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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662222/function-and-functional-redundancy-in-microbial-systems
#1
REVIEW
Stilianos Louca, Martin F Polz, Florent Mazel, Michaeline B N Albright, Julie A Huber, Mary I O'Connor, Martin Ackermann, Aria S Hahn, Diane S Srivastava, Sean A Crowe, Michael Doebeli, Laura Wegener Parfrey
Microbial communities often exhibit incredible taxonomic diversity, raising questions regarding the mechanisms enabling species coexistence and the role of this diversity in community functioning. On the one hand, many coexisting but taxonomically distinct microorganisms can encode the same energy-yielding metabolic functions, and this functional redundancy contrasts with the expectation that species should occupy distinct metabolic niches. On the other hand, the identity of taxa encoding each function can vary substantially across space or time with little effect on the function, and this taxonomic variability is frequently thought to result from ecological drift between equivalent organisms...
April 16, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629819/efficacy-and-safety-of-anti-trop-2-antibody-drug-conjugate-sacituzumab-govitecan-immu-132-in-heavily-pretreated-patients-with-metastatic-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#2
Aditya Bardia, Ingrid A Mayer, Jennifer R Diamond, Rebecca L Moroose, Steven J Isakoff, Alexander N Starodub, Nikita C Shah, Joyce O'Shaughnessy, Kevin Kalinsky, Michael Guarino, Vandana Abramson, Dejan Juric, Sara M Tolaney, Jordan Berlin, Wells A Messersmith, Allyson J Ocean, William A Wegener, Pius Maliakal, Robert M Sharkey, Serengulam V Govindan, David M Goldenberg, Linda T Vahdat
Purpose Trop-2, expressed in most triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), may be a potential target for antibody-drug conjugates. Sacituzumab govitecan, an antibody-drug conjugate, targets Trop-2 for the selective delivery of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. Patients and Methods We evaluated sacituzumab govitecan in a single-arm, multicenter trial in patients with relapsed/refractory metastatic TNBC who received a 10 mg/kg starting dose on days 1 and 8 of 21-day repeated cycles. The primary end points were safety and objective response rate; secondary end points were progression-free survival and overall survival...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617217/emphasizing-the-positive-in-positive-reinforcement-using-non-binary-rewarding-for-training-monkeys-on-cognitive-tasks
#3
Benjamin Fischer, Detlef Wegener
Non-human primates constitute an indispensable model system for studying higher brain func-tions at the neurophysiological level. Studies involving these animals elucidated the neuronal mechanisms of various cognitive and executive functions, such as visual attention, working memory, and decision-making. Positive Reinforcement Training (PRT) constitutes the gold standard for training animals on the cognitive tasks employed in these studies. In the laboratory, PRT is usually based on applying a liquid reward as the reinforcer to strengthen the desired be-havior, and absence of the reward if the animal's response was wrong...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568518/exercise-induced-increase-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-human-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Mark A Hirsch, Erwin E H van Wegen, Mark A Newman, Patricia C Heyn
Background: Animal models of exercise and Parkinson's disease (PD) have found that the physiologic use of exercise may interact with the neurodegenerative disease process, likely mediated by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). No reviews so far have assessed the methodologic quality of available intervention studies or have bundled the effect sizes of individual studies on exercise-induced effects on BDNF blood levels in human PD. Research design and methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and PubMed from inception to June 2017...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549301/publisher-correction-a-molecular-cross-linking-approach-for-hybrid-metal-oxides
#5
Dahee Jung, Liban M A Saleh, Zachariah J Berkson, Maher F El-Kady, Jee Youn Hwang, Nahla Mohamed, Alex I Wixtrom, Ekaterina Titarenko, Yanwu Shao, Kassandra McCarthy, Jian Guo, Ignacio B Martini, Stephan Kraemer, Evan C Wegener, Philippe Saint-Cricq, Bastian Ruehle, Ryan R Langeslay, Massimiliano Delferro, Jonathan L Brosmer, Christopher H Hendon, Marcus Gallagher-Jones, Jose Rodriguez, Karena W Chapman, Jeffrey T Miller, Xiangfeng Duan, Richard B Kaner, Jeffrey I Zink, Bradley F Chmelka, Alexander M Spokoyny
In the version of this Article originally published, Liban M. A. Saleh was incorrectly listed as Liban A. M. Saleh due to a technical error. This has now been amended in all online versions of the Article.
