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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326013/molecular-chaperone-calnexin-regulates-the-function-of-drosophila-sodium-channel-paralytic
#1
Xi Xiao, Changyan Chen, Tian-Ming Yu, Jiayao Ou, Menglong Rui, Yuanfen Zhai, Yijing He, Lei Xue, Margaret S Ho
Neuronal activity mediated by voltage-gated channels provides the basis for higher-order behavioral tasks that orchestrate life. Chaperone-mediated regulation, one of the major means to control protein quality and function, is an essential route for controlling channel activity. Here we present evidence that Drosophila ER chaperone Calnexin colocalizes and interacts with the α subunit of sodium channel Paralytic. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that Calnexin interacts with Paralytic protein variants that contain glycosylation sites Asn313, 325, 343, 1463, and 1482...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325838/signaling-pathway-for-phagocyte-priming-upon-encounter-with-apoptotic-cells
#2
Saori Nonaka, Yuki Ando, Takuto Kanetani, Chiharu Hoshi, Yuji Nakai, Firzan Nainu, Kaz Nagaosa, Akiko Shiratsuchi, Yoshinobu Nakanishi
The phagocytic elimination of cells undergoing apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells. Previous studies showed an increase in the level of engulfment receptors in phagocytes after the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, which leads to the enhancement of their phagocytic activity. However, precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon require further clarification. We found that the pre-incubation of a Drosophila phagocyte cell line with the fragments of apoptotic cells enhanced the subsequent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, accompanied by an augmented expression of the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin αPS3...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324764/enhancing-mitofusin-marf-ameliorates-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-drosophila-models-of-tdp-43-proteinopathies
#3
Bilal Khalil, Marie-Jeanne Cabirol-Pol, Laetitia Miguel, Alexander J Whitworth, Magalie Lecourtois, Jean-Charles Liévens
Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) is considered a major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The precise mechanisms by which TDP-43 dysregulation leads to toxicity in neurons are not fully understood. Using TDP-43-expressing Drosophila, we examined whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a central determinant in TDP-43 pathogenesis. Expression of human wild-type TDP-43 in Drosophila neurons results in abnormally small mitochondria...
February 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323621/smoc-can-act-as-both-an-antagonist-and-an-expander-of-bmp-signaling
#4
J Terrig Thomas, D Eric Dollins, Kristin R Andrykovich, Tehyen Chu, Brian G Stultz, Deborah A Hursh, Malcolm Moos
The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone (pent), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320952/identification-of-a-putative-binding-site-critical-for-general-anesthetic-activation-of-trpa1
#5
Hoai T Ton, Thieu X Phan, Ara M Abramyan, Lei Shi, Gerard P Ahern
General anesthetics suppress CNS activity by modulating the function of membrane ion channels, in particular, by enhancing activity of GABAA receptors. In contrast, several volatile (isoflurane, desflurane) and i.v. (propofol) general anesthetics excite peripheral sensory nerves to cause pain and irritation upon administration. These noxious anesthetics activate transient receptor potential ankyrin repeat 1 (TRPA1), a major nociceptive ion channel, but the underlying mechanisms and site of action are unknown...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318765/in-vivo-electroporation-in-dna-vlp-prime-boost-preferentially-enhances-hiv-1-envelope-specific-igg2a-neutralizing-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#6
Xun Huang, Qianqian Zhu, Xiaoxing Huang, Lifei Yang, Yufeng Song, Ping Zhu, Paul Zhou
Although in vivo electroporation (EP) has been utilized to improve immunogenicity in DNA vaccines alone or in prime-boost regimens with both proteins and viral-vectors, no studies on in vivo EP in DNA-VLP prime-boost regimens against HIV-1 have been reported. Previously we developed stably transfected Drosophila S2 clones to produce HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLP) and demonstrated that priming mice twice with DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 gp120 and gag and boosting twice with HIV-1 VLP (i.e. DDVV immunization) elicited both envelope-specific antibody and envelope and gag-specific CD8 T cell responses...
