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Enhancer drosophila

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677489/transvection-goes-live-visualizing-enhancer-promoter-communication-between-chromosomes
#1
Albert Tsai, Robert H Singer, Justin Crocker
Lim et al. (2018) use live imaging in Drosophila embryos to show that enhancers can drive transcription from promoters on another chromosome when they are in close proximity. In addition, they show that multiple promoters can access the same enhancer without competition, potentially sharing a pool of factors in a transcriptional "hub."
April 19, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677182/foxo-restricts-growth-and-differentiation-of-cells-with-elevated-torc1-activity-under-nutrient-restriction
#2
Katarzyna Nowak, Avantika Gupta, Hugo Stocker
TORC1, a central regulator of cell survival, growth, and metabolism, is activated in a variety of cancers. Loss of the tumor suppressors PTEN and Tsc1/2 results in hyperactivation of TORC1. Tumors caused by the loss of PTEN, but not Tsc1/2, are often malignant and have been shown to be insensitive to nutrient restriction (NR). In Drosophila, loss of PTEN or Tsc1 results in hypertrophic overgrowth of epithelial tissues under normal nutritional conditions, and an enhanced TORC1-dependent hyperplastic overgrowth of PTEN mutant tissue under NR...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677000/stress-resistance-and-lifespan-enhanced-by-downregulation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-in-the-imd-pathway
#3
Yuh-Ru Lin, Hardik Parikh, Yongkyu Park
Biological behaviors and longevity of ectothermic animals are remarkably influenced by ambient temperature. Development at 18°C significantly enhances the stress resistance of adult flies with more accumulation of nutrients (especially fat) in the body than development at 25°C. Gene expression analysis between the flies developed at 18°C and 25°C revealed that the Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, including the downstream antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), is downregulated in the flies developed at 18°C. When hypomorphic imd mutant flies with reduced AMP expressions were developed at 25°C, they showed induced stress resistance with higher fat content in the body similar to the wild-type flies developed at 18°C...
April 19, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659982/transcription-start-site-analysis-reveals-widespread-divergent-transcription-in-d-melanogaster-and-core-promoter-encoded-enhancer-activities
#4
Sarah Rennie, Maria Dalby, Marta Lloret-Llinares, Stylianos Bakoulis, Christian Dalager Vaagensø, Torben Heick Jensen, Robin Andersson
Mammalian gene promoters and enhancers share many properties. They are composed of a unified promoter architecture of divergent transcripton initiation and gene promoters may exhibit enhancer function. However, it is currently unclear how expression strength of a regulatory element relates to its enhancer strength and if the unifying architecture is conserved across Metazoa. Here we investigate the transcription initiation landscape and its associated RNA decay in Drosophila melanogaster. We find that the majority of active gene-distal enhancers and a considerable fraction of gene promoters are divergently transcribed...
April 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#5
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642630/aging-and-intermittent-fasting-impact-on-transcriptional-regulation-and-physiological-responses-of-adult-drosophila-neuronal-and-muscle-tissues
#6
Sharon Zhang, Eric P Ratliff, Brandon Molina, Nadja El-Mecharrafie, Jessica Mastroianni, Roxanne W Kotzebue, Madhulika Achal, Ruth E Mauntz, Arysa Gonzalez, Ayeh Barekat, William A Bray, Andrew M Macias, Daniel Daugherty, Greg L Harris, Robert A Edwards, Kim D Finley
The progressive decline of the nervous system, including protein aggregate formation, reflects the subtle dysregulation of multiple functional pathways. Our previous work has shown intermittent fasting (IF) enhances longevity, maintains adult behaviors and reduces aggregates, in part, by promoting autophagic function in the aging Drosophila brain. To clarify the impact that IF-treatment has upon aging, we used high throughput RNA-sequencing technology to examine the changing transcriptome in adult Drosophila tissues...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626383/micrornp-mediated-translational-activation-of-nonadenylated-mrnas-in-a-mammalian-cell-free-system
#7
Motoaki Wakiyama, Koichi Ogami, Ryo Iwaoka, Kazuma Aoki, Shin-Ichi Hoshino
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate translation and mRNA stability by binding target mRNAs in complex with Argonaute (AGO) proteins. AGO interacts with a member of the TNRC6 family proteins to form a microRNP complex, which recruits the CCR4-NOT complex to accelerate deadenylation and inhibits translation. MicroRNAs primarily repress translation of target mRNAs but have been shown to enhance translation of a specific type of target reporter mRNAs in various experimental systems: G0 quiescent mammalian cells, Xenopus laevis oocytes, Drosophila embryo extracts, and HeLa cells...