March 16, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524281/incubation-with-macroalgae-induces-large-shifts-in-water-column-microbiota-but-minor-changes-to-the-epibiota-of-co-occurring-macroalgae
#6
Melissa Y Chen, Laura Wegener Parfrey
Macroalgae variably promote and deter microbial growth through release of organic carbon and anti-microbial compounds into the water column. Consequently, macroalgae influence the microbial composition of the surrounding water column and biofilms on nearby surfaces. Here, we use manipulative experiments to test the hypotheses that 1) Nereocystis luetkeana and Mastocarpus sp. macroalgae alter the water column microbiota in species-specific manner,that 2) neighboring macroalgae alter the bacterial communities on the surface (epibiota) of actively growing Nereocystis luetkeana meristem fragments (NMFs), and that 3) neighbors alter NMF growth rate...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522923/parameters-affecting-acetate-concentrations-during-in-situ-biological-hydrogen-methanation
#7
Laura Mia Agneessens, Lars Ditlev Mørck Ottosen, Martin Andersen, Christina Berg Olesen, Anders Feilberg, Michael Vedel Wegener Kofoed
Surplus electricity may be supplied to anaerobic digesters as H2 gas to upgrade the CH4 content of biogas. Acetate accumulation has been observed following H2 injections, but the parameters determining the degree of acetate accumulation are not well understood. The pathways involved during H2 consumption and acetate kinetics were evaluated in continuous lab reactors and parallel batch13 C experiments. Acetate accumulation increased during initial H2 injections as organic loading rate increased and CO2 levels decreased below 7%...
February 24, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514282/a-critical-role-of-mitochondria-in-bdnf-associated-synaptic-plasticity-after-one-week-vortioxetine-treatment
#8
Fenghua Chen, Jibrin Danladi, Maryam Ardalan, Betina Elfving, Heidi K Müller, Gregers Wegener, Connie Sanchez, Jens R Nyengaard
Background: Preclinical studies have indicated that antidepressant effect of vortioxetine involves increased synaptic plasticity and promotion of spine maturation. Mitochondria dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiological basis of major depressive disorder. Taking into consideration that vortioxetine increases spine number and dendritic branching in hippocampus CA1 faster than fluoxetine, we hypothesize that new spines induced by vortioxetine can rapidly form functional synapses by mitochondrial support, accompanied by increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-signaling...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507417/a-molecular-cross-linking-approach-for-hybrid-metal-oxides
#9
Dahee Jung, Liban A M Saleh, Zachariah J Berkson, Maher F El-Kady, Jee Youn Hwang, Nahla Mohamed, Alex I Wixtrom, Ekaterina Titarenko, Yanwu Shao, Kassandra McCarthy, Jian Guo, Ignacio B Martini, Stephan Kraemer, Evan C Wegener, Philippe Saint-Cricq, Bastian Ruehle, Ryan R Langeslay, Massimiliano Delferro, Jonathan L Brosmer, Christopher H Hendon, Marcus Gallagher-Jones, Jose Rodriguez, Karena W Chapman, Jeffrey T Miller, Xiangfeng Duan, Richard B Kaner, Jeffrey I Zink, Bradley F Chmelka, Alexander M Spokoyny
There is significant interest in the development of methods to create hybrid materials that transform capabilities, in particular for Earth-abundant metal oxides, such as TiO2 , to give improved or new properties relevant to a broad spectrum of applications. Here we introduce an approach we refer to as 'molecular cross-linking', whereby a hybrid molecular boron oxide material is formed from polyhedral boron-cluster precursors of the type [B12 (OH)12 ]2- . This new approach is enabled by the inherent robustness of the boron-cluster molecular building block, which is compatible with the harsh thermal and oxidizing conditions that are necessary for the synthesis of many metal oxides...