March 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317899/minocycline-treatment-suppresses-juvenile-development-and-growth-by-attenuating-insulin-tor-signaling-in-drosophila-animal-model
#7
Hyun Myoung Yun, Sujin Noh, Seogang Hyun
Minocycline is a broad spectrum, semi-synthetic tetracycline analog that is used to treat bacterial infection. Recently, this drug has been receiving increasing attention for its non-antibiotic properties, including anti-inflammatory, tumor suppressive, and neuroprotective effects. Drosophila is a useful model organism for studying human metabolism and disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of minocycline on juvenile development and growth in Drosophila. Feeding minocycline to Drosophila larvae suppresses larval body growth and delays the timing of pupation in a dose-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303263/astrocyte-ca-2-influx-negatively-regulates-neuronal-activity
#8
Yao V Zhang, Kiel G Ormerod, J Troy Littleton
Maintenance of neural circuit activity requires appropriate regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Recently, glia have emerged as key partners in the modulation of neuronal excitability; however, the mechanisms by which glia regulate neuronal signaling are still being elucidated. Here, we describe an analysis of how Ca(2+) signals within Drosophila astrocyte-like glia regulate excitability in the nervous system. We find that Drosophila astrocytes exhibit robust Ca(2+) oscillatory activity manifested by fast, recurrent microdomain Ca(2+) fluctuations within processes that infiltrate the synaptic neuropil...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296634/constitutive-scaffolding-of-multiple-wnt-enhanceosome-components-by-legless-bcl9
#9
Laurens M van Tienen, Juliusz Mieszczanek, Marc Fiedler, Trevor J Rutherford, Mariann Bienz
Wnt/β-catenin signaling elicits context-dependent transcription switches that determine normal development and oncogenesis. These are mediated by the Wnt enhanceosome, a multiprotein complex binding to the Pygo chromatin reader and acting through TCF/LEF-responsive enhancers. Pygo renders this complex Wnt-responsive, by capturing β-catenin via the Legless/BCL9 adaptor. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering of Drosophila legless (lgs) and human BCL9 and B9L to show that the C-terminus downstream of their adaptor elements is crucial for Wnt responses...
March 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296185/chip-ldb1-interacts-with-tailup-islet1-to-regulate-cardiac-gene-expression-in-drosophila
#10
Kathrin Werner, Cornelia Donow, Petra Pandur
The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Tailup (Tup) is a component of the complex cardiac transcriptional network governing specification and differentiation of cardiac cells in Drosophila. LIM-domain containing factors are known to interact with the adaptor molecule Chip/Ldb1 to form higher order protein complexes to regulate gene expression thereby determining a cell's developmental fate. However, with respect to Drosophila heart development, it has not been investigated yet, whether Chip and tup interact to regulate the generation of different cardiac cell types...
March 15, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294190/active-and-passive-sexual-roles-that-arise-in-drosophila-male-male-courtship-are-modulated-by-dopamine-levels-in-ppl2ab-neurons
#11
Shiu-Ling Chen, Yu-Hui Chen, Chuan-Chan Wang, Yhu-Wei Yu, Yu-Chen Tsai, Hsiao-Wen Hsu, Chia-Lin Wu, Pei-Yu Wang, Lien-Cheng Chen, Tsuo-Hung Lan, Tsai-Feng Fu
The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of male courtship sustainment in Drosophila...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286469/the-ih-channel-gene-promotes-synaptic-transmission-and-coordinated-movement-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Andrew P Hegle, C Andrew Frank, Anthony Berndt, Markus Klose, Douglas W Allan, Eric A Accili
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated "HCN" channels, which underlie the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih), have been proposed to play diverse roles in neurons. The presynaptic HCN channel is thought to both promote and inhibit neurotransmitter release from synapses, depending upon its interactions with other presynaptic ion channels. In larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, inhibition of the presynaptic HCN channel by the drug ZD7288 reduces the enhancement of neurotransmitter release at motor terminals by serotonin but this drug has no effect on basal neurotransmitter release, implying that the channel does not contribute to firing under basal conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285040/starvation-but-not-locomotion-enhances-heart-robustness-in-drosophila
#13
James N Kezos, Larry G Cabral, Brandon D Wong, Belinda K Khou, Angela Oh, Jerry F Harb, Danny Chiem, Timothy J Bradley, Laurence D Mueller, Michael R Rose
Insects and vertebrates have multiple major physiological systems, each species having a circulatory system, a metabolic system, and a respiratory system that enable locomotion and survival in stressful environments, among other functions. Broadening our understanding of the physiology of Drosophila melanogaster requires the parsing of interrelationships among such major component physiological systems. By combining electrical pacing and flight exhaustion assays with manipulative conditioning, we have started to unpack the interrelationships between cardiac function, locomotor performance, and other functional characters such as starvation and desiccation resistance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284721/the-hydroxylated-form-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-h-modifies-the-brain-lipid-composition-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-improving-behavioral-motor-function-and-survival
#14
Raheem J Mohaibes, María A Fiol-deRoque, Manuel Torres, Margarita Ordinas, David J López, José A Castro, Pablo V Escribá, Xavier Busquets
We have compared the effect of the commonly used ω-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (DHA-EE), and of its 2-hydroxylated DHA form (DHA-H), on brain lipid composition, behavior and lifespan in a new human transgenic Drosophila melanogaster model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The transgenic flies expressed human Aβ42 and tau, and the overexpression of these human transgenes in the CNS of these flies produced progressive defects in motor function (antigeotaxic behavior) while reducing the animal's lifespan...
