabolism. Dysregulation of this process leads to metabolic disorders such as obesity and hyperlipidemia. Here, we report a novel function of the Drosophila flightless-I (fliI) gene in lipid metabolism. Drosophila fliI mutants were resistant to starvation and showed increased levels of triglycerides in the fat body and intestine, whereas fliI overexpression decreased triglyceride levels. These flies suffered from metabolic stress indicated by increased levels of trehalose in hemolymph and enhanced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α)...
June 12, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Nadine D Younan, Ko-Fan Chen, Ruth-Sarah Rose, Damian C Crowther, John H Viles
The cellular prion protein (PrPC ) can act as a cell-surface receptor for amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide; however, a role for PrPC in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is contested. Here, we expressed a range of Aβ isoforms and PrPC in the Drosophila brain. We found that co-expression of Aβ and PrPC significantly reduces the lifespan, disrupts circadian rhythms, and increases Aβ deposition in the fly brain. In contrast, under the same conditions, expression of Aβ or PrPC individually did not lead to these phenotypic changes...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kyle Rhodehouse, Katherine Cascino, Laura Aseltine, Allegra Padula, Rachel Weinstein, Joseph S Spina, Christiane E Olivero, Priscilla M Van Wynsberghe
The Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) heterochronic pathway, which regulates developmental timing, is thought to be an ancestral form of the circadian clock in other organisms. An essential member of this clock is the Period protein whose homolog, lin-42 , in C. elegans is an important heterochronic gene. LIN-42 functions as a transcriptional repressor of multiple genes including the conserved lin-4 and let-7 microRNAs. Like other Period proteins, levels of LIN-42 oscillate throughout development. In other organisms this cycling is controlled in part by phosphorylation...
June 7, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Jelle Jacobs, Mardelle Atkins, Kristofer Davie, Hana Imrichova, Lucia Romanelli, Valerie Christiaens, Gert Hulselmans, Delphine Potier, Jasper Wouters, Ibrahim I Taskiran, Giulia Paciello, Carmen B González-Blas, Duygu Koldere, Sara Aibar, Georg Halder, Stein Aerts
Transcriptional enhancers function as docking platforms for combinations of transcription factors (TFs) to control gene expression. How enhancer sequences determine nucleosome occupancy, TF recruitment and transcriptional activation in vivo remains unclear. Using ATAC-seq across a panel of Drosophila inbred strains, we found that SNPs affecting binding sites of the TF Grainy head (Grh) causally determine the accessibility of epithelial enhancers. We show that deletion and ectopic expression of Grh cause loss and gain of DNA accessibility, respectively...
June 4, 2018: Nature Genetics
Xiaobing Mo, Xia Yang, Yuren Adam Yuan
In Drosophila and human, component 3 promoter of RISC (C3PO), a heteromeric complex, enhances RISC assembly and promotes RISC activity. Here, we report crystal structure of full-length Drosophila C3PO (E126Q), an inactive C3PO mutant displaying much weaker RNA binding ability, at 2.1 Å resolution. In addition, we also report the cryo-EM structures of full-length Drosophila C3PO (E126Q), C3PO (WT) and SUMO-C3PO (WT, sumo-TRAX + Translin) particles trapped at different conformations at 12, 19.7 and 12.8 Å resolutions, respectively...
May 31, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Diana Luong, Luselena Perez, Jennifer C Jemc
Glial cells perform numerous functions to support neuron development and function, including axon wrapping, formation of the blood brain barrier, and enhancement of synaptic transmission. We have identified a novel gene, raw, which functions in glia of the central and peripheral nervous systems in Drosophila. Reducing Raw levels in glia results in morphological defects in the brain and ventral nerve cord, as well as defects in neuron function, as revealed by decreased locomotion in crawling assays. Examination of the number of glia along peripheral nerves reveals a reduction in glial number upon raw knockdown...
