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Nuclear and Molecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731804/nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-an-impactful-decade-of-contributions-to-patient-care-and-driving-precision-medicine
#1
Rathan M Subramaniam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723715/novel-weight-based-dose-threshold-for-18f-naf-pet-ct-imaging-using-advanced-pet-ct-systems-a-potential-tool-for-reducing-radiation-burden
#2
Fahad Marafi, Abdulreda Esmail, Rashid Rasheed, Fareeda Alkandari, Sharjeel Usmani
BACKGROUND: Fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET/CT is an important tool for detecting and evaluating metastatic bone cancer. Besides traditional dose metrics, recent methods such as real-time dose mapping, dose calculation from DICOM information, and their relevance to entrance skin exposure are currently in use to reduce the radiation burden. In this study, we have analyzed the data of 1062 patients retrospectively to evaluate patterns of absorbed dose for institutional weight-based dose protocol as compared with fixed dose method guidelines of Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI)...
July 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721818/eurycoma-longifolia-a-potential-phytomedicine-for-the-treatment-of-cancer-evidence-of-p53-mediated-apoptosis-in-cancerous-cells
#3
Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia is a well-documented herbal medicine that has gained widespread recognition due to its versatile pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-malarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-diabetic, anti-rheumatism and anti-ulcer. Plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies evidenced their excellent anti-proliferative and anticancer efficacy against various types of human cancers. OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically analyze the therapeutic viability and anticancer efficacy of Eurycoma longifolia in the treatment of cancer and also to propose its molecular and translational mechanism of cytotoxicity against cancerous cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720093/solanum-nigrum-unripe-fruit-fraction-attenuates-adriamycin-resistance-by-down-regulating-multi-drug-resistance-protein-mdr-1-through-jak-stat-pathway
#4
Sankar Jagadeeshan, Diana David, S Jisha, S Manjula, S Asha Nair
BACKGROUND: Solanum nigrum, herbal plant that commonly grows in temperate climate zone, has been used as a traditional folk medicine whose ripen fruits were proven to exhibit anti-tumor properties. In traditional Chinese medicine, it has been used for centuries to cure inflammation, edema, mastitis and hepatic cancer and in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine in India, S. nigrum is applied against enteric diseases, ulcer, diarrhea and skin diseases. A methanolic glycosidic extract fraction of unripe fruit of S...
July 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715874/detection-of-bacterial-infection-by-a-technetium-99m-labeled-peptidoglycan-aptamer
#5
Iêda Mendes Ferreira, Camila Maria de Sousa Lacerda, Sara Roberta Dos Santos, André Luís Branco de Barros, Simone Odília Fernandes, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso, Antero Silva Ribeiro de Andrade
Nuclear medicine clinicians are still waiting for the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of distinguishing between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers have several properties that make them suitable for molecular imaging. In the present study, a peptidoglycan aptamer (Antibac1) was labeled with (99m)Tc and evaluated by biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging in infection-bearing mice. Labeling with (99m)Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and in the molar excess of cysteine...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713409/phylogenetic-resolution-in-juglans-based-on-complete-chloroplast-genomes-and-nuclear-dna-sequences
#6
Wenpan Dong, Chao Xu, Wenqing Li, Xiaoman Xie, Yizeng Lu, Yanlei Liu, Xiaobai Jin, Zhili Suo
Walnuts (Juglans of the Juglandaceae) are well-known economically important resource plants for the edible nuts, high-quality wood, and medicinal use, with a distribution from tropical to temperate zones and from Asia to Europe and Americas. There are about 21 species in Juglans. Classification of Juglans at section level is problematic, because the phylogenetic position of Juglans cinerea is disputable. Lacking morphological and DNA markers severely inhibited the development of related researches. In this study, the complete chloroplast genomes and two nuclear DNA regions (the internal transcribed spacer and ubiquitin ligase gene) of 10 representative taxa of Juglans were used for comparative genomic analyses in order to deepen the understanding on the application value of genetic information for inferring the phylogenetic relationship of the genus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706254/mir-30a-targets-il-1%C3%AE-and-regulates-islet-functions-as-an-inflammation-buffer-and-response-factor
#7
Xin Jiang, Chenke Xu, Fan Lei, Meijian Liao, Wei Wang, Naihan Xu, Yaou Zhang, Weidong Xie
Diabetes is an inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays an important role in islet functions. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation affects islet functions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of miR-30a on inflammation and islet functions. The results indicate that miR-30a serves as an inflammation-resolving buffer factor by targeting interleukin 1a (IL-1α) in immune cells and in islet cells, which might play an important role in inflammation homeostasis. miR-30a ameliorates islet functions in an inflammatory micro-environment by targeting the IL-1α/nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) p65 subunit (p65)/p62 (SQSTM1)/insulin axis, which can be developed into a novel antidiabetic approach...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673474/new-developments-and-future-challenges-of-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-for-pulmonary-embolism
#8
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Philippe Robin, Pierre-Yves Salaun
Although widely validated, current tests for pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis, i.e. computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and V/Q planar scintigraphy, have some limitations. Drawbacks of CTPA include the radiation dose, some contra indications and a rising concern about a possible overdiagnosis/overtreatment of PE. On the other hand, V/Q planar scintigraphy has a high rate of non-diagnostic tests responsible for complex diagnostic algorithms. Since the PIOPED study, imaging equipment and radiopharmaceuticals have greatly evolved allowing the introduction of techniques that improve imaging of lung ventilation and perfusion...