March 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280924/pupal-development-and-pigmentation-process-of-a-polka-dotted-fruit-fly-drosophila-guttifera-insecta-diptera
#15
Yuichi Fukutomi, Keiji Matsumoto, Kiyokazu Agata, Noriko Funayama, Shigeyuki Koshikawa
Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D...
March 9, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278156/a-new-mode-of-dna-binding-distinguishes-capicua-from-other-hmg-box-factors-and-explains-its-mutation-patterns-in-cancer
#16
Marta Forés, Lucía Simón-Carrasco, Leiore Ajuria, Núria Samper, Sergio González-Crespo, Matthias Drosten, Mariano Barbacid, Gerardo Jiménez
HMG-box proteins, including Sox/SRY (Sox) and TCF/LEF1 (TCF) family members, bind DNA via their HMG-box. This binding, however, is relatively weak and both Sox and TCF factors employ distinct mechanisms for enhancing their affinity and specificity for DNA. Here we report that Capicua (CIC), an HMG-box transcriptional repressor involved in Ras/MAPK signaling and cancer progression, employs an additional distinct mode of DNA binding that enables selective recognition of its targets. We find that, contrary to previous assumptions, the HMG-box of CIC does not bind DNA alone but instead requires a distant motif (referred to as C1) present at the C-terminus of all CIC proteins...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273481/matching-dietary-amino-acid-balance-to-the-in-silico-translated-exome-optimizes-growth-and-reproduction-without-cost-to-lifespan
#17
Matthew D W Piper, George A Soultoukis, Eric Blanc, Andrea Mesaros, Samantha L Herbert, Paula Juricic, Xiaoli He, Ilian Atanassov, Hanna Salmonowicz, Mingyao Yang, Stephen J Simpson, Carlos Ribeiro, Linda Partridge
Balancing the quantity and quality of dietary protein relative to other nutrients is a key determinant of evolutionary fitness. A theoretical framework for defining a balanced diet would both reduce the enormous workload to optimize diets empirically and represent a breakthrough toward tailoring diets to the needs of consumers. Here, we report a simple and powerful in silico technique that uses the genome information of an organism to define its dietary amino acid requirements. We show for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster that such "exome-matched" diets are more satiating, enhance growth, and increase reproduction relative to non-matched diets...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272390/atf3-acts-as-a-rheostat-to-control-jnk-signalling-during-intestinal-regeneration
#18
Jun Zhou, Bruce A Edgar, Michael Boutros
Epithelial barrier function is maintained by coordination of cell proliferation and cell loss, whereas barrier dysfunction can lead to disease and organismal death. JNK signalling is a conserved stress signalling pathway activated by bacterial infection and tissue damage, often leading to apoptotic cell death and compensatory cell proliferation. Here we show that the stress inducible transcription factor ATF3 restricts JNK activity in the Drosophila midgut. ATF3 regulates JNK-dependent apoptosis and regeneration through the transcriptional regulation of the JNK antagonist, Raw...
March 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269560/lab-on-chips-for-manipulation-of-small-scale-organisms-to-facilitate-imaging-of-neurons-and-organs
#19
Ramtin Ardeshiri, Pouya Rezai
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) are widely-used model organisms for neurological and cardiac studies due to their simple neuronal (302 neurons in C. elegans) and cardiac (simple tubular organ in D. melanogaster) systems. However, their small sizes and continuous mobility impede their precise and timely manipulation, hence, limiting the assays that can be done using conventional manual methods. This has resulted in a need for technologies that allow multidirectional manipulation of model organisms to enable studies on target neurons and organs throughout the body...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257663/molecular-pathways-related-to-the-longevity-promotion-and-cognitive-improvement-of-cistanche-tubulosa-in-drosophila
#20
Wei-Yong Lin, Chun Yao, Jack Cheng, Shung-Te Kao, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Hsin-Ping Liu
BACKGROUND: The aging process, including physical dysfunction and age-related memory impairment (AMI), are considered to be correlated with cumulative oxidative damages and insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. PURPOSE: The present study was to elucidate the in vivo effects on delaying aging and ameliorating AMI and underlying molecular mechanisms of Cistanche tubulosa (CT), a herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to improve sexual function and treat kidney dysfunction...
March 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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