April 6, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620520/synapse-specific-and-compartmentalized-expression-of-presynaptic-homeostatic-potentiation
#8
Xiling Li, Pragya Goel, Catherine Chen, Varun Angajala, Xun Chen, Dion K Dickman
Postsynaptic compartments can be specifically modulated during various forms of synaptic plasticity, but it is unclear whether this precision is shared at presynaptic terminals. Presynaptic Homeostatic Plasticity (PHP) stabilizes neurotransmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where a retrograde enhancement of presynaptic neurotransmitter release compensates for diminished postsynaptic receptor functionality. To test the specificity of PHP induction and expression, we have developed a genetic manipulation to reduce postsynaptic receptor expression at one of the two muscles innervated by a single motor neuron...
April 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617378/degenerate-pax2-and-senseless-binding-motifs-improve-detection-of-low-affinity-sites-required-for-enhancer-specificity
#9
Arya Zandvakili, Ian Campbell, Lisa M Gutzwiller, Matthew T Weirauch, Brian Gebelein
Cells use thousands of regulatory sequences to recruit transcription factors (TFs) and produce specific transcriptional outcomes. Since TFs bind degenerate DNA sequences, discriminating functional TF binding sites (TFBSs) from background sequences represents a significant challenge. Here, we show that a Drosophila regulatory element that activates Epidermal Growth Factor signaling requires overlapping, low-affinity TFBSs for competing TFs (Pax2 and Senseless) to ensure cell- and segment-specific activity. Testing available TF binding models for Pax2 and Senseless, however, revealed variable accuracy in predicting such low-affinity TFBSs...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615416/the-drosophila-tgf-beta-activin-like-ligands-dawdle-and-myoglianin-appear-to-modulate-adult-lifespan-through-regulation-of-26s-proteasome-function-in-adult-muscle
#10
Shaughna Langerak, Myung-Jun Kim, Hannah Lamberg, Michael Godinez, Mackenzie Main, Lindsey Winslow, Michael B O'Connor, Changqi C Zhu
The Drosophila Activin signaling pathway employs at least three separate ligands, Activin-β (Actβ), Dawdle (Daw), and Myoglianin (Myo), to regulate several general aspects of fruit fly larval development including cell proliferation, neuronal remodeling, and metabolism. Here we provide experimental evidence indicating that both Daw and Myo are anti-ageing factors in adult fruit flies. Knockdown of Myo or Daw in adult fruit flies reduced mean lifespan, while overexpression of either ligand in adult muscle tissues but not in adipose tissues enhanced mean lifespan...
April 3, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606591/visualization-of-transvection-in-living-drosophila-embryos
#11
Bomyi Lim, Tyler Heist, Michael Levine, Takashi Fukaya
How remote enhancers interact with appropriate target genes persists as a central mystery in gene regulation. Here, we exploit the properties of transvection to explore enhancer-promoter communication between homologous chromosomes in living Drosophila embryos. We successfully visualized the activation of an MS2-tagged reporter gene by a defined developmental enhancer located in trans on the other homolog. This trans-homolog activation depends on insulator DNAs, which increase the stability-but not the frequency-of homolog pairing...
March 23, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606420/molecular-evolution-at-a-meiosis-gene-mediates-species-differences-in-the-rate-and-patterning-of-recombination
#12
Cara L Brand, M Victoria Cattani, Sarah B Kingan, Emily L Landeen, Daven C Presgraves
Crossing over between homologous chromosomes during meiosis repairs programmed DNA double-strand breaks, ensures proper segregation at meiosis I [1], shapes the genomic distribution of nucleotide variability in populations, and enhances the efficacy of natural selection among genetically linked sites [2]. Between closely related Drosophila species, large differences exist in the rate and chromosomal distribution of crossing over. Little, however, is known about the molecular genetic changes or population genetic forces that mediate evolved differences in recombination between species [3, 4]...
March 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605857/analysis-of-chromatin-interactions-mediated-by-specific-architectural-proteins-in-drosophila-cells
#13
Masami Ando-Kuri, I Sarahi M Rivera, M Jordan Rowley, Victor G Corces
Chromosome conformation capture assays have been established, modified, and enhanced for over a decade with the purpose of studying nuclear organization. A recently published method uses in situ Hi-C followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (HiChIP) to enrich the overall yield of significant genome-wide interactions mediated by a specific protein. Here we applied a modified version of the HiChIP protocol to retrieve the significant contacts mediated by architectural protein CP190 in D. melanogaster cells.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602832/intracellular-chloride-and-scaffold-protein-mo25-cooperatively-regulate-transepithelial-ion-transport-through-wnk-signaling-in-the-malpighian-tubule
#14
Qifei Sun, Yipin Wu, Sima Jonusaite, John M Pleinis, John M Humphreys, Haixia He, Jeffrey N Schellinger, Radha Akella, Drew Stenesen, Helmut Krämer, Elizabeth J Goldsmith, Aylin R Rodan
Background With No Lysine kinase (WNK) signaling regulates mammalian renal epithelial ion transport to maintain electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Our previous studies showed a conserved role for WNK in the regulation of transepithelial ion transport in the Drosophila Malpighian tubule. Methods Using in vitro assays and transgenic Drosophila lines, we examined two potential WNK regulators, chloride ion and the scaffold protein mouse protein 25 (Mo25), in the stimulation of transepithelial ion flux. Results In vitro , autophosphorylation of purified Drosophila WNK decreased as chloride concentration increased...