June 27, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664142/molecular-mechanisms-of-anticancer-activity-of-deoxyelephantopin-in-cancer-cells
#9
Farha Arakkaveettil Kabeer, Dhanya Sethumadhavan Rajalekshmi, Mangalam Sivasankaran Nair, Remani Prathapan
BACKGROUND: Deoxyelephantopin (DOE) is a natural bioactive sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber, a traditionally relevant herb in Chinese and Indian medicine. It has shown promising anticancer effects against a broad spectrum of cancers. METHODS: We examined the effect of DOE on growth, autophagy, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, metastasis, and various molecular signaling pathways in cancer cells, and endeavored to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying its effect...
June 2017: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655324/the-topical-application-of-low-temperature-argon-plasma-enhances-the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-jaun-ointment-on-dncb-induced-nc-nga-mice
#10
Jeong-Hae Choi, Yeon-Suk Song, Hae-June Lee, Gyoo-Cheon Kim, Jin-Woo Hong
BACKGROUND: Jaun-ointment (JO), also known as Shiunko in Japan, is one of the most popular medicinal formulae used in Korean traditional medicine for the external treatment of skin wound and inflammatory skin conditions. Since JO is composed of crude mixture of two herbal extracts (radix of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold & Zucc and Angelica gigas Nakai), those been proved its anti-inflammatory activities in-vitro and in-vivo, JO has been expected as a good alternative treatment option for atopic dermatitis (AD)...
June 27, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654752/in-silico-prediction-of-the-toxic-potential-of-lupeol
#11
Manuel Antonio Ruiz-Rodríguez, Angelo Vedani, Ana Lidia Flores-Mireles, Manuel Humberto Chairez-Ramirez, Jose Alberto Gallegos-Infante, Ruben F Gonzalez-Laredo
Lupeol is a natural triterpenoid found in many plant species such as mango. This compound is the principal active component of many traditional herbal medicines. In the past decade, a considerable number of publications dealt with lupeol and its analogues due to the interest in their pharmacological activities against cancer, inflammation, arthritis, diabetes, and heart disease. To identify further potential applications of lupeol and its analogues, it is necessary to investigate their mechanisms of action, particularly, their interaction with off-target proteins that may trigger adverse effects or toxicity...
June 27, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643003/recent-developments-in-solution-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-nmr-based-molecular-biology
#12
REVIEW
Joshua J Ziarek, Diego Baptista, Gerhard Wagner
Visualizing post-translational modifications, conformations, and interaction surfaces of protein structures at atomic resolution underpins the development of novel therapeutics to combat disease. As computational resources expand, in silico calculations coupled with experimentally derived structures and functional assays have led to an explosion in structure-based drug design (SBDD) with several compounds in clinical trials. It is increasingly clear that "hidden" transition-state structures along activation trajectories can be harnessed to develop novel classes of allosteric inhibitors...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641051/beneficial-role-of-citrus-fruit-polyphenols-against-hepatic-dysfunctions-a-review
#13
Md Mohabbulla Mohib, Kazi Afnan, Tasfiq Zaman Paran, Salma Khan, Juthika Sarker, Nahid Hasan, Istiaque Hasan, Md Abu Taher Sagor
Alcoholic liver diseases and virus-induced hepatic dysfunctions are prevalent in western countries. Evidence also suggests that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are key players in the development of hepatic diseases and their complications. Since the comorbid diseases like obesity, diabetes and vascular dysfunctions primarily affect liver, the modern therapies against other hepatic dysfunctions are becoming a major challenge to treat. In addition to these, polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are further aggravating the phenomenon...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632200/the-beginning-and-development-of-the-theranostic-approach-in-nuclear-medicine-as-exemplified-by-the-radionuclide-pair-86-y-and-90-y
#14
Frank Rösch, Hans Herzog, Syed M Qaim
In the context of radiopharmacy and molecular imaging, the concept of theranostics entails a therapy-accompanying diagnosis with the aim of a patient-specific treatment. Using the adequate diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, the disease and the state of the disease are verified for an individual patient. The other way around, it verifies that the radiopharmaceutical in hand represents a target-specific and selective molecule: the "best one" for that individual patient. Transforming diagnostic imaging into quantitative dosimetric information, the optimum radioactivity (expressed in maximum radiation dose to the target tissue and tolerable dose to healthy organs) of the adequate radiotherapeutical is applied to that individual patient...
