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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667900/outcomes-of-emergency-thoracotomy-for-trauma-in-a-general-hospital-in-singapore
#1
Isabelle Rui Wen Yoong, Gregory Heng, Sachin Mathur, Woan Wui Lim, Tiong Thye Goo
Background An emergency thoracotomy can be performed either immediately at the site of trauma or in the emergency department or operating room for resuscitation of patients in extremis or life-saving treatment for patients with thoracic injury. It remains a procedure associated with high mortality rates, and there is a paucity of data from Asia. This study analyzed our six-year experience of emergency trauma thoracotomy in an acute general hospital in Singapore. Methods This retrospective analysis was based on experience in a single institution with all emergency trauma thoracotomies performed by general surgeons...
January 1, 2018: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667789/updates-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-acute-optic-neuritis
#2
Ethan Meltzer, Sashank Prasad
Optic neuritis remains a common diagnosis with controversial management. Although typical optic neuritis is often associated with "good" recovery of visual acuity, patients are often left with persistent impairments of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual field. These permanent visual deficits correlate with structural injury to the anterior visual pathway and are closely linked to visual quality of life. High dose corticosteroids are commonly used for patients with acute optic neuritis...
April 18, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667713/farm-safety-time-to-act
#3
Tony Lower, John Temperley
ISSUES ADDRESSED: Agriculture is recognised as a highly dangerous sector worldwide, hence the use of evidence-based solutions to address injury related incidents are critical to prevention. The main of this paper is to determine the potential for prevention by use of existing controls based on deaths data from 2001-2016. METHODS: This study assesses data from the National Coroner's Information System for the period 2001-2016 in regards to unintentional farm injury deaths in Australia (n = 1,271)...
April 18, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667662/camel-milk-attenuates-methotrexate-induced-kidney-injury-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-enos-signaling-and-intervention-with-oxidative-aberrations
#4
Hany H Arab, Samir A Salama, Ibrahim A Maghrabi
Methotrexate (MTX) is a classical chemotherapeutic agent with nephrotoxicity as the most disturbing adverse effect. So far, its underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly PI3K/Akt/eNOS transduction, are inadequately explored. Several antioxidant modalities have been characterized to ameliorate MTX-induced renal injury. In this regard, Camel milk (CM) is a natural product with recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential ameliorating effects of CM in MTX-induced kidney injury in rats...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667477/return-to-work-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-national-study-with-a-one-year-follow-up-of-neurocognitive-and-behavioural-outcomes
#5
Solrun Sigurdardottir, Nada Andelic, Eike Wehling, Audny Anke, Toril Skandsen, Oyvor Oistensen Holthe, Unn Sollid Manskow, Cecilie Roe
The objectives were to investigate the frequency of return-to-work (RTW) one year after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI: Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS 3-8) and to identify which demographic and injury-related characteristics and neurocognitive factors are associated with RTW. This study is part of a prospective national study on sTBI conducted in all four Norwegian Trauma Referral Centres, including patients aged >15 years over a period of three years (n = 378). For the purpose of this study, only pre-employed individuals of working age (16 to 67 years) were investigated for RTW (n = 143), and of these, 104 participants underwent neuropsychological testing...
April 18, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666966/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-for-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-notes-from-the-field
#6
Maria Teresa Giordani, Francesca Tamarozzi, Daniel Kaminstein, Enrico Brunetti, Tom Heller
BACKGROUND: Thoracic ultrasound is helpful to evaluate lung pathology in patients with acute dyspnea. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of point-of-care ultrasound in patients with extrapulmonary TB and HIV co-infection. This retrospective, open-label case-control study explores the role of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in HIV-positive patients. In particular, it highlights the potential role of specific sonographic features that may be unique to this population...
