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effect of locomotor training

Alessandro Picelli, Elena Chemello, Paola Castellazzi, Mirko Filippetti, Annalisa Brugnera, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Andreas Waldner, Leopold Saltuari, Nicola Smania
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence showed additional effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere combined with cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation during robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients. This is consistent with the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. The cerebellum is crucial for locomotor control, in particular for avoidance of obstacles, and adaptation to novel conditions during walking...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic-resisted treadmill walking is a form of task-specific training that has been used to improve gait function in individuals with neurological injury, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsy. Traditionally, these devices use active elements (e.g., motors or actuators) to provide resistance during walking, making them bulky, expensive, and less suitable for overground or in-home rehabilitation. We recently developed a low-cost, wearable robotic brace that generates resistive torques across the knee joint using a simple magnetic brake...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Sandeep S Dhawan, Shuang Xia, David S Tait, Christoffer Bundgaard, Ellen Bowman, Verity J Brown
RATIONALE: Delivering orally bioavailable drugs to rodents is an important component to investigating that route of administration in novel treatments for humans. However, the traditional method of oral gavage requires training, is stressful, and can induce oesophageal damage in rodents. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a novel administrative technique-palatable gelatine tablets-as a stress-free route of oral delivery. METHODS: Twenty-four male Lister hooded rats were sacrificed for brain tissue analysis at varying time-points after jelly administration of 30 mg/kg of the wake-promoting drug modafinil...
March 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Dany H Gagnon, Manuel J Escalona, Martin Vermette, Lívia P Carvalho, Antony D Karelis, Cyril Duclos, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
BACKGROUND: For individuals who sustain a complete motor spinal cord injury (SCI) and rely on a wheelchair as their primary mode of locomotion, overground robotic exoskeletons represent a promising solution to stand and walk again. Although overground robotic exoskeletons have gained tremendous attention over the past decade and are now being transferred from laboratories to clinical settings, their effects remain unclear given the paucity of scientific evidence and the absence of large-scale clinical trials...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Olga Lipatova, Matthew M Campolattaro, Dawndra C Dixon, Ayse Durak
Many studies provide evidence that differences in spatial learning exist between males and females. However, it is necessary to consider non-mnemonic factors that may influence these findings. The present experiment investigated acquisition, retention, and the effects of stress on response- and place-learning in male and female rats. Rats were trained in an open-field tower maze. Procedures were used to minimize stress in the rats, and their ability to solve place- or response-learning in the maze was determined by analyzing a response variable (i...
February 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Eugenio Marrades-Caballero, Clara S Santonja-Medina, Jose M Sanz-Mengibar, Fernando Santonja-Medina
BACKGROUND: After receiving neurologic music therapy, functional improvements in children with severe bilateral cerebral palsy have not been found in the literature. Musical training with instruments allows interrelationships between movement, emotions and cognition for task-based learning, in order to improve motor control. AIM: To understand whether neurologic music therapy has an impact on the functionality of children with severe cerebral palsy. DESIGN: A randomized controlled assessor-blind trial was carried out...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Michael J Duncan, Thomas Hames, Emma L J Eyre
This study examined whether scheduling of object control (e.g., throwing, catching) and locomotor skills (e.g., running, jumping), within an integrated neuromuscular training (INT) program, results in different responses in motor competence, muscular fitness and perceived motor competence in 6-7 year old children. Seventy seven boys and 63 girls (n = 140) from 3 primary schools were randomised into three, 10-week interventions, Loco First (n = 50) where locomotor skills were performed first followed by object control skills; Object First (n =48) where object control skills were performed first followed by locomotor skills or a control group (n =42, CON) who undertook school Physical Education...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Hardeep Singh, Jaya Sam, Mary C Verrier, Heather M Flett, B Catharine Craven, Kristin E Musselman
Study Design: Qualitative follow-up study. Objectives: Intensive locomotor training can improve physical and psychological functioning for individuals with spinal cord injury. Few studies have examined long-term effects of locomotor training. Specifically, there is a lack of qualitative follow-up that provide insight into participants' perceptions of the effects of locomotor training on level of function and daily life. This study aimed to gain insight into participants' perceptions of intensive locomotor training and whether participation influenced the level of function and community living 1-2 years after training...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Timothy D Faw, Jessica K Lerch, Tyler T Thaxton, Rochelle J Deibert, Lesley C Fisher, D Michele Basso
Sensorimotor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is of utmost importance to injured individuals and will rely on improved understanding of SCI pathology and recovery. Novel transgenic mouse lines facilitate discovery, but must be understood to be effective. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensory and motor behavior of a common transgenic mouse line (Thy1-GFP-M) before and after SCI. Thy1-GFP-M positive (TG+) mice and their transgene negative littermates (TG-) were acquired from two sources (in-house colony n=32, Jackson Laboratories n=4)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Charles H Hubscher, April N Herrity, Carolyn S Williams, Lynnette R Montgomery, Andrea M Willhite, Claudia A Angeli, Susan J Harkema
OBJECTIVE: Locomotor training (LT) as a therapeutic intervention following spinal cord injury (SCI) is an effective rehabilitation strategy for improving motor outcomes, but its impact on non-locomotor functions is unknown. Given recent results of our labs' pre-clinical animal SCI LT studies and existing overlap of lumbosacral spinal circuitries controlling pelvic-visceral and locomotor functions, we addressed whether LT can improve bladder, bowel and sexual function in humans at chronic SCI time-points (> two years post-injury)...
