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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645777/increased-food-intake-after-starvation-enhances-sleep-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Josue M Regalado, McKenna B Cortez, Jeremy Grubbs, Jared A Link, Alexander van der Linden, Yong Zhang
Feeding and sleep are highly conserved, interconnected behaviors essential for survival. Starvation has been shown to potently suppress sleep across species; however, whether satiety promotes sleep is still unclear. Here we use the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a model organism to address the interaction between feeding and sleep. We first monitored the sleep of flies that had been starved for 24 h and found that sleep amount increased in the first 4 h after flies were given food. Increased sleep after starvation was due to an increase in sleep bout number and average sleep bout length...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642678/a-cold-blooded-view-on-adult-neurogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Anabel R Simões, Christa Rhiner
During brain development, highly complex and interconnected neural circuits are established. This intricate wiring needs to be robust to faithfully perform adult brain function throughout life, but at the same time offer room for plasticity to integrate new information. In the mammalian brain, adult-born neurons are produced in restricted niches harboring neural stem cells. In the fruit fly Drosophila, low-level adult neurogenesis arising from a dispersed population of neural progenitors has recently been detected in the optic lobes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638443/dosage-compensation-and-sex-specific-epigenetic-landscape-of-the-x-chromosome-in-the-pea-aphid
#3
Gautier Richard, Fabrice Legeai, Nathalie Prunier-Leterme, Anthony Bretaudeau, Denis Tagu, Julie Jaquiéry, Gaël Le Trionnaire
BACKGROUND: Heterogametic species display a differential number of sex chromosomes resulting in imbalanced transcription levels for these chromosomes between males and females. To correct this disequilibrium, dosage compensation mechanisms involving gene expression and chromatin accessibility regulations have emerged throughout evolution. In insects, these mechanisms have been extensively characterized only in Drosophila but not in insects of agronomical importance. Aphids are indeed major pests of a wide range of crops...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633019/edem-function-in-erad-protects-against-chronic-er-proteinopathy-and-age-related-physiological-decline-in-drosophila
#4
Michiko Sekiya, Akiko Maruko-Otake, Stephen Hearn, Yasufumi Sakakibara, Naoki Fujisaki, Emiko Suzuki, Kanae Ando, Koichi M Iijima
The unfolded protein response (UPR), which protects cells against accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, is induced in several age-associated degenerative diseases. However, sustained UPR activation has negative effects on cellular functions and may worsen disease symptoms. It remains unknown whether and how UPR components can be utilized to counteract chronic ER proteinopathies. We found that promotion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through upregulation of ERAD-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) protected against chronic ER proteinopathy without inducing toxicity in a Drosophila model...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630141/temperature-responsive-mirnas-in-drosophila-orchestrate-adaptation-to-different-ambient-temperatures
#5
Isabel Fast, Charlotte Hewel, Laura Wester, Julia Schumacher, Daniel Gebert, Hans Zischler, Christian Berger, David Rosenkranz
The majority of Drosophila genes are expressed in a temperature-dependent manner, but the way in which small RNAs may contribute to this effect is completely unknown as we currently lack an idea of how small RNA transcriptomes change as a function of temperature. Applying high throughput sequencing techniques complemented by quantitative real-time PCR experiments, we demonstrate that altered ambient temperature induces drastic, but reversible changes in sequence composition and total abundance of both, miRNA- and piRNA populations...
June 19, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621429/the-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligase-dgrn-is-essential-for-drosophila-innate-immunity
#6
Bella Koltun, Eliza Shackelford, François Bonnay, Nicolas Matt, Jean Marc Reichhart, Amir Orian
The ability of metazoans to combat pathogenic infection involves both systemic and local responses to the invading pathogens. Ubiquitin and SUMO pathways molecularly regulate the response to infection, immune signaling and gene expression. Here, we report that Degringolade (Dgrn, CG10981), a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase connecting the two pathways, is essential for the innate immunity response in Drosophila. dgrn(DK) null and heterozygous mutant adult flies are severely immune-compromised and succumb rapidly to both pathogenic bacteria and fungi infections...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620086/a-genetic-screen-reveals-an-unexpected-role-for-yorkie-signaling-in-jak-stat-dependent-hematopoietic-malignancies-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Abigail M Anderson, Alessandro A Bailetti, Elizabeth Rodkin, Atish De, Erika A Bach
A gain-of-function mutation in the tyrosine kinase JAK2 (JAK2(V617F) ) causes human myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). These patients present with high numbers of myeloid lineage cells and have numerous complications. Since current MPN therapies are not curative, there is a need to find new regulators and targets of JAK/STAT signaling that may represent additional clinical interventions. Drosophila melanogaster offers a low complexity model to study MPNs as JAK/STAT signaling is simplified with only one JAK (Hopscotch (Hop)) and one STAT (Stat92E)...
