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Ihuoma N Anyanwu, Moses N Alo, Amos M Onyekwere, John D Crosse, Okoro Nworie, Emmanuel B Chamba
Biochar amendment to soil is predicted globally as a means to enhance soil health. Alongside the beneficial result on soil nutrient availability and retention, biochar is presumed to increase soil macro / microbiota composition and improve plant growth. However, evidence for such an effect remains elusive in many tropical agricultural soils. The influence of biochar aged in soil was assessed on soil microbiota, macrobiota (Eudrilus eugeniae), seedling emergence and early plant growth of Oryza sativa and Solanum lycopersicum in tropical agricultural soil, over a 90 d biochar-soil contact time...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yang Hu, Jian Cai, Chengrong Bai, Keqiang Shao, Xiangming Tang, Guang Gao
The patterns of macrobiota in lotic ecosystems have been extensively explored, however, the dynamics of microbiota remain poorly investigated, especially in the high-elevation region. To address this deficit, we collected eight samples to unveil the bacterial and archaeal community in the Kaidu river, located at the arid region of northwestern China (an average of 2,500 m a.s.l.). For the bacterial community, phylogenetically Betaproteobacteria prevailed, followed by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria; at the finer genus level, Limnohabitans and Variovorax were prominent...
February 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Frances S Dunn, Alexander G Liu, Philip C J Donoghue
Rocks of the Ediacaran System (635-541 Ma) preserve fossil evidence of some of the earliest complex macroscopic organisms, many of which have been interpreted as animals. However, the unusual morphologies of some of these organisms have made it difficult to resolve their biological relationships to modern metazoan groups. Alternative competing phylogenetic interpretations have been proposed for Ediacaran taxa, including algae, fungi, lichens, rhizoid protists, and even an extinct higher-order group (Vendobionta)...
November 3, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
J Cameron Thrash, Kiley W Seitz, Brett J Baker, Ben Temperton, Lauren E Gillies, Nancy N Rabalais, Bernard Henrissat, Olivia U Mason
Marine regions that have seasonal to long-term low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, sometimes called "dead zones," are increasing in number and severity around the globe with deleterious effects on ecology and economics. One of the largest of these coastal dead zones occurs on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), which results from eutrophication-enhanced bacterioplankton respiration and strong seasonal stratification. Previous research in this dead zone revealed the presence of multiple cosmopolitan bacterioplankton lineages that have eluded cultivation, and thus their metabolic roles in this ecosystem remain unknown...
September 12, 2017: MBio
Rachel Wood, Andrey Yu Ivantsov, Andrey Yu Zhuravlev
Why large and diverse skeletons first appeared ca 550 Ma is not well understood. Many Ediacaran skeletal biota show evidence of flexibility, and bear notably thin skeletal walls with simple, non-hierarchical microstructures of either aragonite or high-Mg calcite. We present evidence that the earliest skeletal macrobiota, found only in carbonate rocks, had close soft-bodied counterparts hosted in contemporary clastic rocks. This includes the calcareous discoidal fossil Suvorovella, similar to holdfasts of Ediacaran biota taxa previously known only as casts and moulds, as well as tubular and vase-shaped fossils...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jessica A Bryant, Tara M Clemente, Donn A Viviani, Allison A Fong, Kimberley A Thomas, Paul Kemp, David M Karl, Angelicque E White, Edward F DeLong
Marine plastic debris has become a significant concern in ocean ecosystems worldwide. Little is known, however, about its influence on microbial community structure and function. In 2008, we surveyed microbial communities and metabolic activities in seawater and on plastic on an oceanographic expedition through the "great Pacific garbage patch." The concentration of plastic particles in surface seawater within different size classes (2 to 5 mm and >5 mm) ranged from 0.35 to 3.7 particles m(-3) across sampling stations...
