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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915463/the-our-hope-approach-for-ethics-and-communication-about-neonatal-neurological-injury
#1
REVIEW
Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Barbara Farlow, Steven Miller, Antoine Payot, Lisa Anne Rasmussen, Michael I Shevell, Donna Thomson, Pia Wintermark
Predicting neurological outcomes of neonates with acute brain injury is an essential component of shared decision-making, in order to guide the development of treatment goals and appropriate care plans. It can aid parents in imagining the child's future, and guide timely and ongoing treatment decisions, including shifting treatment goals and focusing on comfort care. However, numerous challenges have been reported with respect to evidence-based practices for prognostication such as biases about prognosis among clinicians...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915348/delayed-nephrology-consultation-and-high-mortality-on-acute-kidney-injury-a-meta-analysis
#2
Débora M Soares, José F Pessanha, Aashish Sharma, Alessandra Brocca, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex syndrome associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. Despite advancements in diagnosis and care practice, AKI remains a disorder usually under/late-recognized with high mortality. One of the hidden reasons for poor outcome might be delayed nephrology consultation, with the involvement of the specialist only in severe stages of AKI when renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane central register for related work on the subject...
December 3, 2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915142/atrazine-triggers-hepatic-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-quails-coturnix-c-coturnix-via-blocking-nrf2-mediated-defense-response
#3
Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Li-Run Xiang, Lei Qin, Jia Lin, Jin-Long Li
The bioaccumulation and environmental persistence of atrazine (ATZ) poses a severe hazard to animal ecosystem. Quail has strong sensitivity to environmental pollutant, thus it is one of the most important ecological pollution indicator. However, true proof for the effects of ATZ exposure on the liver of quails is lacking. To evaluate the liver injury and the role of Nrf2-mediated defense responses during ATZ exposure, male quails were treated with ATZ (0, 50, 250 and 500mg/kg) by oral gavage for 45 days. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress indices, apoptosis-related factors and Nrf2 pathway were detected...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915035/hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-children-and-adults
#4
REVIEW
Pratik Shah, Sofia A Rahman, Huseyin Demirbilek, Maria Güemes, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β cells are functionally programmed to release insulin in response to changes in plasma glucose concentration. Insulin secretion is precisely regulated so that, under normal physiological conditions, fasting plasma glucose concentrations are kept within a narrow range of 3·5-5·5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin secretion becomes dysregulated (ie, uncoupled from glucose metabolism) so that insulin secretion persists in the presence of low plasma glucose concentrations. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia is the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914825/amelioration-of-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-functional-and-biochemical-deficit-in-mice-by-ocimum-kilimandscharicum-leaf-extract
#5
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Nirmal Singh, Amit Kumar, Richa Shri
The genus Ocimum (family Lamiaceae) has been revered for its diverse biological activities. Various species have been used traditionally to treat CNS disorders and are proven to have neuroprotective effect that is often attributed to their significant antioxidant activity. Ocimum kilimandscharicum (Karpoora Thulasi), a prominent member of this genus is reported to have marked antioxidant activity but its neuroprotective potential has not been explored. Thus, present study was designed to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of O...
November 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914705/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-a-noninhibitory-serine-protease-inhibitor-is-renoprotective-by-inhibiting-the-wnt-pathway
#6
Xuemin He, Rui Cheng, Kyoungmin Park, Siribhinya Benyajati, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Chengyi Sun, Lorin E Olson, Yanhui Yang, Bonnie K Eby, Kai Lau, Jian-Xing Ma
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression is downregulated in the kidneys of diabetic rats, and delivery of PEDF suppressed renal fibrotic factors in these animals. PEDF has multiple functions including anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activities. Since the mechanism underlying its antifibrotic effect remains unclear, we studied this in several murine models of renal disease. Renal PEDF levels were significantly reduced in genetic models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (Akita and db/db, respectively), negatively correlating with Wnt signaling activity in the kidneys...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914704/kidney-outcomes-three-years-after-bariatric-surgery-in-severely-obese-adolescents
#7
Edward J Nehus, Jane C Khoury, Thomas H Inge, Nianzhou Xiao, Todd M Jenkins, Marva M Moxey-Mims, Mark M Mitsnefes
A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery have evidence of early kidney damage. To determine if kidney injury is reversible following bariatric surgery, we investigated renal outcomes in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery cohort, a prospective multicenter study of 242 severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Primary outcomes of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated preoperatively and up to 3 years following bariatric surgery...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914661/statin-discontinuation-and-mortality-in-an-older-adult-population-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-four-year-multi-centre-observational-cohort-study
#8
Alessandro Orlando, Christine Thomas, Matthew Carrick, D Sue Slone, Charles W Mains, David Bar-Or
INTRODUCTION: Statin discontinuation has been investigated in a wide range of diseases and injuries, but there is a paucity of data in the older adult population with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to re-examine the extent to which early discontinuation of pre-injury statin (PIS) therapy increases the risk of poor patient outcomes in older adult patients suffering a TBI. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study of adult trauma patients with a blunt TBI across three trauma centres over four years...