June 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612182/invaginating-presynaptic-terminals-in-neuromuscular-junctions-photoreceptor-terminals-and-other-synapses-of-animals
#8
REVIEW
Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Mark P Mattson, Pamela J Yao
Typically, presynaptic terminals form a synapse directly on the surface of postsynaptic processes such as dendrite shafts and spines. However, some presynaptic terminals invaginate-entirely or partially-into postsynaptic processes. We survey these invaginating presynaptic terminals in all animals and describe several examples from the central nervous system, including giant fiber systems in invertebrates, and cup-shaped spines, electroreceptor synapses, and some specialized auditory and vestibular nerve terminals in vertebrates...
June 13, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606854/divergent-roles-of-the-drosophila-melanogaster-globins
#9
Thorsten Burmester, Agnes Wawrowski, Ines Diepenbruck, Katharina Schrick, Nina Seiwert, Fabian Ripp, Andreas Prothmann, Thomas Hankeln
In contrast to long-held assumptions, the gene repertoire of most insects includes hemoglobins. Analyses of the genome of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster identified three distinct hemoglobin genes (glob1, glob2, and glob3). While glob1 is predominantly associated with the tracheal system and fat body, glob2 and glob3 are almost exclusively expressed in the testis. The physiological role of globins in Drosophila is uncertain. Here, we studied the functions of the three globins in a cell culture system. Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells were stably transfected with each of the three globins and the empty vector as control...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606139/a-loss-of-pdxk-model-of-parkinson-disease-in-drosophila-can-be-suppressed-by-buffy
#10
P Githure M'Angale, Brian E Staveley
BACKGROUND: The identification of a DNA variant in pyridoxal kinase (Pdxk) associated with increased risk to Parkinson disease (PD) gene led us to study the inhibition of this gene in the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc)-expressing neurons of the well-studied model organism Drosophila melanogaster. The multitude of biological functions attributable to the vitamers catalysed by this kinase reveal an overabundance of possible links to PD, that include dopamine synthesis, antioxidant activity and mitochondrial function...
June 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606041/mechanisms-of-action-resistance-and-toxicity-of-insecticides-targeting-gaba-receptors
#11
Steven Buckingham, Makoto Ihara, David B Sattelle, Kazuhiko Matsuda
Ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels belong to the cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (cys-loop LGICs) and mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the nervous system and at neuromuscular junctions of insects. Insect GABA-gated cation channels have also been described. The sequencing of insect genomes has enhanced our understanding of the subunits that make up GABA receptor gene families of many species, including a genetic model organism (Drosophila melanogaster) as well as pest, vector and beneficial (pollinator) species...
June 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588608/an-enhancer-s-length-and-composition-are-shaped-by-its-regulatory-task
#12
Lily Li, Zeba Wunderlich
Enhancers drive the gene expression patterns required for virtually every process in metazoans. We propose that enhancer length and transcription factor (TF) binding site composition-the number and identity of TF binding sites-reflect the complexity of the enhancer's regulatory task. In development, we define regulatory task complexity as the number of fates specified in a set of cells at once. We hypothesize that enhancers with more complex regulatory tasks will be longer, with more, but less specific, TF binding sites...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582438/in-silico-discovery-of-substituted-pyrido-2-3-d-pyrimidines-and-pentamidine-like-compounds-with-biological-activity-in-myotonic-dystrophy-models
#13
Àlex L González, Piotr Konieczny, Beatriz Llamusi, Estefanía Delgado-Pinar, José I Borrell, Jordi Teixidó, Enrique García-España, Manuel Pérez-Alonso, Roger Estrada-Tejedor, Rubén Artero
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a rare multisystemic disorder associated with an expansion of CUG repeats in mutant DMPK (dystrophia myotonica protein kinase) transcripts; the main effect of these expansions is the induction of pre-mRNA splicing defects by sequestering muscleblind-like family proteins (e.g. MBNL1). Disruption of the CUG repeats and the MBNL1 protein complex has been established as the best therapeutic approach for DM1, hence two main strategies have been proposed: targeted degradation of mutant DMPK transcripts and the development of CUG-binding molecules that prevent MBNL1 sequestration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581519/autophagy-suppresses-ras-driven-epithelial-tumourigenesis-by-limiting-the-accumulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#14
J Manent, S Banerjee, R de Matos Simoes, T Zoranovic, C Mitsiades, J M Penninger, K J Simpson, P O Humbert, H E Richardson
Activation of Ras signalling occurs in ~30% of human cancers; however, activated Ras alone is not sufficient for tumourigenesis. In a screen for tumour suppressors that cooperate with oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) in Drosophila, we identified genes involved in the autophagy pathway. Bioinformatic analysis of human tumours revealed that several core autophagy genes, including GABARAP, correlate with oncogenic KRAS mutations and poor prognosis in human pancreatic cancer, supporting a potential tumour-suppressive effect of the pathway in Ras-driven human cancers...
