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Enhancer drosophila

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432141/the-spacing-effect-for-structural-synaptic-plasticity-provides-specificity-and-precision-in-plastic-changes
#1
Martin A San, L Rela, B D Gelb, M R Pagani
In contrast to trials of training without intervals (massed training), training trials spaced over time (spaced training) induce a more persistent memory identified as long-term memory (LTM). This phenomenon known as "the spacing effect for memory" is poorly understood. LTM is supported by structural synaptic plasticity; however, how synapses integrate spaced stimuli remains elusive. Here, we analyzed events of structural synaptic plasticity at the single synapse level after distinct patterns of stimulation in motoneurons of Drosophila We found that the spacing effect is a phenomenon detected at synaptic level, which determine the specificity and the precision in structural synaptic plasticity...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430154/circadian-rhythm-neuropeptides-in-drosophila-signals-for-normal-circadian-function-and-circadian-neurodegenerative-disease
#2
REVIEW
Qiankun He, Binbin Wu, Jeffrey L Price, Zhangwu Zhao
Circadian rhythm is a ubiquitous phenomenon in many organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. During more than four decades, the intrinsic and exogenous regulations of circadian rhythm have been studied. This review summarizes the core endogenous oscillation in Drosophila and then focuses on the neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and hormones that mediate its outputs and integration in Drosophila and the links between several of these (pigment dispersing factor (PDF) and insulin-like peptides) and neurodegenerative disease...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429234/neuron-to-neuron-transfer-of-fus-in-drosophila-primary-neuronal-culture-is-enhanced-by-als-associated-mutations
#3
Sébastien Feuillette, Morgane Delarue, Gaëtan Riou, Anne-Lise Gaffuri, Jane Wu, Zsolt Lenkei, Olivier Boyer, Thierry Frébourg, Dominique Campion, Magalie Lecourtois
The DNA- and RNA-binding protein fused in sarcoma (FUS) has been pathologically and genetically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Cytoplasmic FUS-positive inclusions were identified in the brain and spinal cord of a subset of patients suffering with ALS/FTLD. An increasing number of reports suggest that FUS protein can behave in a prion-like manner. However, no neuropathological studies or experimental data were available regarding cell-to-cell spread of these pathological protein assemblies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428262/uncoupling-neurogenic-gene-networks-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#4
William A Rogers, Yogesh Goyal, Kei Yamaya, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Michael S Levine
The EGF signaling pathway specifies neuronal identities in the Drosophila embryo by regulating developmental patterning genes such as intermediate neurons defective (ind). EGFR is activated in the ventral midline and neurogenic ectoderm by the Spitz ligand, which is processed by the Rhomboid protease. CRISPR/Cas9 was used to delete defined rhomboid enhancers mediating expression at each site of Spitz processing. Surprisingly, the neurogenic ectoderm, not the ventral midline, was found to be the dominant source of EGF patterning activity...
April 20, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420691/clustering-of-drosophila-housekeeping-promoters-facilitates-their-expression
#5
Marc Corrales-Berjano, Aranzazu Rosado Diez, Ruggero Cortini, Joris van Arensbergen, Bas van Steensel, Guillaume J Filion
Housekeeping genes of animal genomes cluster in the same chromosomal regions. It has long been suggested that this organization contributes to their steady expression across all the tissues of the organism. Here we show that the activity of Drosophila housekeeping gene promoters depends on the expression of their neighbours. By measuring the expression of ~ 85,000 reporters integrated in Kc167 cells, we identified the best predictors of expression as chromosomal contacts with the promoters and terminators of active genes...
April 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416593/two-components-of-aversive-memory-in-drosophila-anesthesia-sensitive-and-anesthesia-resistant-memory-require-distinct-domains-within-the-rgk1-small-gtpase
#6
Satoshi Murakami, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tetsuya Tabata
For aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila, multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities. These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies, and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411188/raf-kinase-inhibitor-protein-preferentially-promotes-tlr3-triggered-signaling-and-inflammation
#7
Rongrong Lai, Meidi Gu, Wei Jiang, Wenlong Lin, Penglei Xu, Zhiyong Liu, He Huang, Huazhang An, Xiaojian Wang
Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) protects against host immunological responses in nematodes and Drosophila Whether RKIP functions in innate immune responses in mammals remains unknown. In this article, we report that RKIP preferentially regulates the TLR3-mediated immune response in macrophages. RKIP deficiency or silencing significantly decreases polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)]-induced IFN-β, IL-6, and TNF-α production without affecting the counterpart induced by LPS or CpG. Compared with their wild-type counterparts, RKIP-deficient mice produce less IFN-β, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum and display decreased lethality upon peritoneal Poly(I:C) plus d-galactosamine injection...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407113/a-new-promoter-element-associated-with-daily-time-keeping-in-drosophila
#8
Brandi Sharp, Eric Paquet, Felix Naef, Akanksha Bafna, Herman Wijnen
Circadian clocks are autonomous daily timekeeping mechanisms that allow organisms to adapt to environmental rhythms as well as temporally organize biological functions. Clock-controlled timekeeping involves extensive regulation of rhythmic gene expression. To date, relatively few clock-associated promoter elements have been identified and characterized. In an unbiased search of core clock gene promoters from 12 species of Drosophila, we discovered a 29-bp consensus sequence that we designated as the Clock-Associated Transcriptional Activation Cassette or 'CATAC'...
