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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944894/glucosylceramide-synthase-regulates-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-liver-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro-by-bcl%C3%A2-2-bax-pathway
#1
Jun-Feng Li, Su-Jun Zheng, Li-Li Wang, Shuang Liu, Feng Ren, Yu Chen, Li Bai, Mei Liu, Zhong-Ping Duan
Our previous study found that glucosylceramide, a type of sphingolipids, was associated with liver inflammation and fibrosis. Glucosylceramide is generated by glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), which is encoded by the UDP‑glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) gene. GCS is a key enzyme to regulate the physiological activity of cells. However, the role of GCS in hepatic cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism of GCS in the proliferation and apoptosis of liver cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944872/isoflurane-exposure-regulates-the-cell-viability-and-bdnf-expression-of-astrocytes-via-upregulation-of-trek%C3%A2-1
#2
Cui-Hong Zhou, Ya-Hong Zhang, Fen Xue, Shan-Shan Xue, Yun-Chun Chen, Ting Gu, Zheng-Wu Peng, Hua-Ning Wang
Neonatal isoflurane exposure in rodents disrupts hippocampal cognitive functions, including learning and memory, and astrocytes may have an important role in this process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disruption are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of TWIK‑related K+ channel (TREK‑1) in isoflurane‑induced cognitive impairment. Lentiviruses were used to overexpress or knockdown TREK‑1 in astrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of isoflurane or O2 for 2 h...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944871/shear-stress-induces-human-aortic-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-via-interleukin%C3%A2-1-receptor%C3%A2-associated-kinase-2%C3%A2-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#3
Longfei Pan, Zhou Hong, Lei Yu, Yanxia Gao, Rui Zhang, Hui Feng, Lijuan Su, Gang Wang
Atherosclerosis is characterized by localized lesions distributed in the arterial tree due to the shear stress produced by blood flow. Endothelial cells are directly affected by alterations in blood flow. Dysfunction and injury to endothelial cells has been hypothesized to initiate the pathological processes of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of shear stress‑induced endothelial cellular apoptosis. Shear stress was generated using an artificial device to mimic the impact of disturbed blood flow on cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs)...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944870/effect-of-integrin%C3%A2-linked-kinase-gene-silencing-on-microrna-expression-in-ovarian-cancer
#4
Dandan Yuan, Yilei Zhao, Yang Wang, Jianhua Che, Wenhua Tan, Yuxia Jin, Fei Wang, Peiliang Li, Shuyan Fu, Qian Liu, Wenliang Zhu
Integrin‑linked kinase (ILK) is overexpressed in ovarian cancer (OC), and ILK gene silencing results in apoptosis in OC cells. In the present study, the mechanism by which ILK induces apoptosis was explored from the perspective of microRNA (miRNA) expression. Alterations in the global miRNA expression profile were detected using a miRNA microarray after OC cells were transduced with an ILK small hairpin RNA lentivirus. ILK silencing led to a significant upregulation of 14 miRNAs by at least 1.5‑fold. These findings were validated by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944848/cmip-is-oncogenic-in-human-gastric-cancer-cells
#5
Jianlin Zhang, Jin Huang, Xingyu Wang, Weidong Chen, Qinqing Tang, Maoyong Fang, Yeben Qian
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. Recurrence, metastasis and resistance to drug treatment are the main barrier to survival of patients with advanced stage gastric cancer. Further study of the molecular mechanisms involved will improve the therapeutic options for gastric cancer. In a previous study, c‑Maf was discovered as an oncogene transduced in the avian AS42 retrovirus, and was found to be overexpressed in multiple myeloma and angioimmunoblastic T‑cell lymphoma...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944748/host-location-behavior-of-the-tea-green-leafhopper-empoasca-vitis-g%C3%A3-the-hemiptera-cicadellidae-olfactory-and-visual-effects-on-their-orientation
#6
X Zhang, T Pengsakul, M Tukayo, L Yu, W Fang, D Luo
The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe, is one of the most serious pests in tea growing areas. This study investigated the roles played by olfaction and vision in host orientation behavior. The compound eye of E. vitis was found to be a photopic eye; few olfactory sensilla were found on the antennae, while abundant gustatory sensilla were recorded on the mouthparts. Three opsin genes (EV_LWop, EV_UVop, EV_Bop) were isolated and found to be mainly expressed in the compound eye compared with other parts of the body...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944535/overexpression-of-sbmyb60-in-sorghum-bicolor-impacts-both-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#7
Erin D Scully, Tammy Gries, Nathan A Palmer, Gautam Sarath, Deanna L Funnell-Harris, Lisa Baird, Paul Twigg, Javier Seravalli, Thomas E Clemente, Scott E Sattler
Few transcription factors have been identified in C4 grasses that either positively or negatively regulate monolignol biosynthesis. Previously, the overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has been shown to induce monolignol biosynthesis, which leads to elevated lignin deposition and altered cell wall composition. To determine how SbMyb60 overexpression impacts other metabolic pathways, RNA-Seq and metabolite profiling were performed on stalks and leaves. 35S::SbMyb60 was associated with the transcriptional activation of genes involved in aromatic amino acid, S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and folate biosynthetic pathways...