March 5, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501300/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-presenting-as-facial-nerve-palsy-in-a-teenager
#10
James C Wang, Brittany A Leader, Ryan A Crane, Bernadette L Koch, Matthew M Smith, Stacey L Ishman
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis) is an autoimmune systemic small-vessel vasculitis, associated with the presence of anti-neurophil cytoplasmic antibodies with a cytoplasmic staining pattern (c-ANCA). It is characterized by necrotizing granulomas, usually affecting the airways and kidneys. GPA should be considered when patients do not improve despite adequate treatment of otologic symptoms, when patients have unspecific symptoms suggesting systemic disease (e...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501285/impact-and-safety-of-open-lung-biopsy-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards
#11
G Ortiz, M Garay, D Mendoza, P Cardinal-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory lung disorder, and its pathological hallmark is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Given that open lung biopsy (OLB) can sometimes result in severe side effects, it is rarely performed in patients with ARDS. AIM: The aims of this study were to describe: (a) the rate of treatment change associated with the histological result; and (b) the incidence of side effects induced by OLB. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A retrospective, single-center, descriptive observational study was carried out in Hospital Santa Clara (Bogotá, Colombia) from February 2007 to January 2014...
February 28, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493730/a-case-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-nasal-cavity-in-a-patient-with-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-wegener-granulomatosis
#12
Edward C Kuan, Kevin A Peng, Lyndon O Gonzalez, Joel A Sercarz
We report a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal cavity arising in a patient with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). The patient was a 35-year-old man who had been diagnosed 15 years earlier with GPA and treated medically for sinonasal, pulmonary, and renal involvement. He presented to us with left-sided orbital and cheek pain and nasal obstruction. Endoscopy detected a friable, exophytic mass that involved the left lateral nasal wall and septum. Biopsy analysis identified the mass as an SCC...
January 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492716/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-clinical-course-and-outcome-of-60-patients-from-a-single-center-in-south-india
#13
Vineeta Shobha, Saba Fathima, Ravi Prakash
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis is one of the forms of idiopathic systemic vasculitis. There is very scanty data available on GPA in Asian and Indian population. We studied data of 60 patients from southern India, diagnosed with GPA to describe the physical characteristics, the treatment, and outcome. Patients who fulfilled any two of the four criteria proposed by the American College of Rheumatology, and those with clinical features of GPA with ANCA positivity and histopathological confirmation, were included in the study...
February 28, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488498/-the-modern-approach-to-the-treatment-of-subglottic-laryngeal-stenosis
#14
A I Krukov, E A Kirasirova, O K Piminidi, R A Rezakov, N V Lafutkina, R F Mamedov
The objective of the present study was to optimize the treatment of patients with subglottic laryngeal stenosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have examined a total of 14 patients presenting with subglottic laryngeal stenosis. The etiological factors and underlying conditions of laryngeal stenosis were the prolonged intubation in 4 patients, Wegener granulomatosis in 6 patients, and idiopathic stenosis of the larynx in 4 patients. All the patients underwent balloon dilatation with the application of the video endoscopic technique...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482646/correcting-for-16s-rrna-gene-copy-numbers-in-microbiome-surveys-remains-an-unsolved-problem
#15
Stilianos Louca, Michael Doebeli, Laura Wegener Parfrey
The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is the most widely used marker gene in microbial ecology. Counts of 16S sequence variants, often in PCR amplicons, are used to estimate proportions of bacterial and archaeal taxa in microbial communities. Because different organisms contain different 16S gene copy numbers (GCNs), sequence variant counts are biased towards clades with greater GCNs. Several tools have recently been developed for predicting GCNs using phylogenetic methods and based on sequenced genomes, in order to correct for these biases...