2018: PloS One
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Jessica M Tumolo, Courtney Cann, Thomas J Gould
RATIONALE: Numerous studies have attributed the psychopathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to maladaptive behavioral responses such as an inability to extinguish fear. While exposure therapies are mostly effective in treating these disorders by enhancing extinction learning, relapse of PTSD symptoms is common. Although several studies indicated a role for cholinergic transmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in anxiety and stress disorder symptomatology, very little is known about the specific contribution of nAChRs to fear extinction OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examined the effects of inhibition and desensitization of α4β2 nAChRs via a full antagonist (Dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DhβE)) and two α4β2 nAChR partial-agonists (varenicline and sazetidine-A) on contextual fear extinction, locomotor activity, and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear in mice...
January 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Edison Chen, Valeria Lallai, Yasmine Sherafat, Nickolas P Grimes, Anna N Pushkin, J P Fowler, Christie D Fowler
The recent development of transgenic rodent lines expressing cre recombinase in a cell-specific manner, along with advances in engineered viral vectors, has permitted in-depth investigations into circuit function. However, emerging evidence has begun to suggest that genetic modifications may introduce unexpected caveats. In the current studies, we sought to extensively characterize male and female mice from both the ChAT(BAC)-Cre mouse line, created with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) method, and ChAT(IRES)-Cre mouse line, generated with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) method...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Manuel J Escalona, Rachel Brosseau, Martin Vermette, Alain Steve Comtois, Cyril Duclos, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Dany H Gagnon
BACKGROUND: Many wheelchair users adopt a sedentary lifestyle, which results in progressive physical deconditioning with increased risk of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic morbidity and mortality. Engaging in a walking program with an overground robotic exoskeleton may be an effective strategy for mitigating these potential negative health consequences and optimizing fitness in this population. However, additional research is warranted to inform the development of adapted physical activity programs incorporating this technology...
January 22, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Rui Zhou, Laura Alvarado, Robert Ogilvie, Su Ling Chong, Oriana Shaw, Vivian K Mushahwar
Arm movements modulate leg activity and improve gait efficiency; however, current rehabilitation interventions focus on improving walking through gait-specific training, and do not actively involve the arms. The goal of this project was to assess the effect of a rehabilitation strategy involving simultaneous arm and leg cycling on improving walking after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). We investigated the effect of 1) non-gait-specific training and 2) active arm involvement during training on changes in over ground walking capacity...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Youngjae Ryu, Toru Ogata, Motoshi Nagao, Yasuhiro Sawada, Ryohei Nishimura, Naoki Fujita
Spasticity usually emerges during the course of recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). While medications and physical rehabilitation are prescribed to alleviate spastic symptoms, the insufficiency of their effects remains an important problem to be addressed. Given the challenges associated with increasing the dose of medication, we supposed that a combination therapy with medication and physical rehabilitation can be effective. Therefore, we examined the effects of treadmill training (TMT) along with serotonergic medication using a spastic rat model after contusive injury...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, Bruno C Pereira, Eike B Kohama, Gustavo P Morais, Larissa G de Vicente, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Leandro P de Moura, Hugo T Filho, Adelino S R da Silva
The association between excessive training sessions (i.e., overtraining/OT) and periods of inadequate recovery is linked to the nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) state, which is defined as an unexplained decrement or stagnation of performance. The cytokine hypothesis of OT considers that pro-inflammatory cytokines are responsible by the NFOR state-induced performance decrement. Investigations using rodent models of OT verified increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hypothalamus, liver, serum and skeletal muscle samples...
January 10, 2018: Cytokine
Ruozhi Dang, Qiuhan Chen, Jie Song, Chao He, Jun Zhang, Jianxia Xia, Zhian Hu
Orexins play a crucial role in the maintenance of arousal and are involved in the modulation of diverse physiological process, including cognitive function. Recent data have suggested that orexins are involved in learning and memory processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of orexin deficiency on working memory. A delayed non-matching-to-place T-maze task was used to evaluate spatial working memory in mice lacking orexin prepro-peptide (orexin knockout; KO) and wild-type controls. We demonstrated that the number of correct choices in the orexin KO mice became lower than that of the controls over training...
January 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Matej Luptak, Bruk Getachew, Yousef Tizabi
The devastating consequences of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) on the individual and the society are well established. Current treatments of AUD encompass various strategies, all of which have only modest effectiveness. Hence, there is a critical need to develop more efficacious therapies. Recently, specific glutamatergic receptors have been identified as potential novel targets for intervention in AUD. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effects of acute administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, as well as NBQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist on alcohol intake and its possible behavioural consequences...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Mohammad Nasehi, Fatemeh Gerami-Majd, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
In the present research, we examined the possible interaction between the hippocampal CB2 and GABAA receptors on modulation of memory consolidation. In this research, step-down passive a . voidance task was used to evaluate memory consolidation in adult male NMRI mice. The results showed that post-training intra-CA1 administration of muscimol (0.05 and 0.1 μg/mouse) impaired memory consolidation as evidenced by a decrease in step-down latency on the test day, which was suggestive of drug-produced amnesia...
March 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Laurie Needham, Timothy A Exell, Ian N Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
A successful approach phase is key to achieving high performances in the pole vault. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of locomotor control patterns during the pole vault approach phase. Fourteen well-trained athletes performed ten jumps which were recorded using 2D video sampling at 200 Hz and analysed. Key kinematics were reconstructed from camera data using a modified 2D-DLT. Patterns of regulation were determined from the standard deviation of footfall locations during the approach phase...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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