April 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405401/drosophila-enhancer-gal4-lines-show-ectopic-expression-during-development
#9
Sergio Casas-Tintó, Mercedes Arnés, Alberto Ferrús
In Drosophila melanogaster the most widely used technique to drive gene expression is the binary UAS/Gal4 system. We show here that a set of nervous system specific enhancers (elav, D42/Toll-6, OK6/RapGAP1) display ectopic activity in epithelial tissues during development, which is seldom considered in experimental studies. This ectopic activity is variable, unstable and influenced by the primary sequence of the enhancer and the insertion site in the chromosome. In addition, the ectopic activity is independent of the protein expressed, Gal4, as it is reproduced also with the expression of Gal80...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399198/functional-validation-of-apoptosis-genes-iap1-and-dronc-in-midgut-tissue-of-the-biting-midge-culicoides-sonorensis-diptera-ceratopogonidae-by-rnai
#10
M K Mills, D Nayduch, D S McVey, K Michel
Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide. To further enhance current control techniques, understanding vector-virus interactions within the midge is critical. We developed previously a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery method to induce RNA interference (RNAi) for targeted gene knockdown in adult Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones. Here, we confirm the C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (CsIAP1) as an anti-apoptotic functional ortholog of IAP1 in Drosophila, identify the ortholog of the Drosophila initiator caspase DRONC (CsDRONC), and demonstrate that injection of dsRNA into the hemocoel can be used for targeted knockdown in the midgut in C...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398476/glycation-potentiates-%C3%AE-synuclein-associated-neurodegeneration-in-synucleinopathies
#11
Hugo Vicente Miranda, Éva M Szego, Luís M A Oliveira, Carlo Breda, Ekrem Darendelioglu, Rita M de Oliveira, Diana G Ferreira, Marcos A Gomes, Ruth Rott, Márcia Oliveira, Francesca Munari, Francisco J Enguita, Tânia Simões, Eva F Rodrigues, Michael Heinrich, Ivo C Martins, Irina Zamolo, Olaf Riess, Carlos Cordeiro, Ana Ponces-Freire, Hilal A Lashuel, Nuno C Santos, Luisa V Lopes, Wei Xiang, Thomas M Jovin, Deborah Penque, Simone Engelender, Markus Zweckstetter, Jochen Klucken, Flaviano Giorgini, Alexandre Quintas, Tiago F Outeiro
α-Synuclein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark in Parkinson's disease and in several other neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. The toxic properties of α-synuclein are conserved from yeast to man, but the precise underpinnings of the cellular pathologies associated are still elusive, complicating the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Combining molecular genetics with target-based approaches, we established that glycation, an unavoidable age-associated post-translational modification, enhanced α-synuclein toxicity in vitro and in vivo, in Drosophila and in mice...
April 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398229/controlling-the-master-chromatin-dynamics-at-the-myc-promoter-integrate-developmental-signaling
#12
REVIEW
Olga Zaytseva, Leonie M Quinn
The transcription factor and cell growth regulator MYC is potently oncogenic and estimated to contribute to most cancers. Decades of attempts to therapeutically target MYC directly have not resulted in feasible clinical applications, and efforts have moved toward indirectly targeting MYC expression, function and/or activity to treat MYC-driven cancer. A multitude of developmental and growth signaling pathways converge on the MYC promoter to modulate transcription through their downstream effectors. Critically, even small increases in MYC abundance (<2 fold) are sufficient to drive overproliferation; however, the details of how oncogenic/growth signaling networks regulate MYC at the level of transcription remain nebulous even during normal development...
April 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397990/germline-transformation-of-the-western-corn-rootworm-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera
#13
F Chu, W Klobasa, P Wu, S Pinzi, N Grubbs, S Gorski, Y Cardoza, M D Lorenzen
The western corn rootworm (WCR), a major pest of maize, is notorious for rapidly adapting biochemically, behaviourally and developmentally to a variety of control methods. Despite much effort, the genetic basis of WCR adaptation remains a mystery. Since transformation-based applications such as transposon tagging and enhancer trapping have facilitated genetic dissection of model species such as Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a germline-transformation system for WCR in an effort to gain a greater understanding of the basic biology of this economically important insect...