April 17, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666944/macrophages-play-an-essential-role-in-trauma-induced-sterile-inflammation-and-tissue-repair
#7
REVIEW
Moritz Peiseler, Paul Kubes
Severe trauma is accompanied by a profound activation of the immune system. Patients with polytrauma develop systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and often sepsis, which contributes substantially to high mortality of this condition. On a cellular level, necrosis and loss of plasma membrane integrity lead to the release of endogenous "damage-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) as danger signals, which in turn activate innate immune cells. Inflammation that occurs in the absence of invading pathogens has been termed sterile inflammation and trauma with tissue damage represents an acute form of sterile inflammation...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666265/an-explainable-deep-machine-vision-framework-for-plant-stress-phenotyping
#8
Sambuddha Ghosal, David Blystone, Asheesh K Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar
Current approaches for accurate identification, classification, and quantification of biotic and abiotic stresses in crop research and production are predominantly visual and require specialized training. However, such techniques are hindered by subjectivity resulting from inter- and intrarater cognitive variability. This translates to erroneous decisions and a significant waste of resources. Here, we demonstrate a machine learning framework's ability to identify and classify a diverse set of foliar stresses in soybean [ Glycine max (L...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666199/does-magnesium-sulfate-have-a-role-in-the-management-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-civilian-and-military-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Marc W H Lyons, W J Blackshaw
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of combat morbidity. Currently, the medical management of TBI is limited to supportive critical care. Magnesium sulfate has been studied as a potentially beneficial therapeutic agent. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken, examining the role of magnesium in the management of severe TBI in adults. The primary outcome of the study was all-cause mortality, with secondary outcomes of Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) and GCS...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666129/preventing-emergency-department-ed-visits-and-hospitalisations-of-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment-compared-with-the-general-senior-population-what-do-we-know-about-avoidable-incidents-results-from-a-scoping-review
#10
Mireille Gagnon-Roy, Benyahia Hami, Mélissa Généreux, Nathalie Veillette, Marie-Josée Sirois, Mary Egan, Véronique Provencher
OBJECTIVES: Older cognitively impaired adults present a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality following a visit to the emergency department (ED). Better understanding of avoidable incidents is needed to prevent them and the associated ED presentations in community-dwelling adults. This study aimed to synthetise the actual knowledge concerning these incidents leading this population to ED presentation, as well as possible preventive measures to reduce them. DESIGN: A scoping review was performed according to the Arksey and O'Malley framework...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665840/effects-of-cyclosporine-a-pretreatment-of-deceased-organ-donors-on-kidney-graft-function-cis-a-rein-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Jean-Christophe Orban, Eric Fontaine, Elisabeth Cassuto, Karine Baumstarck, Marc Leone, Jean-Michel Constantin, Carole Ichai
BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation represents the treatment of choice of end-stage kidney disease. Delayed graft function (DGF) remains the most frequent complication after this procedure, reaching more than 30%. Its prevention is essential as it impedes early- and long-term prognosis of transplantation. Numerous pharmacological interventions aiming to prevent ischemia-reperfusion injuries failed to reduce the rate of DGF. We hypothesize that cyclosporine as an early preconditioning procedure in donors would be associated with decreased DGF...
April 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665768/support-to-triage-and-public-risk-perception-considering-long-term-response-to-a-cs-137-radiological-dispersive-device-scenario
#12
Cristiane Ps Andrade, Cláudio J Souza, Eduardo Sn Camerini, Isabela S Alves, Hélio C Vital, Matthew Jf Healy, Edson Ramos De Andrade
A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665763/neuroimaging-radiological-interpretation-system-niris-for-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi
#13
Max Wintermark, Ying Li, Victoria Y Ding, Yingding Xu, Bin Jiang, Robyn L Ball, Michael Zeineh, Alisa Gean, Pina Sanelli
To develop an outcome-based NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients that would standardize the interpretation of non-contrast head CTs and consolidate imaging findings into ordinal severity categories that would inform specific patient management actions and that could be used as a clinical decision support tool. We retrospectively identified all patients transported to our emergency department by ambulance or helicopter, for whom a trauma alert was triggered per established criteria and who underwent a non-contrast head CT due to suspicion of TBI, between November 2015 and April 2016...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665736/fear-avoidance-and-clinical-outcomes-from-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Noah D Silverberg, William Panenka, Grant L Iverson