November 25, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914583/injuries-from-all-terrain-vehicles-an-opportunity-for-injury-prevention
#9
Emily C Benham, Samuel W Ross, Mariana Mavilia, Peter E Fischer, A Britton Christmas, Ronald F Sing
BACKGROUND: Patient demographics, behavior, and injury patterns were assessed to inform preventative efforts for reduced incidence of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) trauma. METHODS: ATV-related injuries treated at a Level I trauma center from 2008 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient outcomes and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were compared by helmet use and alcohol intoxication. RESULTS: Helmet data were available for 304 patients of 404 patients included; of these, 75 (24...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914450/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-injury-of-renal-tubular-cells-in-a-cellular-model-of-pyelonephritis
#10
M A Morosanova, E Y Plotnikov, L D Zorova, I B Pevzner, V A Popkov, D N Silachev, S S Jankauskas, V A Babenko, D B Zorov
Previously, we have assembled a cellular model of pyelonephritis which contains a primary culture of renal tubular epithelial cells, mononuclear leukocytes, and bacterial lysate or lipopolysaccharide. After cocultivation of renal cells with leukocytes and bacterial lysate, proinflammatory changes were observed in the renal cells, followed by nitrosative and oxidative stress and cell death. The interaction of bacterial antigens not only with leukocytes, but also with epithelial cells of the renal tubules, was partially mediated by signaling pathways involving Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4)...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914317/the-disgust-related-images-dirti-database-validation-of-a-novel-standardized-set-of-disgust-pictures
#11
Anke Haberkamp, Julia Anna Glombiewski, Filipp Schmidt, Antonia Barke
Selecting appropriate stimuli is a major challenge of affective research. Although several standardized databases for affective pictures exist, none of them focus on discrete emotions such as disgust. Validated pictures inducing discrete emotions are still limited, and this presents a problem for researchers interested in studying different facets of disgust. In this paper, we introduce the DIsgust-RelaTed-Images (DIRTI) picture set. The set consists of 240 disgust-inducing pictures divided into six categories (food, animals, body products, injuries/infections, death, and hygiene)...
November 23, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914307/a-multivariate-random-parameters-tobit-model-for-analyzing-highway-crash-rates-by-injury-severity
#12
Qiang Zeng, Huiying Wen, Helai Huang, Xin Pei, S C Wong
In this study, a multivariate random-parameters Tobit model is proposed for the analysis of crash rates by injury severity. In the model, both correlation across injury severity and unobserved heterogeneity across road-segment observations are accommodated. The proposed model is compared with a multivariate (fixed-parameters) Tobit model in the Bayesian context, by using a crash dataset collected from the Traffic Information System of Hong Kong. The dataset contains crash, road geometric and traffic information on 224 directional road segments for a five-year period (2002-2006)...
November 30, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914166/trauma-related-dissociation-psychological-features-and-psychophysiological-responses-to-script-driven-imagery-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#13
Dana Bichescu-Burian, Jürgen Steyer, Tilman Steinert, Benjamin Grieb, Stefan Tschöke
Defense reactions to threatening situations are vital adaptations to stress that protect organisms from injury and ensure survival. We retrospectively investigated the role of peritraumatic dissociation (PD) in the occurrence of severe psychopathology and dissociative patterns of reactions in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We recruited 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD and 15 healthy controls. The BPD group was divided according to the level of PD (low vs. high): BPD and PD (n = 15) and BPD only (n = 13)...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913960/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-clade-c-hiv-are-independent-of-tat-genetic-diversity
#14
Robert H Paul, Sarah Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, David H Laidlaw, Ryan Cabeen, Gayla R Olbricht, Yuqing Su, Dan J Stein, Susan Engelbrecht, Soraya Seedat, Lauren E Salminen, Laurie M Baker, Jodi Heaps, John Joska
Controversy remains regarding the neurotoxicity of clade C human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-C). When examined in preclinical studies, a cysteine to serine substitution in the C31 dicysteine motif of the HIV-C Tat protein (C31S) results in less severe brain injury compared to other viral clades. By contrast, patient cohort studies identify significant neuropsychological impairment among HIV-C individuals independent of Tat variability. The present study clarified this discrepancy by examining neuroimaging markers of brain integrity among HIV-C individuals with and without the Tat substitution...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913955/polysaccharides-from-arnebia-euchroma-ameliorated-endotoxic-fever-and-acute-lung-injury-in-rats-through-inhibiting-complement-system
#15
Ying-Ye Ou, Yun Jiang, Hong Li, Yun-Yi Zhang, Yan Lu, Dao-Feng Chen
Arnebiaeuchroma (Royle) Johnst (Ruanzicao) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM). It is extensively used in China and other countries for treatment of inflammatory diseases. It is known that hyper-activated complement system involves in the fever and acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. In our preliminary studies, anti-complementary activity of crude Arnebiaeuchroma polysaccharides (CAEP) had been demonstrated in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of crude Arnebiaeuchroma polysaccharides (CAEP) using two animal models, which relate with inappropriate activation of complement system...