April 11, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394894/tissue-specific-enhancer-repression-through-molecular-integration-of-cell-signaling-inputs
#14
Luis Humberto Mojica-Vázquez, Mikhail H Benetah, Aissette Baanannou, Sandra Bernat-Fabre, Bart Deplancke, David L Cribbs, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Muriel Boube
Drosophila leg morphogenesis occurs under the control of a relatively well-known genetic cascade, which mobilizes both cell signaling pathways and tissue-specific transcription factors. However, their cross-regulatory interactions, deployed to refine leg patterning, remain poorly characterized at the gene expression level. Within the genetically interacting landscape that governs limb development, the bric-à-brac2 (bab2) gene is required for distal leg segmentation. We have previously shown that the Distal-less (Dll) homeodomain and Rotund (Rn) zinc-finger activating transcription factors control limb-specific bab2 expression by binding directly a single critical leg/antennal enhancer (LAE) within the bric-à-brac locus...
April 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394891/xylosylation-of-the-notch-receptor-preserves-the-balance-between-its-activation-by-trans-delta-and-inhibition-by-cis-ligands-in-drosophila
#15
Tom V Lee, Ashutosh Pandey, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
The Drosophila glucoside xylosyltransferase Shams xylosylates Notch and inhibits Notch signaling in specific contexts including wing vein development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying context-specificity of the shams phenotype is not known. Considering the role of Delta-Notch signaling in wing vein formation, we hypothesized that Shams might affect Delta-mediated Notch signaling in Drosophila. Using genetic interaction studies, we find that altering the gene dosage of Delta affects the wing vein and head bristle phenotypes caused by loss of Shams or by mutations in the Notch xylosylation sites...
April 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390875/effect-of-non-nutritive-sugars-to-decrease-the-survivorship-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#16
Man-Yeon Choi, Siew Bee Tang, Seung-Joon Ahn, Kaushalya G Amarasekare, Peter Shearer, Jana C Lee
In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially insecticidal to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly longevity, with 100% mortality with 1, 0.5, 0.1 & 0.05M doses after feeding for 7days. When sucrose and erythritol solutions were provided separately to flies for 7days, there was no effect on survivorship regardless of erythritol concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389882/hormetic-efficacy-of-rutin-to-promote-longevity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Debarati Chattopadhyay, Atith Chitnis, Aishwarya Talekar, Prajakta Mulay, Manyata Makkar, Joel James, Kavitha Thirumurugan
Hormetins are compounds that mediate hormesis by being beneficial at low doses but detrimental at high doses. Recent studies have highlighted that many compounds that extended lifespan in model organisms did so by mediating hormesis. Rutin is a glycosylate conjugate of quercetin and rutinose and is abundant in citrus fruits and buckwheat seeds. Rutin possess ROS scavenging, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, skin-regenerative and neuro-protective properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an attractive model organism for longevity studies owing to its homology of organ and cellular-pathways with mammals...
April 7, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381411/dual-functionality-of-cis-regulatory-elements-as-developmental-enhancers-and-polycomb-response-elements
#18
Jelena Erceg, Tibor Pakozdi, Raquel Marco-Ferreres, Yad Ghavi-Helm, Charles Girardot, Adrian P Bracken, Eileen E M Furlong
Developmental gene expression is tightly regulated through enhancer elements, which initiate dynamic spatio-temporal expression, and Polycomb response elements (PREs), which maintain stable gene silencing. These two cis-regulatory functions are thought to operate through distinct dedicated elements. By examining the occupancy of the Drosophila pleiohomeotic repressive complex (PhoRC) during embryogenesis, we revealed extensive co-occupancy at developmental enhancers. Using an established in vivo assay for PRE activity, we demonstrated that a subset of characterized developmental enhancers can function as PREs, silencing transcription in a Polycomb-dependent manner...
March 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369895/direct-benefits-of-choosing-a-high-fitness-mate-can-offset-the-indirect-costs-associated-with-intralocus-sexual-conflict
#19
Alison Pischedda, Adam K Chippindale
Intralocus sexual conflict generates a cost to mate choice: high fitness partners transmit genetic variation that confers lower fitness to offspring of the opposite sex. Our earlier work in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, revealed that these indirect genetic costs were sufficient to reverse potential "good genes" benefits of sexual selection. However, mate choice can also confer direct fitness benefits by inducing larger numbers of progeny. Here, we consider whether direct benefits through enhanced fertility could offset the costs associated with intralocus sexual conflict in D...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369070/probing-the-canonicity-of-the-wnt-wingless-signaling-pathway
#20
Alexandra Franz, Daria Shlyueva, Erich Brunner, Alexander Stark, Konrad Basler
The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin) and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF) in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg)-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
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