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Peter Oertel, Anne Küntzel, Petra Reinhold, Heike Köhler, Jochen K Schubert, Johann Kolb, Wolfram Miekisch
BACKGROUND: The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath allows non-invasive investigations of diseases. Animal studies are conducted as a model to perform research of VOCs and their relation to diseases. In large animal models ruminants were often used as experimental targets. The effect of their physiological eructation on VOC exhalation has not been examined yet and is the objective of this study. METHODS: Continuous breath profiles of two young cattle, four adult goats and four adult sheep were measured through a mask, covering mouth and nose, in real-time (200 ms) by means of proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Cheng-Ho Chang, Ping-Tao Tseng, Nai-Yu Chen, Pei-Chin Lin, Pao-Yen Lin, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Feng-Yu Kuo, Jenshinn Lin, Ming-Chang Wu, Kuan-Pin Su
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] are widely recommended for health promotion. Over the last decade, prescription omega-3 fatty acid products (RxOME3FAs) have been approved for medical indications. Nonetheless, there is no comprehensive analysis of safety and tolerability of RxOME3FAs so far. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out based on searches in six electronic databases...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ikki Matsuda, Colin A Chapman, Chua Ying Shi Physilia, John Chih Mun Sha, Marcus Clauss
Although resting is one of the dominant behaviors of foregut-fermenting primates (i.e., colobines), their resting posture has rarely received attention. We hypothesize that colobines are more constrained in their resting position than hindgut-fermenting primates and that colobines assume a sitting resting position for specific reasons. To test this hypothesis, we followed two approaches. First, we observed resting positions in two captive individuals each of eight species and tested whether colobines rested in a sitting position more than other primates...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
George Triadafilopoulos
BACKGROUND: The precise aetiology of chronic bloating remains poorly understood and underlying gastroparesis, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and colonic inertia may, individually or collectively, play a role. AIMS: In this retrospective cohort analysis of symptomatic patients with chronic persistent bloating, we determined the clinical utility of wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath test in further defining the underlying aetiology for functional bloating...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Jerzy Królikowski, Ewa Pawłowicz, Ewa Budzisz, Michał Nowicki
OBJECTIVES: Although immunosuppressive drugs have been recognized as leading causes of gastrointestinal symptoms after kidney transplant, other widely used medications such as proton-pump inhibitors recently have been implicated. Our aim was to study the effects of chronic proton-pump inhibitor therapy on gastrointestinal symptoms in clinically stable patients late after kidney transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 100 kidney transplant recipients (66 men and 34 women, mean age of 49 ± 12 y, mean time after transplant of 56 ± 46 mo)...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Evert C Duin, Tristan Wagner, Seigo Shima, Divya Prakash, Bryan Cronin, David R Yáñez-Ruiz, Stephane Duval, Robert Rümbeli, René T Stemmler, Rudolf Kurt Thauer, Maik Kindermann
Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al...
May 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
K M Dungan, R Weitgasser, F Perez Manghi, E Pintilei, J L Fahrbach, H H Jiang, J Shell, K E Robertson
AIMS: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-weekly dulaglutide 1.5 mg, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on glimepiride monotherapy. METHODS: This phase III, randomized (4 : 1; dulaglutide:placebo), double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-week study compared the safety and efficacy of once-weekly dulaglutide 1.5 mg with placebo in sulphonylurea-treated (≥half-maximal dose, stable ≥3 months) patients (N = 300) with T2D and inadequate glycaemic control [glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7...
May 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
H D Naumann, L O Tedeschi, M A Fonseca
Methane (CH) is a potent greenhouse gas that is normally produced by microbial fermentation in the rumen and released to the environment mainly during eructation. Prediction of ruminal CH production is important for ruminant nutrition, especially for the determination of ME intake to assess the amount of total GE available for metabolism by an animal. Equations have been developed to predict ruminal CH production based on dietary constituents, but none have considered condensed tannins (CT), which are known to impact CH production by ruminants...
November 2015: Journal of Animal Science
J I Velazco, D G Mayer, S Zimmerman, R S Hegarty
Methods to measure enteric methane (CH4) emissions from individual ruminants in their production environment are required to validate emission inventories and verify mitigation claims. Estimates of daily methane production (DMP) based on consolidated short-term emission measurements are developing, but method verification is required. Two cattle experiments were undertaken to test the hypothesis that DMP estimated by averaging multiple short-term breath measures of methane emission rate did not differ from DMP measured in respiration chambers (RC)...
January 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
James L Booker, Kathryn Renfroe
Fifteen test subjects, 10 of whom were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were dosed with alcohol to BACs above 0.150 g/dL. Blood and breath assays taken at 20-min intervals for 8 h after dosing demonstrated close agreement between postabsorptive BAC and BrAC values. Three subjects exhibited elevated breath alcohol concentrations up to 0.105 g/dL during the absorptive phase that were apparently due to the passage of gastric alcohol through the lower esophageal sphincter not attributable to eruction or regurgitation...
November 2015: Journal of Forensic Sciences
A Vanlierde, M-L Vanrobays, F Dehareng, E Froidmont, H Soyeurt, S McParland, E Lewis, M H Deighton, F Grandl, M Kreuzer, B Gredler, P Dardenne, N Gengler
The main goal of this study was to develop, apply, and validate a new method to predict an indicator for CH4 eructed by dairy cows using milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra. A novel feature of this model was the consideration of lactation stage to reflect changes in the metabolic status of the cow. A total of 446 daily CH4 measurements were obtained using the SF6 method on 142 Jersey, Holstein, and Holstein-Jersey cows. The corresponding milk samples were collected during these CH4 measurements and were analyzed using MIR spectroscopy...
