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effect of locomotor training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216334/crocins-the-active-constituents-of-crocus-sativus-l-counteracted-apomorphine-induced-performance-deficits-in-the-novel-object-recognition-task-but-not-novel-object-location-task-in-rats
#1
Nikolaos Pitsikas, Petros A Tarantilis
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopaminergic (DAergic) system might be compromised in schizophrenia. Specifically, the mixed dopamine (DA) D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including disruption of memory abilities. Crocins are among the active components of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. plant) and their implication in cognition is well documented...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210779/locomotor-activity-and-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-a-novel-series-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs-in-mice-and-rats
#2
Michael B Gatch, Sean B Dolan, Michael J Forster
RATIONALE: Recent years have seen an increase in the recreational use of novel, synthetic psychoactive substances. There are little or no data on the abuse liability of many of the newer compounds. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of a series of synthetic analogs of cathinone: α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP), α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), 3,4-methylenedioxybutiophenone (MDPBP), and ethylone...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197192/subhypnotic-doses-of-propofol-impair-spatial-memory-retrieval-in-rats
#3
Hu Liu, Ting Wang, Wei Dai, Zheng Jiang, Yuan-Hai Li, Xue-Sheng Liu
Abundant evidence indicates that propofol profoundly affects memory processes, although its specific effects on memory retrieval have not been clarified. A recent study has indicated that hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity affects memory. Constitutively active GSK-3β is required for memory retrieval, and propofol has been shown to inhibit GSK-3β. Thus, the present study examined whether propofol affects memory retrieval, and, if so, whether that effect is mediated through altered GSK-3β activity...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188024/robotic-assisted-gait-training-improves-walking-abilities-in-diplegic-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#4
L Wallard, G Dietrich, Y Kerlirzin, J Bredin
The robotic-assisted gait training therapy (RAGT), based on intensity and repetition of movement, presents beneficial effects on recovery and improvement of postural and locomotor functions of the patient. This study sought to highlight the effect of this RAGT on the dynamic equilibrium control during walking in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) by analyzing the different postural strategies of the fullbody (upper/lower body) before and after this RAGT in order to generate forward motion while maintaining balance...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167809/exercise-training-reveals-trade-offs-among-endurance-performance-and-immune-function-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-lizards
#5
Jerry F Husak, Jordan C Roy, Matthew B Lovern
Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111274/possible-involvement-of-the-ca1-gabaergic-system-on-harmaline-induced-memory-consolidation-deficit
#6
Mohammad Nasehi, Naghmeh Saadati, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Activation of the GABAB receptors inhibit learning and memory processes. The current research was designed to examine the role of dorsal hippocampal (CA1) GABAB receptors on harmaline induced memory consolidation deficit in mice. For this purpose, the effects induced by the GABAB antagonist phaclofen and the GABAB agonist baclofen on memory consolidation were assessed by using the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Furthermore, the possible involvement of harmaline on GABAB receptor's effects was also assessed through using the same behavioral procedure...
January 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063935/effects-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-on-motor-functions-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
I A Solopova, I A Sukhotina, D S Zhvansky, G A Ikoeva, S V Vissarionov, A G Baindurashvili, V R Edgerton, Y P Gerasimenko, T R Moshonkina
Is it possible to regulate the functional properties of abnormally developed spinal neuronal locomotor networks using transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? This question has been studied in twenty-eight participants (∼9 yrs) with spastic cerebral palsy, and mainly Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy level III. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation at two spinal levels (over T11 and L1 spinous processes), combined with locomotor treadmill training, whereas the participants of the control group received locomotor treadmill training only...
February 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059803/whole-body-vibration-wbv-following-spinal-cord-injury-sci-in-rats-timing-of-intervention
#8
Marilena Manthou, Diana Saad Yousif Abdulla, Stoyan Pavlov Pavlov, Ramona Jansen, Habib Bendella, Klaus Nohroudi, Gregor Stein, Carolin Mmeyer, Ozlem Ozsoy, Umut Ozsoy, Yasemin Behram Kandemir, Levent Sarikcioglu, Oliver Semler, Eckhard Schoenau, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Nikolov Angelov
BACKGROUND: Following spinal cord injury (SCI), exercise training provides a wide range of benefits and promotes activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Whole body vibration (WBV) in SCI patients improves walking and spasticity as well as bone and muscle mass. However, little is known about the effects of timing or frequency of intervention. OBJECTIVE: To determine which WBV-onset improves locomotor and bladder functions and influences synaptic plasticity beneficially...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032253/effect-of-cadence-on-locomotor-respiratory-coupling-during-upper-body-exercise
#9
Nicholas B Tiller, Mike J Price, Ian G Campbell, Lee M Romer
INTRODUCTION: Asynchronous arm-cranking performed at high cadences elicits greater cardiorespiratory responses compared to low cadences. This has been attributed to increased postural demand and locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), and yet, this has not been empirically tested. This study aimed to assess the effects of cadence on cardiorespiratory responses and LRC during upper-body exercise. METHODS: Eight recreationally-active men performed arm-cranking exercise at moderate and severe intensities that were separated by 10 min of rest...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#10
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984832/-injuries-in-karate-sports-a-survey-performed-during-the-world-championship-2014
#11
T Tischer, B Lembcke, M Ellenrieder, Ä Glass, W Weigert, W Mittelmeier
Background: In literature, the competitive sport of modern karate is almost always characterised as a combat sport involving injuries caused by impact effects and physical contact with opponents. There is a lack of data regarding the outcome after karate injuries, specifically with a view to the contact-free Kata karate. Methods: Performing a random test using a questionnaire, we collected data concerning regular medical treatment, prior surgeries of the locomotor system, and medical care. This study included 300 athletes from 65 countries (average age: 24...