Characterizing psychological factors that contribute to persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) can inform early intervention. To determine whether fear avoidance, a known risk factor for chronic disability after musculoskeletal injury, is associated with worse clinical outcomes from MTBI, adults were recruited from four outpatient MTBI clinics and assessed at their first clinic visit (M=2.7, SD=1.5 weeks post-injury) and again 4-5 months later. Of 273 patients screened, 102 completed the initial assessment and 87 returned for the outcome assessment...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665648/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-male-guinea-pigs-an-efficient-model-to-investigate-myocardial-damage-in-cardiovascular-complications
#15
Divya Dasagrandhi, Arul Salomee Kamalabai R, Anusuyadevi Muthuswamy, Angela Marie Lennox, Tamilselvan Jayavelu, Vasudharani Devanathan, Jayachandran Kesavan Swaminathan
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the major problem that aggravates cardiac damage. Several established animal models fail to explain the similarity in disease mechanism and progression as seen in humans; whereas guinea pig shows high similarity in cardiovascular parameters. Hence, current study is aimed to develop an animal model using guinea pigs that may best correlate with disease mechanism of human myocardial I/R injury. Male guinea pigs were randomized into three groups: normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD) and sham; fed with respective diets for 90 days...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665561/the-functions-and-addictive-features-of-non-suicidal-self-injury-a-confirmatory-factor-analysis-of-the-ottawa-self-injury-inventory-in-a-university-sample
#16
Camille Guérin-Marion, Jodi Martin, Audrey-Ann Deneault, Marie-France Lafontaine, Jean-François Bureau
The Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory (OSI) is a comprehensive self-report measure of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In an effort to build on past research and further validate the OSI, this study presents a confirmatory factor analysis of the OSI's subscales measuring the functions and addictive features of NSSI using a university sample. Participants were 316 university students aged 17-25 years (84.8% female) who had engaged in NSSI at least once in their lifetime. Consistent with past research, results confirmed the four-factor structure of the Functions items (Internal Emotion Regulation, Social Influence, External Emotion Regulation, Sensation Seeking), as well as the single-factor structure of Addictive Features items...
April 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#17
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665077/gliovascular-changes-precede-white-matter-damage-and-long-term-disorders-in-juvenile-mild-closed-head-injury
#18
Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Andre Obenaus, Aleksandra Ichkova, Justine Aussudre, Thomas Bessy, Elodie Barse, Bassem Hiba, Gwénaëlle Catheline, Grégory Barrière, Jerome Badaut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of hospital visits in pediatric patients and often leads to long-term disorders even in cases of mild severity. White matter (WM) alterations are commonly observed in patients months or years after the injury assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but little is known about WM pathophysiology early after mild pediatric TBI. To evaluate the status of the gliovascular unit in this context, mild TBI was induced in postnatal-day 17 mice using a closed head injury model with two grades of severity (G1, G2)...
April 17, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665016/underreporting-of-fall-injuries-of-older-adults-implications-for-wellness-visit-fall-risk-screening
#19
Geoffrey J Hoffman, Jinkyung Ha, Neil B Alexander, Kenneth M Langa, Mary Tinetti, Lillian C Min
OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of and factors affecting the accuracy of self-reported fall-related injuries (SFRIs) with those of administratively obtained FRIs (AFRIs). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study SETTING: United States PARTICIPANTS: Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older (N=47,215). MEASUREMENTS: We used 24-month self-report recall data from 2000-2012 Health and Retirement Study data to identify SFRIs and linked inpatient, outpatient, and ambulatory Medicare data to identify AFRIs...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665007/protective-effect-of-mir378-on-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyocyte-injury-via-calumenin
#20
Yu Wang, Xiaoxue Cui, Yilin Wang, Yao Fu, Xin Guo, Jie Long, Chengxi Wei, Ming Zhao
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a highly effective antitumor antibiotic, however myocardial toxicity severely limits its use clinically. The pathogenesis of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy is unclear. In Dox cardiomyopathy mice, there is a decline in cardiac function, a change in myocardial pathology and a reduction in miR378* expression. Expression changes in calumenin, an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) chaperone protein and pathway factor, as well as apoptosis, were observed in cardiomyocytes after doxorubicin-induced injury...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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