September 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943937/knockdown-of-sall4-expression-using-rna-interference-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-enhances-early-apoptosis-inhibits-invasion-and-increases-chemosensitivity-to-temozolomide-in-u251-glioma-cells
#8
Lei Zhang, Yong Yan, Ying Jiang, Jun Qian, Lei Jiang, Guohan Hu, Yicheng Lu, Chun Luo
Spalt-like transcription factor 4 (SALL4) is essential for the maintenance of the self-renewal and pluripotent properties in embryonic stem cells. Although the detailed mechanism remains unclear, dysregulation of SALL4 has been detected in various malignancies. Previously, the authors' of the present study reported that the expression level of SALL4 was associated with the poor prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The present study aimed to investigate the function of SALL4 in U251 human glioblastoma cells, including apoptosis and invasion inhibition...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943928/recq-helicase-blm-regulates-prostate-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#9
Xiaosong Qian, Sujuan Feng, Dawei Xie, Dalin Feng, Yihang Jiang, Xiaodong Zhang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignant tumor and the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men worldwide. Considering the prevalence and effects of PCa in males, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa tumorigenesis are essential and may provide novel therapeutic strategies for treating PCa. Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) is a member of the RecQ helicase family. The major function of BLM is to uncoil the double-stranded DNA structure. It has previously been demonstrated that BLM acts as a 'genome caretaker', and dysregulation of BLM function has been implicated in the development of multiple tumor types; however, its potential for inducing PCa tumorigenesis remains undetermined...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943917/mechanisms-of-cxcr7-induction-in-malignant-melanoma-development
#10
Xiao-Jing Li, Pai Liu, Wei-Wei Tian, Zhi-Feng Li, Bao-Guo Liu, Jian-Fang Sun
Malignant melanoma (MM) is a highly malignant skin tumor. The mechanism of MM pathogenesis and its signaling pathways are not well characterized. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7) has been reported to regulate cancer cell invasion. The present study sought to investigate the effects of CXCR7 on MM development. First, CXCR7 expression levels were assessed in the skin tumor tissue of patients with MM. Then, CXCR7 small hairpin RNA was used in M14 melanoma cells in a Transwell culture model and in a transplanted mouse model to test the effects of CXCR7...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943916/blockade-of-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-decreases-viability-and-induces-apoptosis-in-retinoblastoma-cells-the-key-role-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#11
Zhidu Song, Yuanyuan Du, Ying Tao
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common type of malignant intraocular cancer in teenagers. One of the proteins abnormally expressed during oncogenesis of RB is sonic hedgehog (SHH), which possesses the capability to selectively activate transcription factors of different genes. However, the detailed function of SHH in RB remains unknown. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the role of SHH in the development of RB. The human RB WERI-Rb-1 cell line was used as an in vitro model for the knockdown of SHH by a specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943881/differential-sensitivity-of-fruit-pigmentation-to-ultraviolet-light-between-two-peach-cultivars
#12
Yun Zhao, Weiqi Dong, Ke Wang, Bo Zhang, Andrew C Allan, Kui Lin-Wang, Kunsong Chen, Changjie Xu
Anthocyanins provide nutritional benefits and are responsible for red coloration in many fruits. Light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach (Prunus persica). However, some cultivars show differential sensitivity to light. In the present study, 'Hujingmilu (HJ),' a naturally deeply colored cultivar, and 'Yulu (YL),' showing low pigmentation, were used to study the mechanism underlying UV-light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Both UVA and UVB induced fruit pigmentation of 'HJ,' but 'YL' was only sensitive to UVB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943874/a-genome-wide-prediction-and-identification-of-intergenic-small-rnas-by-comparative-analysis-in-mesorhizobium-huakuii-7653r
#13
Xie Fuli, Zhao Wenlong, Wang Xiao, Zhang Jing, Hao Baohai, Zou Zhengzheng, Ma Bin-Guang, Li Youguo
In bacteria, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are critical regulators of cellular adaptation to changes in metabolism, physiology, or the external environment. In the last decade, more than 2000 of sRNA families have been reported in the Rfam database and have been shown to exert various regulatory functions in bacterial transcription and translation. However, little is known about sRNAs and their functions in Mesorhizobium. Here, we predicted putative sRNAs in the intergenic regions (IGRs) of M. huakuii 7653R by genome-wide comparisons with four related Mesorhizobial strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943839/cellular-chaperones-as-therapeutic-targets-in-als-to-restore-protein-homeostasis-and-improve-cellular-function
#14
REVIEW
Bernadett Kalmar, Linda Greensmith
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are ubiquitously expressed chaperone proteins that enable cells to cope with environmental stresses that cause misfolding and denaturation of proteins. With aging this protein quality control machinery becomes less effective, reducing the ability of cells to cope with damaging environmental stresses and disease-causing mutations. In neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), such mutations are known to result in protein misfolding, which in turn results in the formation of intracellular aggregates cellular dysfunction and eventual neuronal death...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943283/step-inhibition-reverses-behavioral-electrophysiologic-and-synaptic-abnormalities-in-fmr1-ko-mice
#15
Manavi Chatterjee, Pradeep K Kurup, Camilla J Lundbye, Anna Karina Hugger Toft, Jeemin Kwon, Jessie Benedict, Marija Kamceva, Tue G Banke, Paul J Lombroso
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, with additional symptoms including attention deficit and hyperactivity, anxiety, impulsivity, and repetitive movements or actions. The majority of FXS cases are attributed to a CGG expansion that leads to transcriptional silencing and diminished expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA binding protein, regulates the synthesis of dendritically-translated mRNAs by stalling ribosomal translation. Loss of FMRP leads to increased translation of some of these mRNAs, including the CNS-specific tyrosine phosphatase STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase)...
