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Enhancer drosophila

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450902/identification-and-expression-profiles-of-novel-odorant-binding-proteins-and-functional-analysis-of-obp99a-in-bactrocera-dorsalis
#1
Jing Zhang, Deye Luo, Peng Wu, Haozhe Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weiwei Zheng
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are essential for mating and oviposition host selection. How these OBPs respond to different hosts at the mRNA level and their effects on behavior remain poorly characterized. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest with an extremely broad host range and high fecundity. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis transcriptome, six OBPs that were differentially expressed during three different physiological adult stages were identified...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432563/traumatic-injury-induces-stress-granule-formation-and-enhances-motor-dysfunctions-in-als-ftd-models
#2
Eric N Anderson, Lauren Gochenaur, Aditi Singh, Rogan Grant, Krishani Patel, Simon Watkins, Jane Y Wu, Udai Bhan Pandey
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been predicted to be a predisposing factor for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurological disorders. Despite the importance of TBI in ALS progression, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still an enigma. Here, we examined the contribution of TBI as an extrinsic factor and investigated if TBI influences the susceptibility of developing neurodegenerative symptoms. To evaluate the effects of TBI in vivo, we applied mild to severe trauma to Drosophila and found that TBI leads to the induction of stress granules (SGs) in the brain...
February 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432195/capicua-controls-toll-il-1-signaling-targets-independently-of-rtk-regulation
#3
Aikaterini Papagianni, Marta Forés, Wanqing Shao, Shuonan He, Nina Koenecke, María José Andreu, Núria Samper, Ze'ev Paroush, Sergio González-Crespo, Julia Zeitlinger, Gerardo Jiménez
The HMG-box protein Capicua (Cic) is a conserved transcriptional repressor that functions downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways in a relatively simple switch: In the absence of signaling, Cic represses RTK-responsive genes by binding to nearly invariant sites in DNA, whereas activation of RTK signaling down-regulates Cic activity, leading to derepression of its targets. This mechanism controls gene expression in both Drosophila and mammals, but whether Cic can also function via other regulatory mechanisms remains unknown...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429875/molecular-mechanistic-insights-into-drosophila-dhx36-mediated-g-quadruplex-unfolding-a-structure-based-model
#4
Wei-Fei Chen, Stephane Rety, Hai-Lei Guo, Yang-Xue Dai, Wen-Qiang Wu, Na-Nv Liu, Daniel Auguin, Qian-Wen Liu, Xi-Miao Hou, Shuo-Xing Dou, Xu-Guang Xi
Helicase DHX36 plays essential roles in cell development and differentiation at least partially by resolving G-quadruplex (G4) structures. Here we report crystal structures of the Drosophila homolog of DHX36 (DmDHX36) in complex with RNA and a series of DNAs. By combining structural, small-angle X-ray scattering, molecular dynamics simulation, and single-molecule fluorescence studies, we revealed that positively charged amino acids in RecA2 and OB-like domains constitute an elaborate structural pocket at the nucleic acid entrance, in which negatively charged G4 DNA is tightly bound and partially destabilized...
January 29, 2018: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417712/structure-and-cis-regulatory-analysis-of-a-drosophila-grainyhead-neuroblast-enhancer
#5
Alexander Kuzin, Svetlana Smith, Thomas Brody, Ward F Odenwald
Evolutionary analysis of cis-regulatory DNA reveals that enhancers consist of clusters of conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) that are made up of both unique and repeated sequence elements. Our goal has been to address aspects of Drosophila neuroblast (NB) enhancer structure, including the basis for their spatial and temporal regulation and the functional significance of their individual CSBs. A search for temporally restricted CNS NB enhancers identified one within the transcription factor grainyhead (grh) gene locus...
February 8, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415605/a-semi-natural-approach-for-studying-seasonal-diapause-in-drosophila-melanogaster-reveals-robust-photoperiodicity
#6
Dóra Nagy, Gabriele Andreatta, Stefano Bastianello, Ane Martín Anduaga, Gabriella Mazzotta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Rodolfo Costa
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster survives thermally stressful conditions in a state of reproductive dormancy (diapause), manifested by reduced metabolic activity and arrested ovarian development in females. Unlike insects that rely primarily on photoperiodic stimuli to initiate the diapause program, in this species dormancy is regulated by low temperature and enhanced by shorter photoperiods. Overwintering phenotypes are usually studied under simple laboratory conditions, where animals are exposed to rectangular light-dark (LD) cycles at a constant temperature...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410496/identification-of-a-novel-na-coupled-fe-3-citrate-transport-system-distinct-from-mammalian-indy-for-uptake-of-citrate-in-mammalian-cells
#7
Jiro Ogura, Ellappan Babu, Seiji Miyauchi, Sabarish Ramachandran, Elizebeta Nemeth, Yangzom D Bhutia, Vadivel Ganapathy
NaCT is a Na + -coupled transporter for citrate expressed in hepatocytes and neurons. It is the mammalian ortholog of INDY (I'm Not Dead Yet), a transporter which modifies lifespan in Drosophila. Here we describe a hitherto unknown transport system for citrate in mammalian cells. When liver and mammary epithelial cells were pretreated with the iron supplement ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), uptake of citrate increased >10-fold. Iron chelators abrogated the stimulation of citrate uptake in FAC-treated cells...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410178/overexpression-of-histone-methyltransferase-nsd-in-drosophila-induces-apoptotic-cell-death-via-the-jun-n-terminal-kinase-pathway
#8
Yuji Jeong, Taejoon Kim, Suyeun Kim, Yoon-Ki Hong, Kyoung Sang Cho, Im-Soon Lee
The nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein gene (NSD) family encodes a group of highly conserved SET domain-containing histone lysine methyltransferases that are important in multiple aspects of development in various organisms. The association of NSD1 duplications has been reported with growth retardation diseases in humans. In this study, to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which the overexpression of NSD1 influences the disease progression, we analyzed the gain-of-function mutant phenotypes of the Drosophila NSD using the GAL4/UAS system...
