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Nuclear and Molecular Medicine

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Parthasarathi Panda, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a very well-known herbal medicine and it was well studied for its active metabolites throughout the World. Although, nearly 40 withanolides were isolated from W. somnifera root extract, still there is remaining unidentified metabolites due to very low abundance and natural variation. Advanced separation technology with online identification by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are now-a-days used to find out the new compounds in the crude herbal extract. This article described the metabolite profiling of ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and NMR analysis...
October 15, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Henrik Aronsson, Petter Larsson, Sandra Bains
Higher plants have been used in medicine throughout human history. While traditional medicinal uses relied on compounds produced naturally by plants, recent advances have enabled the use of plant-based factories to produce diverse agents including pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, and vaccines. The genes responsible for the production of these substances can be either transiently expressed in plants or integrated into their nuclear genome or plastid genome (plastome) by genetic transformation. This review focuses on the application of plastid transformation of higher plants to produce biopharmaceuticals for human applications that are neither antibiotics nor vaccines...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Rubel Chakravarty, Sudipta Chakraborty, Ashutosh Dash
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has transformed diagnostic nuclear medicine and become an essential strategy in cancer management. With the expected growth of this molecular imaging modality, there is a recognized need for new PET probes to address the clinical challenges in the early diagnosis and staging of various types of cancers. In this endeavor, the prospect of using 64Cu in the form of simple Cu2+ ions as PET probe is not only a cost-effective proposition, but also seems poised to broaden the palette of molecular imaging probes in the foreseeable future...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
J Capdevila, J C Galofré, E Grande, C Zafón Llopis, T Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, E Navarro González, P Jiménez-Fonseca, J Santamaría Sandi, J M Gómez Sáez, G Riesco Eizaguirre
Thyroid cancer is the single most prevalent endocrine malignancy; differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) accounts for more than 90 % of all malignancies and its incidence has been rising steadily. For more patients, surgical treatment, radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy achieve an overall survival (OS) rate of 97.7 % at 5 years. Nevertheless, locoregional recurrence occurs in up to 20 % and distant metastases in approximately 10 % at 10 years. Two-thirds of these patients will never be cured with radioactive iodine therapy and will become RAI-refractory, with a 3-year OS rate of less than 50 %...
October 4, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Aysenur Ozderya, Sule Temizkan, Aylin Ege Gul, Sule Ozugur, Mehmet Sargin, Kadriye Aydin
The prognostic importance of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose avidity in primary thyroid tumor and molecular basis responsible for its mechanism has not yet been well characterized. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the maximum standardized uptake levels and B-type Raf kinase mutation positivity in incidentally detected papillary thyroid cancer patients during (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examination. We retrospectively evaluated 6873 (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans of consecutive subjects from a database search for tumor staging in 2014 at our hospital Nuclear Medicine Center...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine
Takuhiro Uto, Nguyen Huu Tung, Pinjutha Thongjankaew, Sorasak Lhieochaiphant, Yukihiro Shoyama
BACKGROUND: Mammea siamensis (Miq.) T. Anders. is used as a medicinal plant in Thailand and has several traditional therapeutic properties. In a previous study, we isolated eight compounds from the flower of M. siamensis and demonstrated that kayeassamin A (KA) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against human leukemia and stomach cancer cell lines. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the effect of KA on cell viability and apoptotic mechanisms in HL-60 human leukemia cells...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Harshad R Kulkarni, Aviral Singh, Christiane Schuchardt, Karin Niepsch, Manal Sayeg, Yevgeniy Leshch, Hans-Juergen Wester, Richard P Baum
A potential milestone in personalized nuclear medicine is theranostics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) based on molecular imaging using PET/CT with (68)Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligands and molecular radiotherapy using PSMA-targeted radioligand therapy (PRLT) with (177)Lu-PSMA ligands. (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT enables accurate detection of mCRPC lesions with high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and provides quantitative and reproducible data that can be used to select patients for PRLT and therapeutic monitoring...
October 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Takashi Yazawa, Yoshitaka Imamichi, Kaoru Miyamoto, Md Rafiqul Islam Khan, Junsuke Uwada, Akihiro Umezawa, Takanobu Taniguchi
Steroid hormones are mainly produced in adrenal glands and gonads. Because steroid hormones play vital roles in various physiological processes, replacement of deficient steroid hormones by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. In addition to HRT, tissue regeneration using stem cells is predicted to provide novel therapy. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into steroidogenic cells following ectopic expression of nuclear receptor (NR) 5A subfamily proteins, steroidogenic factor-1 (also known as adrenal 4 binding protein) and liver receptor homolog-1, with the aid of cAMP signaling...
September 29, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Rui Zhou, Fen Luo, Hui Lei, Kai Zhang, Jingyan Liu, He He, Jin Gao, Xiayun Chang, Ling He, Hui Ji, Tianhua Yan, Tong Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Liujunzi Tang is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in East Asia and clinically applied to treat Phlegm-Heat Syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Liujunzi Tang on cigarette smoke-induced (CS) mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and explore its potential molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice received 1h of cigarette smoke for 8 weeks. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Amisha Mittal, Simran Tandon, Surender Kumar Singla, Chanderdeep Tandon
Kidney stone formation during hyperoxaluric condition is inherently dependent on the interaction between renal epithelial cells and calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. Although modern medicine has progressed in terms of removal of these stones, recurrence and persistent side effects restricts their use. Strategies involving plant based agents which could be used as adjunct therapy is an area which needs to be explored. Plant proteins having antilithiatic activity is a hitherto unexplored area and therefore, we conducted a detailed identification and characterization of antilithiatic proteins from Terminalia arjuna (T...