August 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Channing J Paller, Michelle A Rudek, Xian C Zhou, William D Wagner, Tamaro S Hudson, Nicole Anders, Hans J Hammers, Donna Dowling, Serina King, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Charles G Drake, Mario A Eisenberger, Samuel R Denmeade, Gary L Rosner, Michael A Carducci
BACKGROUND: New therapies are being explored as therapeutic options for men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC) who wish to defer androgen deprivation therapy. MPX is pulverized muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) skin that contains ellagic acid, quercetin, and resveratrol and demonstrates preclinical activity against prostate cancer cells in vitro. METHODS: In the phase I portion of this phase I/II study, non-metastatic BRPC patients were assigned to increasing doses of MPX (Muscadine Naturals...
October 2015: Prostate
Ia P Sverdan
The article represents the research results of the prevalence of typical, secondary and cardiac symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) 2nd type. It is established, that the typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn, acid eructation and regurgitation) were significantly more frequent in patients without DM, while the secondary symptoms of GERD (feeling of "lump' behind sternum and dysphagia) and cardiac symptoms (cardialgia, palpitation, disruption of the heart and shortness of breath) were significantly more frequent in patients with DM 2nd type...
2014: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Agnieszka Sieczkowska, Piotr Landowski, Pawel Zagozdzon, Barbara Kaminska, Carlos Lifschitz
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) was diagnosed in 22.5% of 40 children treated for 3 months with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Compared with those without SBBO, children with SBBO had higher frequency of abdominal pain, bloating, eructation, and flatulence. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms after PPI treatment should be evaluated for SBBO rather than empirically prolonging PPI therapy.
May 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
P Ricci, M G G Chagunda, J Rooke, J G M Houdijk, C-A Duthie, J Hyslop, R Roehe, A Waterhouse
The laser methane detector (LMD) has been proposed as a method to characterize enteric methane (CH4) emissions from animals in a natural environment. To validate LMD use, its CH4 outputs (LMD-CH4), were compared against CH4 measured with respiration chambers (chamber-CH4). The LMD was used to measure CH4 concentration (µL/L) in the exhaled air of 24 lactating ewes and 72 finishing steers. In ewes, LMD was used on 1 d for each ewe, for 2-min periods at 5 hourly observation periods (P1 to P5, respectively) after feeding...
November 2014: Journal of Animal Science
O N Minushkin, L V Maslovskiĭ, A G Shuleshova, N S Nazarov
AIM: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of Livodexa monotherapy in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE) after gastric resection or gastrectomy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigators examined 30 patients (16 men, 14 women) after gastrectomy (n = 15) or gastric resection (n = 15) who had anacidity as shown by pH-metry and the clinical and/or endoscopic signs of RE. During 4 months, Groups 1 and 2 patients received the drug in doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively...
2014: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Caroline M G Saleh, Albert J Bredenoord
Rumination is a phenomenon characterized by retrograde flow of gastric contents into the mouth, otherwise known as regurgitation. Repetitive excessive occurrence of rumination is considered pathologic and is known as the rumination syndrome. Belching occurs occasionally in everyone and is often not related to a disease or a pathologic condition. Gastric belches are physiologic events caused by retrograde flow of air into the esophagus and mouth; however, supragastric belching is associated with belching disorders and is considered pathologic behavior...
October 2014: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Qing-Xiang Yu, Zhan-Kun He, Jiang Wang, Chao Sun, Wei Zhao, Bang-Mao Wang
AIM: To explore whether clinical presentations of gastric small gastrointestinal tumors (GISTs) mimics gastrointestinal dyspepsia symptoms. METHODS: The endosonographic data of 167 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection at the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, China between 2009 and 2011 were analyzed. GISTs and leiomyomas had a similar intragastric distribution and similar locations within the gastric wall. Therefore, patients with GISTs were chosen as the study group and those with leiomyomas were chosen as the control group...
September 7, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
M J Bell, N Saunders, R H Wilcox, E M Homer, J R Goodman, J Craigon, P C Garnsworthy
The aims of this study were to compare methods for examining measurements of CH₄ and CO₂ emissions of dairy cows during milking and to assess repeatability and variation of CH₄ emissions among individual dairy cows. Measurements of CH₄ and CO₂ emissions from 36 cows were collected in 3 consecutive feeding periods. In the first period, cows were fed a commercial partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 69% forage. In the second and third periods, the same 36 cows were fed a high-forage PMR ration containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content...
October 2014: Journal of Dairy Science
Han Seung Ryu, Suck Chei Choi, Joon Seong Lee
Belching is a normal physiological function that may occur when ingested air accumulated in the stomach is expelled or when food containing air and gas produced in the gastrointestinal tract is expelled. Excessive belching can cause patients to complain of abdominal discomfort, disturbed daily life activities, decreased quality of life and may be related to various gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, aerophagia and rumination syndrome. Belching disorders can be classified into aerophagia and unspecified belching disorder according to the Rome III criteria...
July 2014: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
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