February 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408431/involvement-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-related-pathways-in-the-effect-of-aucubin-on-the-promotion-of-osteoblast-differentiation-in-mg63%C3%A2-cells
#9
Yutong Li, Wenji Hu, Guanghong Han, Wenqian Lu, Dongxu Jia, Min Hu, Di Wang
Aucubin, an iridoid glycoside found in several plants, such as Eucommia ulmoide and Rehmannia, has various pharmacological effects. Bone formation is a complex process in which osteoblast differentiation plays an important role. This study aimed to investigate the promotion effects of aucubin on osteoblast differentiation in MG63 cells, a human osteoblast-like cell line. Aucubin not only improved osteoblast differentiation, as shown by enhanced ALP (alkaline phosphatase) concentration and mineralization in cells, but increased the expression of various cytokines, including collagen I, osteocalcin, osteopontin, integrin β1, and Osterix...
February 3, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408269/aedes-aegypti-antiviral-adaptive-response-against-denv-2
#10
Javier Serrato-Salas, Javier Izquierdo-Sánchez, Martha Argüello, Renáud Conde, Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
Priming is the conceptual term defining memory phenomenon in innate immune response. Numerous examples of enhanced secondary immune response have been described in diverse taxa of invertebrates; which naturally lacks memory response. In mosquitoes, a previous non-lethal challenge with some specific pathogens modify their immune response against the same microorganism; developing an improved antimicrobial reaction. In this work, we explore the ability of Aedes aegypti to mount a higher antiviral response upon a second oral DENV challenge...
February 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403026/impaired-wnt-signaling-in-dopamine-containing-neurons-is-associated-with-pathogenesis-in-a-rotenone-triggered-drosophila-parkinson-s-disease-model
#11
Flora Stephano, Stella Nolte, Julia Hoffmann, Samar El-Kholy, Jakob von Frieling, Iris Bruchhaus, Christine Fink, Thomas Roeder
Parkinson's disease, which is the one of the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, is characterized by a progressive loss of dopamine containing neurons. The mechanisms underlying disease initiation and development are not well understood and causative therapies are currently not available. To elucidate the molecular processes during early stages of Parkinson's disease, we utilized a Drosophila model. To induce Parkinson's disease-like phenotypes, we treated flies with the pesticide rotenone and isolated dopamine producing neurons of animals that were at an early disease stage...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401457/ras-erk-signalling-promotes-trna-synthesis-and-growth-via-the-rna-polymerase-iii-repressor-maf1-in-drosophila
#12
Shrivani Sriskanthadevan-Pirahas, Rujuta Deshpande, Byoungchun Lee, Savraj S Grewal
The small G-protein Ras is a conserved regulator of cell and tissue growth. These effects of Ras are mediated largely through activation of a canonical RAF-MEK-ERK kinase cascade. An important challenge is to identify how this Ras/ERK pathway alters cellular metabolism to drive growth. Here we report on stimulation of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-mediated tRNA synthesis as a growth effector of Ras/ERK signalling in Drosophila. We find that activation of Ras/ERK signalling promotes tRNA synthesis both in vivo and in cultured Drosophila S2 cells...
February 5, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396265/cellular-uptake-of-a-taurine-modified-ester-bond-decorated-d-peptide-derivative-via-dynamin-based-endocytosis-and-macropinocytosis
#13
Jie Zhou, Xuewen Du, Cristina Berciu, Steven J Del Signore, Xiaoyi Chen, Natsuko Yamagata, Avital A Rodal, Daniela Nicastro, Bing Xu
Most of the peptides used for promoting cellular uptake bear positive charges. In our previous study, we reported an example of taurine (bearing negative charges in physiological conditions) promoting cellular uptake of D-peptides. Taurine, conjugated to a small D-peptide via an ester bond, promotes the cellular uptake of this D-peptide. Particularly, intracellular carboxylesterase (CES) instructs the D-peptide to self-assemble and to form nanofibers, which largely disfavors efflux and further enhances the intracellular accumulation of the D-peptide, as supported by that the addition of CES inhibitors partially impaired cellular uptake of this molecule in mammalian cell lines...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394380/the-mechanisms-of-a-mammalian-splicing-enhancer
#14
Andrew M Jobbins, Linus F Reichenbach, Christian M Lucas, Andrew J Hudson, Glenn A Burley, Ian C Eperon
Exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) sequences are bound by serine & arginine-rich (SR) proteins, which in turn enhance the recruitment of splicing factors. It was inferred from measurements of splicing around twenty years ago that Drosophila doublesex ESEs are bound stably by SR proteins, and that the bound proteins interact directly but with low probability with their targets. However, it has not been possible with conventional methods to demonstrate whether mammalian ESEs behave likewise. Using single molecule multi-colour colocalization methods to study SRSF1-dependent ESEs, we have found that that the proportion of RNA molecules bound by SRSF1 increases with the number of ESE repeats, but only a single molecule of SRSF1 is bound...