March 30, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593084/flying-drosophila-maintain-arbitrary-but-stable-headings-relative-to-the-angle-of-polarized-light
#15
Timothy L Warren, Peter T Weir, Michael H Dickinson
Animals must use external cues to maintain a straight course over long distances. In this study, we investigated how the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , selects and maintains a flight heading relative to the axis of linearly polarized light, a visual cue produced by the atmospheric scattering of sunlight. To track flies' headings over extended periods, we used a flight simulator that coupled the angular velocity of dorsally presented polarized light to the stroke amplitude difference of the animal's wings...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581265/circadian-clock-activity-of-cryptochrome-relies-on-tryptophan-mediated-photoreduction
#16
Changfan Lin, Deniz Top, Craig C Manahan, Michael W Young, Brian R Crane
Cryptochromes (CRYs) entrain the circadian clocks of plants and animals to light. Irradiation of the Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) causes reduction of an oxidized flavin cofactor by a chain of conserved tryptophan (Trp) residues. However, it is unclear how redox chemistry within the Trp chain couples to dCRY-mediated signaling. Here, we show that substitutions of four key Trp residues to redox-active tyrosine and redox-inactive phenylalanine tune the light sensitivity of dCRY photoreduction, conformational activation, cellular stability, and targeted degradation of the clock protein timeless (TIM)...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576424/a-temporal-transcriptional-switch-governs-stem-cell-division-neuronal-numbers-and-maintenance-of-differentiation
#17
Natalia Mora, Carlos Oliva, Mark Fiers, Radoslaw Ejsmont, Alessia Soldano, Ting-Ting Zhang, Jiekun Yan, Annelies Claeys, Natalie De Geest, Bassem A Hassan
The importance of producing the correct numbers of neurons during development is illustrated by both evolutionary enhancement of cognitive capacities in larger brains, and developmental disorders of brain size. In humans, increased neuronal numbers during development is speculated to partly derive from a unique subtype of neural stem cells (NSCs) that undergo a phase of expansion through symmetric self-amplifying divisions before generating neurons. Symmetric amplification also appears to underlie adult neural stem maintenance in the mouse...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568415/dynamic-light-sheet-generation-and-fluorescence-imaging-behind-turbid-media
#18
Jale Schneider, Christof M Aegerter
Background: Light sheet microscopy became a popular tool allowing fast imaging with reduced out of focus light. However, when light penetrates turbid media such as biological tissues, multiple scattering scrambles the illumination into a speckle pattern and severely challenges conventional fluorescence imaging with focused light or with a light sheet. In this article, we present generation of light sheet type illumination patterns despite scattering. Methods: We optimize the wave-front of the incoming light to transform the speckle pattern behind the scattering layer into a light sheet within the region of interest...
2018: Journal of the European Optical Society. Rapid Publications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563863/mitofusin-dependent-er-stress-triggers-glial-dysfunction-and-nervous-system-degeneration-in-a-drosophila-model-of-friedreich-s-ataxia
#19
Oliver Edenharter, Stephan Schneuwly, Juan A Navarro
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most important recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population. It is caused by a deficit of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Despite its pivotal effect on biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and mitochondrial energy production, little is known about the influence of frataxin depletion on homeostasis of the cellular mitochondrial network. We have carried out a forward genetic screen to analyze genetic interactions between genes controlling mitochondrial homeostasis and Drosophila frataxin...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563503/cell-fate-changes-induced-by-a-distal-less-enhancer-trap-transgene-in-the-drosophila-antennal-imaginal-disc
#20
Syeda Nayab Fatima Abidi, Rachel K Smith-Bolton
The imaginal discs of the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster have been used to study cell-fate specification and plasticity, including homeotic changes and regeneration-induced transdetermination. The identity of the reprogramming mechanisms that induce plasticity has been of great interest in the field. Here we identify a change from antennal fate to eye fate induced by a Distal-less-GAL4 (DllGAL4) P-element insertion that is a mutant allele of Dll and expresses GAL4 in the antennal imaginal disc...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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