May 2016: MSystems
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
BACKGROUND: Many lines of scientific research suggest that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) may be associated with alterations in the enteric ecosystem, including alterations of the enteric macrobiome (i.e. helminthes and fauna) and changes in predominant microbiome species, particularly a reduction in microbiome species diversity. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature and summarized the major findings. RESULTS: Alterations in the enteric ecosystem are believed to be due to a variety of factors including changes in the post-industrial society related to decreased exposure to symbiotic organisms, increased human migration, overuse of antibiotics and changes in dietary habits...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Bjorn Tytgat, Elie Verleyen, Maxime Sweetlove, Sofie D'hondt, Pia Clercx, Eric Van Ranst, Karolien Peeters, Stephen Roberts, Zorigto Namsaraev, Annick Wilmotte, Wim Vyverman, Anne Willems
Antarctic soils are known to be oligotrophic and of having low buffering capacities. It is expected that this is particularly the case for inland high-altitude regions. We hypothesized that the bedrock type and the presence of macrobiota in these soils enforce a high selective pressure on their bacterial communities. To test this, we analyzed the bacterial community structure in 52 soil samples from the western Sør Rondane Mountains (Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica), using the Illumina MiSeq platform in combination with ARISA fingerprinting...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
William C Gause, Rick M Maizels
Important insights have recently been gained in our understanding of the intricate relationship in the intestinal milieu between the vertebrate host mucosal immune response, commensal bacteria, and helminths. Helminths are metazoan worms (macrobiota) and trigger immune responses that include potent regulatory components capable of controlling harmful inflammation, protecting barrier function and mitigating tissue damage. They can secrete a variety of products that directly affect immune regulatory function but they also have the capacity to influence the composition of microbiota, which can also then impact immune function...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Benny Kwok Kan Chan, Teng-Wei Wang, Pin-Chen Chen, Chia-Wei Lin, Tin-Yam Chan, Ling Ming Tsang
Hydrothermal vents represent a unique habitat in the marine ecosystem characterized with high water temperature and toxic acidic chemistry. Vents are distributed at depths ranging from a few meters to several thousand meters. The biological communities of shallow-water vents have, however, been insufficiently studied in most biogeographic areas. We attempted to characterize the macrofauna and macroflora community inhabiting the shallow-water vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, to identify the main abiotic factors shaping the community structure and the species distribution...
2016: PloS One
Concetta De Santi, Bjørn Altermark, Donatella de Pascale, Nils-Peder Willassen
We have investigated the biotechnological potential of Arctic marine bacteria for their ability to produce a broad spectrum of cold-active enzymes. Marine bacteria exhibiting these features are of great interest for both fundamental research and industrial applications. Macrobiota, water and sediment samples have been collected during 2010 and 2011 expeditions around the Lofoten and Svalbard islands. Bacteria were isolated from this material and identified through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for the purpose of establishing a culture collection of marine Arctic bacteria...
March 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Shawn A Steffan, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Cameron R Currie, Heidi Horn, Hannah R Gaines-Day, Jonathan N Pauli, Juan E Zalapa, Naohiko Ohkouchi
In most ecosystems, microbes are the dominant consumers, commandeering much of the heterotrophic biomass circulating through food webs. Characterizing functional diversity within the microbiome, therefore, is critical to understanding ecosystem functioning, particularly in an era of global biodiversity loss. Using isotopic fingerprinting, we investigated the trophic positions of a broad diversity of heterotrophic organisms. Specifically, we examined the naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen ((15)N:(14)N) within amino acids extracted from proteobacteria, actinomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes, as well as from vertebrate and invertebrate macrofauna (crustaceans, fish, insects, and mammals)...
December 8, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
José Félix Aguirre-Garrido, Hugo César Ramírez-Saad, Nicolás Toro, Francisco Martínez-Abarca
Isabel Lake is a moderate saline soda crater lake located in Isabel Island in the eastern tropical Pacific coast of Mexico. Lake is mainly formed by rainfall and is strongly affected by evaporation and high input of nutrients derived from excretions of a large bird community inhabiting the island. So far, only the island macrobiota has been studied. The knowledge of the prokaryotic biota inhabiting the upper layers of this meromictic lake can give clues for the maintenance of this ecosystem. We assessed the diversity and composition of prokaryotic community in sediments and water of the lake by DGGE profiling, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, and cultivation techniques...
January 2016: Microbial Ecology
Richard W Smith, Penny Vlahos, J K Böhlke, Thivanka Ariyarathna, Mark Ballentine, Christopher Cooper, Stephen Fallis, Thomas J Groshens, Craig Tobias
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been used as a military explosive for over a hundred years. Contamination concerns have arisen as a result of manufacturing and use on a large scale; however, despite decades of work addressing TNT contamination in the environment, its fate in marine ecosystems is not fully resolved. Here we examine the cycling and fate of TNT in the coastal marine systems by spiking a marine mesocosm containing seawater, sediments, and macrobiota with isotopically labeled TNT ((15)N-[TNT]), simultaneously monitoring removal, transformation, mineralization, sorption, and biological uptake over a period of 16 days...