2016: PloS One
Josephina A N Meester, Geert Vandeweyer, Isabel Pintelon, Martin Lammens, Lana Van Hoorick, Simon De Belder, Kathryn Waitzman, Luciana Young, Larry W Markham, Julie Vogt, Julie Richer, Luc M Beauchesne, Sheila Unger, Andrea Superti-Furga, Milan Prsa, Rami Dhillon, Edwin Reyniers, Harry C Dietz, Wim Wuyts, Geert Mortier, Aline Verstraeten, Lut Van Laer, Bart L Loeys
PURPOSE: Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, but rare X-linked families have been described. So far, the only known X-linked gene is FLNA, which is associated with the periventricular nodular heterotopia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, mutations in this gene explain only a small number of X-linked TAAD families. METHODS: We performed targeted resequencing of 368 candidate genes in a cohort of 11 molecularly unexplained Marfan probands...
September 15, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Fenggen Yan, Fen Yang, Rui Wang, Xiao Jun Yao, Liping Bai, Xing Zeng, JiaJun Huang, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Christopher Wai Kei Lam, Hua Zhou, Xiaohui Su, Juan Liu, Ting Li, Liang Liu
The efficacious practice of precision personalized medicine requires a more exact understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drug, hence then it is necessary to identify the binding site of the drugs derived from natural sources. In the study, we investigated the suppressive effect and underlying mechanism of isoliquiritigenin (2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone; ILG), a phyto-flavonoid, on human T lymphocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ILG dose-dependently suppressed human T cell activation via suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, NF-κB nuclear translocation and IKKβ activity...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Stig Thunell
The attack of acute porphyria Based on in silico evidence of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and physiologic properties, have approximately 1 300 medicinal drugs been assessed with regard to the specific risk to carriers of acute porphyria. The classifications have been published in booklet form, together with prophylactic advice to the carriers and suggestions for doctors in charge of their care. The risk-classifications rest on the behavior of the drug in an extended molecular model of the attack of acute porphyria...
2016: Läkartidningen
Hsiou-Yu Ding, Pei-Shan Wu, Ming-Jiuan Wu
Cleome rutidosperma DC. and Euphorbia thymifolia L. are herbal medicines used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine to treat various illnesses. Reports document that they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in their anti-inflammatory actions have not yet been elucidated. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms of ethanol extracts of Cleome rutidosperma (CR) and Euphorbia thymifolia (ET) were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cell line BV2...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Angela Paterna, Sofia E Gomes, Pedro M Borralho, Silva Mulhovo, Cecília M P Rodrigues, Maria-José U Ferreira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in African countries to treat cancer. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To discover new apoptosis inducing lead compounds from T. elegans and provide scientific validation of the ethnopharmacological use of this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through fractionation, (3'R)-hydroxytaberanelegantine C (1), a vobasinyl-iboga bisindole alkaloid, was isolated from a cytotoxic alkaloid fraction of the methanol extract of T...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xiao-Yong Zhang, Feng Wang, Tao Jin, Junzhong Xu, Jingping Xie, Daniel F Gochberg, John C Gore, Zhongliang Zu
PURPOSE: To detect, map, and quantify a novel nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE)-mediated magnetization transfer (MT) with water at approximately -1.6 ppm [NOE(-1.6)] in rat brain using MRI. METHODS: Continuous wave MT sequences with a variety of radiofrequency irradiation powers were optimized to achieve the maximum contrast of this NOE(-1.6) effect at 9.4 T. The distribution of effect magnitudes, resonance frequency offsets, and line widths in healthy rat brains and the differences of the effect between tumors and contralateral normal brains were imaged and quantified using a multi-Lorentzian fitting method...
September 8, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
John F Valliant
The field of nuclear medicine will rely increasingly on the discovery, proper evaluation, and clinical use of molecular imaging probes and on collaborations. Collaborations will include new initiatives among experts already involved in the field and with researchers, technologists, and clinicians from different areas of science and medicine. This article serves to highlight some of the opportunities in which molecular imaging and nuclear medicine in conjunction with probe development, new imaging technologies, and multidisciplinary collaborations can have a significant impact on health care and basic science from the perspective of a person involved in probe development...
September 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Shuaishuai Li, Long Cheng, Dengkun An, Shuliang Song, Hao Liang, Fulong Chu, Aiguo Ji
AIM: Atherosclerosis is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease. A crucial pathology change of atherosclerosis is the migration of activated VSMCs to the intima where they interact with leukocytes by expressing adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Moreover, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expressed by VSMCs plays an important role in recruiting monocytes and macrophages. Leech (Whitmania pigra Whitman) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, however previous research has rarely reported the molecular mechanism for its curative effect...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Mary-Clare Cathcart, Zivile Useckaite, Clive Drakeford, Vikki Semik, Joanne Lysaght, Kathy Gately, Kenneth J O'Byrne, Graham P Pidgeon
BACKGROUND: Baicalein is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine derived from Scutellaria baicalenesis, which has been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapy. In this study we examined the anti-tumour pathways activated following baicalein treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both in-vitro and in-vivo. METHODS: The effect of baicalein treatment on H-460 cells in-vitro was assessed using both BrdU assay (cell proliferation) and High Content Screening (multi-parameter apoptosis assay)...
2016: BMC Cancer
Eric Kaaru, Andrea Bianchi, Andreas Wunder, Volker Rasche, Detlef Stiller
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is characterized by chronic unregulated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. To date, this pathology has no cure. Colonoscopy and biopsies are the current gold standard diagnostic tools. However, being a chronic disease, IBD requires continuous follow-up to check for disease progress, treatment response, and remission. Unfortunately, these 2 diagnostic procedures are invasive and generally unable to show the cellular and molecular changes that take place in vivo...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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