February 26, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477673/childhood-adversities-bonding-and-personality-in-social-anxiety-disorder-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#16
Stefanie Rambau, Andreas J Forstner, Ingo Wegener, Martin Mücke, Christine T S Wissussek, Sabine M Staufenbiel, Franziska Geiser, Johannes Schumacher, Rupert Conrad
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is frequently associated with alcohol use disorders (abuse/dependence). However, there has been little research on the characteristics of this subgroup so far. In the current study we investigated individuals with SAD and comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) with regard to socialization experiences and personality. The sample comprised 410 individuals diagnosed with SAD by the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV. 108 participants with comorbid AUD were compared to 302 participants without comorbid AUD concerning traumatic experiences during childhood and adolescence (Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire; ACE), parental bonding (Parental Bonding Instrument; PBI), and personality (Temperament and Character Inventory; TCI)...
February 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476511/metabolic-labeling-to-quantify-drosophila-neuropeptides-and-peptide-hormones
#17
Thomas Otto Kunz, Jiangtian Chen, Megha, Christian Wegener
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are involved in the regulation of most if not all body functions, ranging from physiology to neuronal processing and the control of behavior. To assess their functions, it is often vital to determine when and in which quantities they are produced, stored, and released. The latter is especially difficult to assess in small insects, such as the genetically amenable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and cannot be achieved merely by quantifying mRNA transcripts. We have adapted and optimized methods to quantify neuropeptides and peptide hormones by metabolic labeling followed by LC-MS...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469690/non-canonical-escherichia-coli-transcripts-lacking-a-shine-dalgarno-motif-have-very-different-translational-efficiencies-and-do-not-form-a-coherent-group
#18
Petra Ludwig, Madeleine Huber, Matthias Lehr, Marius Wegener, Karolin Zerulla, Christian Lange, Joerg Soppa
Translation initiation in 50-70 % of transcripts in Escherichia coli requires base pairing between the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) motif in the mRNA and the anti-SD motif at the 3' end of the 16S rRNA. However, 30-50 % of E. coli transcripts are non-canonical and are not preceded by an SD motif. The 5' ends of 44 E. coli transcripts were determined, all of which contained a 5'-UTR (no leaderless transcripts), but only a minority contained an SD motif. The 5'-UTR lengths were compared with those listed in RegulonDB and reported in previous publications, and the identities and differences were obtained in all possible combinations...
February 22, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468803/gene-expression-and-ultrastructure-of-meso-and-thermophilic-methanotrophic-consortia
#19
Viola Krukenberg, Dietmar Riedel, Harald R Gruber-Vodicka, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Antje Boetius, Gunter Wegener
The sulfate-dependent, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important sink for methane in marine environments. It is carried out between anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) living in syntrophic partnership. In this study, we compared the genomes, gene expression patterns and ultrastructures of three phylogenetically different microbial consortia found in hydrocarbon-rich environments under different temperature regimes: ANME-1a/HotSeep-1 (60°C), ANME-1a/Seep-SRB2 (37°C) and ANME-2c/Seep-SRB2 (20°C)...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463103/towards-an-integrated-understanding-of-retrograde-control-of-photosynthesis
#20
Karl-Josef Dietz, Corinna Wesemann, Melanie Wegener, Thorsten Seidel
SIGNIFICANCE: Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of eukaryotes which occupies a large portion of the photosynthetic cell. The chloroplast function and integrity depend on intensive material and signal exchange between all genetic compartments and conditionally secures efficient photosynthesis and high fitness. Recent Advances: During the last two decades the concept of the mutual control of plastid performance by extraplastidic anterograde signals acting on the chloroplast and the feedback from the chloroplast to the extraplastidic space by retrograde signals has been profoundly revised and expanded...
February 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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