October 20, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Elizabeth A Nesbitt, Ruth A Martin, David E Martin, Jude Apple
Foraminiferal assemblages in sediment grab samples were utilized to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on benthic habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, U.S.A. Seventy-three samples taken in 1987, 1997, 2006 and 2010 yielded 35 species of foraminifera from 28 genera. Assemblage composition and diversity data indicate a marked deterioration between 1987 and 2010, contrary to the published Chemical Index, but analogous to the situation with macrobiota. Correlation of diversity with chemical pollutants and metals did not identify any significant correlations, however, an unrelated but highly relevant study of bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH in Bellingham Bay suggests eutrophication with accompanying hypoxia and acidification may be part of the cause...
August 15, 2015: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Leena von Hertzen, Bruce Beutler, John Bienenstock, Martin Blaser, Patrice D Cani, Johan Eriksson, Martti Färkkilä, Tari Haahtela, Ilkka Hanski, Maria C Jenmalm, Juha Kere, Mikael Knip, Kimmo Kontula, Markku Koskenvuo, Charlotte Ling, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen, Erika von Mutius, Mika J Mäkelä, Tiina Paunio, Göran Pershagen, Harald Renz, Graham Rook, Maria Saarela, Outi Vaarala, Marc Veldhoen, Willem M de Vos
Urban living in built environments, combined with the use of processed water and food, may not provide the microbial stimulation necessary for a balanced development of immune function. Many chronic inflammatory disorders, including allergic, autoimmune, metabolic, and even some behavioural disorders, are linked to alteration in the human commensal microbiota. Sedentary lifestyle is associated with reduced exposure to a broad spectrum of environmental micro-organisms and surplus energy balance, both risk factors of chronic inflammatory disorders...
May 2015: Annals of Medicine
Raven L Bier, Kristofor A Voss, Emily S Bernhardt
Microbial community composition and diversity change along chemical gradients, leading to the expectation that microbial community information might provide new gradient characterizations. Here we examine stream bacteria composition and diversity along a strong chemical gradient in Central Appalachian streams. Coal mining in the region generates alkaline mine drainage (AlkMD), causing dramatic increases in conductivity, alkalinity, sulfate and metals sufficient to degrade stream macrobiota communities throughout the ecoregion...
June 2015: ISME Journal
Catherine A Pfister, Jack A Gilbert, Sean M Gibbons
Rocky shore microbial diversity presents an excellent system to test for microbial habitat specificity or generality, enabling us to decipher how common macrobiota shape microbial community structure. At two coastal locations in the northeast Pacific Ocean, we show that microbial composition was significantly different between inert surfaces, the biogenic surfaces that included rocky shore animals and an alga, and the water column plankton. While all sampled entities had a core of common OTUs, rare OTUs drove differences among biotic and abiotic substrates...
2014: PeerJ
Daniel S Read, Hyun S Gweon, Michael J Bowes, Lindsay K Newbold, Dawn Field, Mark J Bailey, Robert I Griffiths
Lotic ecosystems such as rivers and streams are unique in that they represent a continuum of both space and time during the transition from headwaters to the river mouth. As microbes have very different controls over their ecology, distribution and dispersion compared with macrobiota, we wished to explore biogeographical patterns within a river catchment and uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Water samples collected across the River Thames Basin, UK, covering the transition from headwater tributaries to the lower reaches of the main river channel were characterised using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing...
February 2015: ISME Journal
Orna Nitzan, Mazen Elias, Bibiana Chazan, Raul Raz, Walid Saliba
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the leading cause of antibiotic associated colitis and nosocomial diarrhea. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing C. difficile infection (CDI), have worse outcomes of CDI-including higher rates of colectomy and death, and experience higher rates of recurrence. However, it is still not clear whether C. difficile is a cause of IBD or a consequence of the inflammatory state in the intestinal environment. The burden of CDI has increased dramatically over the past decade, with severe outbreaks described in many countries, which have been attributed to a new and more virulent strain...
November 21, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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