2018: PloS One
Christian Hodar, Verónica Cambiazo
Background: In the last few years, accumulated information has indicated that the evolution of an extra-embryonic membrane in dipterans was accompanied by changes in the gene regulatory network controlled by the BMP/Dpp pathway, which is responsible for dorsal patterning in these insects. However, only comparative analysis of gene expression levels between distant species with two extra-embryonic membranes, like A. gambiae or C. albipunctata , and D. melanogaster, has been conducted...
2018: EvoDevo
Swagata Dey, Krishanu Ray
Cholinergic activity is essential for cognitive functions and neuronal homeostasis. Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), a soluble protein that synthesizes acetylcholine at the presynaptic compartment, is transported in bulk in the axons by the heterotrimeric Kinesin-2 motor. Axonal transport of soluble proteins is described as a constitutive process assisted by occasional, non-specific interactions with moving vesicles and motor proteins. Here, we report that an increase in the influx of Kinesin-2 motor and association between ChAT and the motor during a specific developmental period enhances the axonal entry, as well as the anterograde flow of the protein, in the sensory neurons of intact Drosophila nervous system...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kuo-Ting Tsai, Chin-Kun Hu, Kuan-Wei Li, Wen-Liang Hwang, Ya-Hui Chou
Local interneurons (LNs) in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibit neuronal diversity and variability, yet it is still unknown how these features impact information encoding capacity and reliability in a complex LN network. We employed two strategies to construct a diverse excitatory-inhibitory neural network beginning with a ring network structure and then introduced distinct types of inhibitory interneurons and circuit variability to the simulated network. The continuity of activity within the node ensemble (oscillation pattern) was used as a readout to describe the temporal dynamics of network activity...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harold K Shearin, Casey D Quinn, Robert D Mackin, Ian S Macdonald, R Steven Stowers
BACKGROUND: Understanding how behaviors are generated by neural circuits requires knowledge of the synaptic connections between the composite neurons. Methods for mapping synaptic connections, such as electron microscopy and paired recordings, are labor intensive and alternative methods are thus desirable. NEW METHOD: Development of a targeted GFP Reconstitution Across Synaptic Partners(GRASP) method, t-GRASP, for assessing neural connectivity is described. RESULTS: Numerous different pre-synaptic and post-synaptic/dendritic proteins were tested for enhancing the specificity of GRASP signal to synaptic regions...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Mayara B Leão, Paulo C C da Rosa, Caroline Wagner, Thiago H Lugokenski, Cristiane L Dalla Corte
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant which binds with a high affinity to selenol groups. In view of this, seleno-compounds have been investigated as MeHg antidotes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the co-exposure to MeHg and the seleno-compound diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 on Drosophila melanogaster. We measured the survival rate, developmental survival, locomotor ability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and Hg levels in D. melanogaster exposed to MeHg and/or (PhSe)2 in the food...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dipti Rai, Swagata Dey, Krishanu Ray
BACKGROUND: Synapse density is an essential indicator of development and functioning of the central nervous system. It is estimated indirectly through the accumulation of pre and postsynaptic proteins in tissue sections. 3D reconstruction of the electron microscopic images in serial sections is one of the most definitive means of estimating the formation of active synapses in the brain. It is tedious and highly skill-dependent. Confocal imaging of whole mounts or thick sections of the brain provides a natural alternative for rapid gross estimation of the synapse density in large areas...
May 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Yueh Cho, Chun-Ming Lai, Kun-Yang Lin, Hwei-Jan Hsu
Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis. This unique capability largely depends on the stem cell niche, a specialized microenvironment, which preserves stem cell identity through physical contacts and secreted factors. In many cancers, latent tumor cell niches are thought to house stem cells and aid tumor initiation. However, in developing tissue and cancer it is unclear how the niche is established. The well-characterized germline stem cells (GSCs) and niches in the Drosophila melanogaster ovary provide an excellent model to address this fundamental issue...
May 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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