December 3, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913838/isolated-transverse-process-fractures-insignificant-injury-or-marker-of-complex-injury-pattern
#16
G Lombardo, P Petrone, K Prabhakaran, C P Marini
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates the incidence of isolated transverse process fractures (ITPFx) amongst vertebral fractures in trauma patients, and specific-associated injury patterns present in patients with ITPFx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, 4-year review of our Level 1 Trauma Center registry was performed. Patients with blunt spinal column fractures were identified. Data collected included patient demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), type of imaging obtained, and concomitant injuries, including rib and pelvic fractures, liver, spleen, and kidney injury (SOI)...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913815/-volume-therapy-in-the-severely-injured-patient-recommendations-and-current-guidelines
#17
Sigune Kaske, Marc Maegele
BACKGROUND: Volume therapy is a cornerstone of early resuscitation of severely injured trauma patients, but the optimal strategy remains under debate. A recent Cochrane review could not find evidence for or against early volume replacement or large versus small amounts of fluid. METHOD: Current recommendations and guidelines regarding volume therapy in severely injured patients are summarized based upon the updated European Trauma Guideline on the management of major bleeding and coagulopathy following trauma (fourth edition) and the S3-Guideline Polytrauma and combined with a selective review of the literature...
December 2, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913661/effects-of-exendin-4-on-the-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-and-interstitial-fibrosis-in-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-mice-exendin-4-and-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#18
Ying Le, Zongji Zheng, Junyu Xue, Mengling Cheng, Meiping Guan, Yaoming Xue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the renoprotecive effects of exendin-4 in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and explore the putative mechanisms. METHODS: Male Balbc mice underwent sham operation or UUO surgery, and then received intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or exendin-4, respectively. After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and the left kidneys were collected and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913625/absence-of-mir-146a-in-podocytes-increases-risk-of-diabetic-glomerulopathy-via-upregulation-of-erbb4-and-notch-1
#19
Ha Won Lee, Samia Q Khan, Shehryar Khaliqdina, Mehmet M Altintas, Florian Grahammer, Jimmy L Zhao, Kwihey Koh, Nicholas J Tardi, Mohd Hafeez Faridi, Terese Geraghty, David J Cimbaluk, Katalin Susztak, Luis F Moita, David Baltimore, Pierre-Louis Tharaux, Tobias B Huber, Matthias Kretzler, Markus Bitzer, Jochen Reiser, Vineet Gupta
Podocyte injury is an early event in diabetic kidney disease and is a hallmark of glomerulopathy. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) is highly expressed in many cell types under homeostatic conditions, and plays an important anti-inflammatory role in myeloid cells. However, its role in podocytes is unclear. Here, we show that miR-146a expression levels decrease in the glomeruli of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), which correlates with increased albuminuria and glomerular damage. MiR-146a levels are also significantly reduced in the glomeruli of albuminuric BTBR ob/ob mice, indicating its significant role in maintaining podocyte health...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913400/incidence-risk-factors-and-outcome-of-life-threatening-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-giant-cell-myocarditis
#20
Kaj Ekström, Jukka Lehtonen, Riina Kandolin, Anne Räisänen-Sokolowski, Kaisa Salmenkivi, Markku Kupari
BACKGROUND: Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are characteristic of giant cell myocarditis, but their true incidence, predictors, and outcome are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our work involved 51 patients with giant cell myocarditis (35 women) aged 52±12 years. Their medical records were reviewed for history, results of laboratory and imaging studies, and occurrence of serious cardiac events, including life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Sudden cardiac death (fatal or aborted) was the primary end point of our analyses, whereas the composite of sudden cardiac death and ventricular tachycardia requiring treatment constituted the secondary end point...
December 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
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