December 2016: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981907/the-utility-of-interappendicular-connections-in-bipedal-locomotion
#12
David McMillan, Ray de Leon, Pierre A Guertin, Christine Dy
Homo sapiens constitute the only currently obligate bipedal mammals and, as it stands, upright bipedal locomotion is a defining characteristic of humans. Indeed, while the evolution to bipedalism has allowed for the upper limbs to be liberated from ground contact during ambulation, their role in locomotion is far from obsolete. Rather, there is reason to believe that arm swing offers important mechanical and neurological advantages to bipedal locomotion. In this short review, we present some compelling findings on the neural connections between the arms and legs during human locomotion...
16, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981906/locomotor-training-and-factors-associated-with-blood-glucose-regulation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Philip D Chilibeck, Pierre A Guertin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have increased rates of glucose intolerance, insulin insensitivity, and type II diabetes caused mainly by the deconditioning of paralyzed muscle. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of locomotor training in individuals with SCI on blood glucose control. METHODS: We searched studies on locomotor training for individuals with SCI with outcomes of glucose, insulin, or outcomes that could change glucose handling (i...
December 16, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977522/the-interface-of-clinical-decision-making-with-study-protocols-for-knowledge-translation-from-a-walking-recovery-trial
#14
Julie A Hershberg, Dorian K Rose, Julie K Tilson, Bettina Brutsch, Anita Correa, Joann Gallichio, Molly McLeod, Craig Moore, Sam Wu, Pamela W Duncan, Andrea L Behrman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite efforts to translate knowledge into clinical practice, barriers often arise in adapting the strict protocols of a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) to the individual patient. The Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) RCT demonstrated equal effectiveness of 2 intervention protocols for walking recovery poststroke; both protocols were more effective than usual care physical therapy. The purpose of this article was to provide knowledge-translation tools to facilitate implementation of the LEAPS RCT protocols into clinical practice...
January 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977000/spinal-microcircuits-comprising-di3-interneurons-are-necessary-for-motor-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-transection
#15
Tuan V Bui, Nicolas Stifani, Turgay Akay, Robert M Brownstone
The spinal cord has the capacity to coordinate motor activities such as locomotion. Following spinal transection, functional activity can be regained, to a degree, following motor training. To identify microcircuits involved in this recovery, we studied a population of mouse spinal interneurons known to receive direct afferent inputs and project to intermediate and ventral regions of the spinal cord. We demonstrate that while dI3 interneurons are not necessary for normal locomotor activity, locomotor circuits rhythmically inhibit them and dI3 interneurons can activate these circuits...
December 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973679/effect-on-body-composition-and-bone-mineral-density-of-walking-with-a-robotic-exoskeleton-in-adults-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Antony D Karelis, Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Manuel Jose Castillo, Dany H Gagnon, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect on body composition and bone mineral density of locomotor training using a robotic exoskeleton in individuals with spinal cord injury. STUDY DESIGN: Interventional study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Five adults with a non-progressive traumatic complete sensorimotor spinal cord injury who were using a wheelchair as a primary mode of mobility. Participants performed a personalized 6-week progressive locomotor training programme using a robotic exoskeleton 3 times/week for up to 60 min...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965006/effects-of-overground-locomotor-training-on-walking-performance-in-chronic-cervical-motor-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#17
Jared M Gollie, Andrew A Guccione, Gino S Panza, Peter Y Jo, Jeffrey E Herrick
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a novel overground locomotor training (OLT) program on walking performance in people with chronic cervical motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). DESIGN: Before-After Pilot Study. SETTING: Human performance research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (n=6; age>18 years) with chronic cervical iSCI C & D according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS)...
December 10, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940102/association-of-environmental-enrichment-and-locomotor-stimulation-in-a-rodent-model-of-cerebral-palsy-insights-of-biological-mechanisms
#18
André L F Meireles, Marília R Marques, Ethiane Segabinazi, Christiano Spindler, Francele V Piazza, Gabriela S Salvalaggio, Otávio A Augustin, Matilde Achaval, Simone Marcuzzo
Several physiotherapy approaches are used with different aims in the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP), such as the early stimulation and the locomotor training, but their biological effects, isolated or combined, are not completely known. In animals models, these strategies can be compared, with due translational restrictions, to the environmental enrichment (EE), that involves the enhancement of animal's physical and social environment, and locomotor stimulation (LS), that can be performed using the treadmill adapted for rats...
January 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914920/can-lowering-the-guidance-force-of-robot-assisted-gait-training-induce-a-sufficient-metabolic-demand-in-subacute-dependent-ambulatory-patients-with-stroke
#19
So Young Lee, Eun Young Han, Bo Ryun Kim, Min Ho Chun, Yong Ki Lee
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of guidance force (GF) and gait speed (GS) on cardiorespiratory responses and energy cost in subacute dependent ambulatory patients with stroke. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with subacute stroke (N=10; mean age, 64.50±19.20y) who were dependent ambulators (functional ambulation category ≤2). INTERVENTIONS: Patients participated in cardiorespiratory tests during robot-assisted gait training...
November 30, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899894/moderate-load-eccentric-exercise-a-distinct-novel-training-modality
#20
REVIEW
Hans Hoppeler
Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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