June 20, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618012/metabolomic-signature-of-brain-cancer
#15
Renu Pandey, Laura Caflisch, Alessia Lodi, Andrew J Brenner, Stefano Tiziani
Despite advances in surgery and adjuvant therapy, brain tumours represent one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in both adults and children. Gliomas constitute about 60% of all cerebral tumours, showing varying degrees of malignancy. They are difficult to treat due to dismal prognosis and limited therapeutics. Metabolomics is the untargeted and targeted analyses of endogenous and exogenous small molecules, which characterizes the phenotype of an individual. This emerging "omics" science provides functional readouts of cellular activity that contribute greatly to the understanding of cancer biology including brain tumour biology...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617188/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-inhibitory-effects-of-qingzaojiufei-decoction-on-tumor-growth-in-lewis-lung-carcinoma
#16
Bin Xie, Xiong Xie, Bin Rao, Shengzhang Liu, Hongning Liu
OBJECTIVE: Qingzaojiufei decoction (QD) is an empirical herbal formula from traditional Chinese medicine that is used for the treatment of lung-related diseases. However, the effect of QD on the growth of lung tumor cells has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the antitumor activity of QD in Lewis lung carcinomas (LLC) in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The LLC cells were used to assess the antitumor activity of QD by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay in vitro...
February 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616065/human-management-and-hybridization-shape-treegourd-fruits-in-the-brazilian-amazon-basin
#17
Priscila Ambrósio Moreira, Cédric Mariac, Leila Zekraoui, Marie Couderc, Doriane Picanço Rodrigues, Charles R Clement, Yves Vigouroux
Local people's perceptions of cultivated and wild agrobiodiversity, as well as their management of hybridization are still understudied in Amazonia. Here we analyze domesticated treegourd (Crescentia cujete), whose versatile fruits have technological, symbolic, and medicinal uses. A wild relative (C. amazonica) of the cultivated species grows spontaneously in Amazonian flooded forests. We demonstrated, using whole chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that the two species are strongly differentiated...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615836/molecular-identification-of-an-old-clinical-isolate-of-indian-kala-azar
#18
Madhumita Manna, Supriya Khanra
Molecular characterization is an important task for species identification of the isolates belonging to different Leishmania species. Clinical symptoms, tissue tropism, vector preference, reservoir and geographical distribution may act as distinguishing parameters but not always decisive. On the other hand, modern taxonomic tools employed to divulge characteristics of the genome or protein molecules of the parasite would be convincing and for Leishmania sp., they include nuclear and kDNA buoyant density, multi locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), RAPD, RFLP or use of monoclonal antibodies etc...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613253/terpenoids-from-platostoma-rotundifolium-briq-a-j-paton-alter-the-expression-of-quorum-sensing-related-virulence-factors-and-the-formation-of-biofilm-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#19
Tsiry Rasamiravaka, Jérémie Ngezahayo, Laurent Pottier, Sofia Oliveira Ribeiro, Florence Souard, Léonard Hari, Caroline Stévigny, Mondher El Jaziri, Pierre Duez
Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton aerial parts are widely used in Burundi traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. In order to investigate their probable antibacterial activities, crude extracts from P. rotundifolium were assessed for their bactericidal and anti-virulence properties against an opportunistic bacterial model, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Whereas none of the tested extracts exert bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal proprieties, the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts exhibit anti-virulence properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 characterized by an alteration in quorum sensing gene expression and biofilm formation without affecting bacterial viability...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603416/successful-in-vivo-hyperthermal-therapy-toward-breast-cancer-by-chinese-medicine-shikonin-loaded-thermosensitive-micelle
#20
Yonghua Su, Nian Huang, Di Chen, Li Zhang, Xia Dong, Yun Sun, Xiandi Zhu, Fulei Zhang, Jie Gao, Ying Wang, Kexing Fan, Puichi Lo, Wei Li, Changquan Ling
The Chinese traditional medicine Shikonin is an ideal drug due to its multiple targets to tumor cells. But in clinics, improving its aqueous solubility and tumor accumulation is still a challenge. Herein, a copolymer with tunable poly(N-isopropylacrymaide) and polylactic acid block lengths is designed, synthesized, and characterized in nuclear magnetic resonance. The corresponding thermosensitive nanomicelle (TN) with well-defined core-shell structure is then assembled in an aqueous solution. For promoting the therapeutic index, the physical-chemistry properties of TNs including narrow size, low critical micellar concentration, high serum stability, tunable volume phase transition temperature (VPTT), high drug-loading capacity, and temperature-controlled drug release are systematically investigated and regulated through the fine self-assembly...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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