September 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942956/long-non-coding-and-endogenous-retroviral-rna-levels-are-associated-with-proinflammatory-cytokine-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-blood-cells-implications-for-schizophrenia
#16
Jennifer K Melbourne, Kayla A Chase, Benjamin Feiner, Cherise Rosen, Rajiv P Sharma
Recent research indicates that the expression of long non-coding and endogenous retroviral RNAs is coordinated with the activity of immune molecules often dysregulated in schizophrenia. We measured the expression of TMEVPG1, NRON, HERV-W env and HERV-W gag in blood cells from participants with schizophrenia and controls. We report that a) expression levels of these non-coding RNAs are correlated with proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in all participants, b) HERV-W transcripts are negatively correlated with atypical antipsychotic use in participants with schizophrenia, and c) that these RNAs are transcribed in response to proinflammatory stimuli in a THP-1 monocyte cell line...
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942451/the-human-rna-surveillance-factor-upf1-modulates-gastric-cancer-progression-by-targeting-long-non-coding-rna-malat1
#17
Li Li, Yingying Geng, Ru Feng, Qinqin Zhu, Bei Miao, Jiang Cao, Sujuan Fei
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is overexpressed in numerous cancers. However, whether MALAT1 is regulated and the related mechanisms in gastric cancer remain unclear. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR analyses were used to detect the expression levels of UPF1 and MALAT1 in gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. MTT, cell cycle, apoptosis and transwell assays were performed to examine the effects of UPF1 on cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942346/target-triggered-transcription-machinery-for-ultra-selective-and-sensitive-fluorescence-detection-of-nucleoside-triphosphates-in-one-minute
#18
Jiantong Dong, Tongbo Wu, Yu Xiao, Lu Chen, Lei Xu, Mengyuan Li, Meiping Zhao
Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) play important roles in living organisms. However, no fluorescent assays are currently available to simply and rapidly detect multiple NTPs with satisfactory selectivity, sensitivity and low cost. Here we demonstrate for the first time a target-triggered in-vitro transcription machinery for ultra-selective, sensitive and instant fluorescence detection of multiple NTPs. The machinery assembles RNA polymerase, DNA template and non-target NTPs to convert the target NTP into equivalent RNA signal sequences which are monitored by the fluorescence enhancement of molecular beacon...
September 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942262/engineering-novel-molecular-beacon-constructs-to-study-intracellular-rna-dynamics-and-localization
#19
REVIEW
Zhao Ma, Xiaotian Wu, Christopher J Krueger, Antony K Chen
With numerous advancements in novel biochemical techniques, our knowledge of the role of RNAs in the regulation of cellular physiology and pathology has grown significantly over the past several decades. Nevertheless, detailed information regarding RNA processing, trafficking, and localization in living cells has been lacking due to technical limitations in imaging single RNA transcripts in living cells with high spatial and temporal resolution. In this review, we discuss techniques that have shown great promise for single RNA imaging, followed by highlights in our recent work in the development of molecular beacons (MBs), a class of nanoscale oligonucleotide-probes, for detecting individual RNA transcripts in living cells...
September 20, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942151/molecular-characterization-of-mitochondrial-zucchini-and-its-relation-to-nuage-pirna-pathway-components-in-bombyx-mori-ovary-derived-bmn4-cells
#20
Anandrao Ashok Patil, Tsuneyuki Tatsuke, Hiroaki Mon, Jae Man Lee, Daisuke Morokuma, Masato Hino, Takahiro Kusakabe
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that associate with PIWI subfamily proteins, which play an important role in transposon silencing in animal germ cell. The piRNAs biogenesis is divided into two major pathways: primary and secondary, and both pathways are independent of double-stranded RNA-processing enzyme Dicer, which processes the single-stranded RNA transcripts in microRNA (miRNA) and siRNA (small interfering RNA) pathway. Primary piRNAs are processed from long non-coding RNA precursors transcribed from piRNA clusters...
September 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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