January 31, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393045/internal-amino-acid-state-modulates-yeast-taste-neurons-to-support-protein-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#15
Kathrin Steck, Samuel J Walker, Pavel M Itskov, Célia Baltazar, José-Maria Moreira, Carlos Ribeiro
To optimize fitness, animals must dynamically match food choices to their current needs. For drosophilids, yeast fulfills most dietary protein and micronutrient requirements. While several yeast metabolites activate known gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in Drosophila melanogaster , the chemosensory channels mediating yeast feeding remain unknown. Here we identify a class of proboscis GRNs required for yeast intake. Within this class, taste peg GRNs are specifically required to sustain yeast feeding. Sensillar GRNs, however, mediate feeding initiation...
February 2, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391447/aminergic-signaling-controls-ovarian-dormancy-in-drosophila
#16
Gabriele Andreatta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Thomas Flatt, Rodolfo Costa
In response to adverse environmental conditions many organisms from nematodes to mammals deploy a dormancy strategy, causing states of developmental or reproductive arrest that enhance somatic maintenance and survival ability at the expense of growth or reproduction. Dormancy regulation has been studied in C. elegans and in several insects, but how neurosensory mechanisms act to relay environmental cues to the endocrine system in order to induce dormancy remains unclear. Here we examine this fundamental question by genetically manipulating aminergic neurotransmitter signaling in Drosophila melanogaster...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384231/xenotopic-expression-of-alternative-electron-transport-enzymes-in-animal-mitochondria-and-their-impact-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
André F Camargo, Marina M Chioda, Ana P C Rodrigues, Geovana S Garcia, Emily A McKinney, Howard T Jacobs, Marcos T Oliveira
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in vertebrates and arthropods is different from that of most other eukaryotes because they lack alternative enzymes that provide electron transfer pathways additional to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. However, the use of diverse experimental models, such as human cells in culture, Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse, has demonstrated that the transgenic expression of these alternative enzymes can impact positively many phenotypes associated with human mitochondrial and other cellular dysfunction, including those typically presented in complex IV deficiencies, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378849/drosophila-melanogaster-guk-holder-interacts-with-the-scribbled-pdz1-domain-and-regulates-epithelial-development-with-scribbled-and-discs-large
#18
Sofia Caria, Charlene M Magtoto, Tinaz Samiei, Marta Portela, Krystle Y B Lim, Jing Yuan How, Bryce Z Stewart, Patrick O Humbert, Helena E Richardson, Marc Kvansakul
Epithelial cell polarity is controlled by components of the Scribble polarity module, and its regulation is critical for tissue architecture and cell proliferation and cell migration. In Drosophila melanogaster, the adaptor protein Guk-holder (Gukh) binds to the Scribbled (Scrib) and Discs Large (Dlg) components of the Scribble polarity module and plays an important role in the formation of neuromuscular junctions. However, Gukhs role in epithelial tissue formation and the molecular basis for the Scrib-Gukh interaction remain to be defined...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378788/the-degree-of-enhancer-or-promoter-activity-is-reflected-by-the-levels-and-directionality-of-erna-transcription
#19
Olga Mikhaylichenko, Vladyslav Bondarenko, Dermot Harnett, Ignacio E Schor, Matilda Males, Rebecca R Viales, Eileen E M Furlong
Gene expression is regulated by promoters, which initiate transcription, and enhancers, which control their temporal and spatial activity. However, the discovery that mammalian enhancers also initiate transcription questions the inherent differences between enhancers and promoters. Here, we investigate the transcriptional properties of enhancers during Drosophila embryogenesis using characterized developmental enhancers. We show that while the timing of enhancer transcription is generally correlated with enhancer activity, the levels and directionality of transcription are highly varied among active enhancers...
January 29, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378787/widespread-transcriptional-pausing-and-elongation-control-at-enhancers
#20
Telmo Henriques, Benjamin S Scruggs, Michiko O Inouye, Ginger W Muse, Lucy H Williams, Adam B Burkholder, Christopher A Lavender, David C Fargo, Karen Adelman
Regulation by gene-distal enhancers is critical for cell type-specific and condition-specific patterns of gene expression. Thus, to understand the basis of gene activity in a given cell type or tissue, we must identify the precise locations of enhancers and functionally characterize their behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that transcription is a nearly universal feature of enhancers in Drosophila and mammalian cells and that nascent RNA sequencing strategies are optimal for identification of both enhancers and superenhancers...
January 29, 2018: Genes & Development
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