June 5, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576772/incompatibility-between-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-genomes-during-oogenesis-results-in-ovarian-failure-and-embryonic-lethality
#15
Chunyang Zhang, Kristi L Montooth, Brian R Calvi
Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause female infertility. An important remaining question is the extent to which incompatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes contributes to female infertility. It was previously shown that a mitochondrial haplotype from D. simulans (simw(501) ) is incompatible with a nuclear genome from the D. melanogaster strain Oregon-R (OreR), resulting in impaired development, which was enhanced at higher temperature. This mito-nuclear incompatibility is between alleles of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial tyrosyl- tRNA synthetase (Aatm) and the mitochondrial-encoded tyrosyl-tRNA that it aminoacylates...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574763/the-dark-side-of-hippo-signaling-a-cancer-promoter-role
#16
Brandon Dunn, Xianjue Ma
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates organ size and tissue homeostasis. Given this role it is unsurprising that dysregulation of this pathway has implications for cancer progression. A convincing body of literature shows that the Hippo pathway serves a tumor suppressive function with its inactivation leading to massive overgrowth. However, additional studies have also shown that activation of Hippo signaling can promote tumor progression. It remains unknown how a single pathway can produce such diametrically opposed effects...
June 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554773/modulation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-by-dopecr-a-unique-dual-receptor-for-ecdysone-and-dopamine
#17
REVIEW
Arianna Lark, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Jean-René Martin
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for steroid hormones mediate unconventional steroid signaling and play a significant role in the rapid actions of steroids in a variety of biological processes, including those in the nervous system. However, the effects of these GPCRs on overall neuronal activity remain largely elusive. Drosophila DopEcR is a GPCR that responds to both ecdysone (the major steroid hormone in insects) and dopamine, regulating multiple second messenger systems. Recent studies have revealed that DopEcR is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and involved in behavioral regulation...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552182/altered-protein-glycosylation-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-and-modulates-its-pathology-in-disease-model-drosophila
#18
Moran Frenkel-Pinter, Shiri Stempler, Sharon Tal-Mazaki, Yelena Losev, Avnika Singh-Anand, Daniela Escobar-Álvarez, Jonathan Lezmy, Ehud Gazit, Eytan Ruppin, Daniel Segal
The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are pathogenic oligomers and fibrils of misfolded amyloidogenic proteins (e.g., β-amyloid and hyper-phosphorylated tau in AD), which cause progressive loss of neurons in the brain and nervous system. Although deviations from normal protein glycosylation have been documented in AD, their role in disease pathology has been barely explored. Here our analysis of available expression data sets indicates that many glycosylation-related genes are differentially expressed in brains of AD patients compared with healthy controls...
May 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544778/differential-regulation-of-protein-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-by-dock-and-the-ptp61f-variants
#19
Lee F Willoughby, Jan Manent, Kirsten Allan, Han Lee, Marta Portela, Florian Wiede, Coral Warr, Tzu-Ching Meng, Tony Tiganis, Helena E Richardson
Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signalling is coordinated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). There is a growing list of adaptor proteins that interact with PTPs and facilitate the dephosphorylation of substrates. The extent to which any given adaptor confers selectivity for any given substrate in vivo remains unclear. Here we have taken advantage of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to explore the influence of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein Dock on the abilities of the membrane (PTP61Fm)- and nuclear (PTP61Fn)-targeted variants of PTP61F (the Drosophila othologue of the mammalian enzymes PTP1B and TCPTP respectively) to repress PTK signaling pathways in vivo...
May 23, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542380/more-oxygen-during-development-enhanced-flight-performance-but-not-thermal-tolerance-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Shayan Shiehzadegan, Jacqueline Le Vinh Thuy, Natalia Szabla, Michael J Angilletta, John M VandenBrooks
High temperatures can stress animals by raising the oxygen demand above the oxygen supply. Consequently, animals under hypoxia could be more sensitive to heating than those exposed to normoxia. Although support for this model has been limited to aquatic animals, oxygen supply might limit the heat tolerance of terrestrial animals during energetically demanding activities. We evaluated this model by studying the flight performance and heat tolerance of flies (Drosophila melanogaster) acclimated and tested at different concentrations of oxygen (12%, 21%, and 31%)...
2017: PloS One
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