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effect of locomotor training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435743/effects-of-overground-locomotor-training-on-the-ventilatory-response-to-volitional-treadmill-walking-in-individuals-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#1
Gino S Panza, Andrew A Guccione, Lisa M Chin, Jared M Gollie, Jeffery E Herrick, John P Collins
INTRODUCTION: Although there has been substantial emphasis on the neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations following rehabilitation, pulmonary adaptations in individuals with incomplete SCI (iSCI) in response to locomotor training have been less frequently studied. In healthy individuals, effective transition from rest to work is accomplished by a hyperpneic response, which exhibits an exponential curve with three phases. However, the degree to which our current understanding of exercise hyperpnea can be applied to individuals with iSCI is unknown...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412304/synergistic-effect-between-d-ap5-and-muscimol-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-on-memory-consolidation-deficit-in-adult-male-wistar-rats-an-isobologram-analysis
#2
Mohammad Nasehi, Elaheh Ostadi, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) glutamatergic and GABAergic systems are involved in memory processes. This study was investigated the involvement of NAc shell GABAergic system on D-AP5 induced memory consolidation deficit. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) test-retest paradigm was employed to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. The results indicated that post-training intra-NAc shell injection of bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist) did not alter emotional memory consolidation. However, post-training intra-NAc shell microinjection of muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist, 0...
April 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399873/influence-of-functional-task-oriented-mental-practice-on-the-gait-of-transtibial-amputees-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Rodrigo Gontijo Cunha, Paulo José Guimarães Da-Silva, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos Couto Paz, Ana Carolina da Silva Ferreira, Carlos Julio Tierra-Criollo
BACKGROUND: Mental practice (MP) through motor imagery is a cognitive training strategy used to improve locomotor skills during rehabilitation programs. Recent works have used MP tasks to investigate the neurophysiology of human gait; however, its effect on functional performance has not been evaluated. In the present study, the influence of gait-oriented MP tasks on the rehabilitation process of gait in transtibial amputees was investigated by assessing the vertical (V), anterior-posterior (AP), and medio-lateral (ML) ground reaction forces (GRFs) and the time duration of the support phase of the prosthetic limb...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389208/role-of-the-amygdala-gaba-a-receptors-in-acpa-induced-deficits-during-conditioned-fear-learning
#4
Mohammad Nasehi, Farnaz Roghani, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure for the emotional processing and storage of memories associated with emotional events, especially fear. On the other hand, endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors play a key role in learning and memory partly through long-term synaptic depression of GABAergic synapses in the BLA. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of GABA-A receptor agonist and antagonist in the fear-related memory acquisition deficits induced by ACPA (a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist)...
April 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387692/the-role-of-sensory-augmentation-for-people-with-vestibular-deficits-real-time-balance-aid-and-or-rehabilitation-device
#5
K H Sienko, S L Whitney, W J Carender, C Wall
This narrative review highlights findings from the sensory augmentation field for people with vestibular deficits and addresses the outstanding questions that are critical to the translation of this technology into clinical and/or personal use. Prior research has demonstrated that the real-time use of visual, vibrotactile, auditory, and multimodal sensory augmentation technologies can improve balance during static and dynamic stance tasks within a laboratory setting. However, its application in improving gait requires additional investigation, as does its efficacy as a rehabilitation device for people with vestibular deficits...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386652/interventions-to-promote-fundamental-movement-skills-in-childcare-and-kindergarten-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Kristin Wick, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Nico D Monn, Thomas Radtke, Laura V Ott, Cornelia E Rebholz, Sergio Cruz, Natalie Gerber, Einat A Schmutz, Jardena J Puder, Simone Munsch, Tanja H Kakebeeke, Oskar G Jenni, Urs Granacher, Susi Kriemler
BACKGROUND: Proficiency in fundamental movement skills (FMS) lays the foundation for being physically active and developing more complex motor skills. Improving these motor skills may provide enhanced opportunities for the development of a variety of perceptual, social, and cognitive skills. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effects of FMS interventions on actual FMS, targeting typically developing young children...
April 6, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380023/locomotor-activity-a-distinctive-index-in-morphine-self-administration-in-rats
#7
Jian-Jun Zhang, Qingyao Kong
Self-administration of addictive drugs is a widely used tool for studying behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic factors in addiction. However, how locomotor activity is affected during self-administration of addictive drugs has not been extensively studied. In our present study, we tested the locomotor activity levels during acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of morphine self-administration in rats. We found that compared with saline self-administration (SA), rats that trained with morphine SA had higher locomotor activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374730/-the-improvement-of-the-abilities-to-maintain-motor-coordination-and-equilibrium-in-the-students-presenting-with-the-functional-disorders-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-by-introducing-the-elements-of-therapeutic-physical-training-into-the-structure-of-academic
#8
L V Kapilevich, K V Davlet'yarova, N A Ovchinnikova
The problem of deterioration of the health status in the university students at present remains as topical as it was before being a major cause of impaired working capacity, disability and/or poor social adaptation of the large number of graduates. It has been proposed to introduce a class of therapeutic physical training (TPT) into the schedule of physical education for the students. AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the formation of the skills needed to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) including scoliosis by the introduction of the elements of therapeutic physical training into their academic schedules...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361654/effect-of-a-6-week-active-play-intervention-on-fundamental-movement-skill-competence-of-preschool-children
#9
J D Foulkes, Z Knowles, S J Fairclough, G Stratton, M O'Dwyer, N D Ridgers, L Foweather
This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345483/spinal-epidural-stimulation-strategies
#10
Prithvi K Shah, Igor Lavrov
Significant advancements in spinal epidural stimulation (ES) strategies to enable volitional motor control in persons with a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) have generated much excitement in the field of neurorehabilitation. Still, an obvious gap lies in the ability of ES to effectively generate a robust locomotor stepping response after a complete SCI in rodents, but not in humans. In order to reveal potential discrepancies between rodent and human studies that account for this void, in this review, we summarize the findings of studies that have utilized ES strategies to enable successful hindlimb stepping in spinal rats...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341461/sequential-therapy-of-anti-nogo-a-antibody-treatment-and-treadmill-training-leads-to-cumulative-improvements-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#11
Kinon Chen, Barnaby C Marsh, Matthew Cowan, Yazi D Al'Joboori, Sylvain Gigout, Calvin C Smith, Neil Messenger, Nikita Gamper, Martin E Schwab, Ronaldo M Ichiyama
Intense training is the most clinically successful treatment modality following incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCIs). With the advent of plasticity enhancing treatments, understanding how treatments might interact when delivered in combination becomes critical. Here, we investigated a rational approach to sequentially combine treadmill locomotor training with antibody mediated suppression of the fiber growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A. Following a large but incomplete thoracic lesion, rats were immediately treated with either anti-Nogo-A or control antibody (2weeks) and then either left untrained or step-trained starting 3weeks after injury for 8weeks...
March 21, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337132/habituation-training-improves-locomotor-performance-in-a-forced-running-wheel-system-in-rats
#12
Angel Toval, Raúl Baños, Ernesto De la Cruz, Nicanor Morales-Delgado, Jesús G Pallarés, Abdelmalik Ayad, Kuei Y Tseng, Jose L Ferran
Increasing evidence supports that physical activity promotes mental health; and regular exercise may confer positive effects in neurological disorders. There is growing number of reports that requires the analysis of the impact of physical activity in animal models. Exercise in rodents can be performed under voluntary or forced conditions. The former presents the disadvantage that the volume and intensity of exercise varies from subject to subject. On the other hand, a major challenge of the forced training protocol is the low level of performance typically achieved within a given session...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330471/robot-assisted-gait-training-lokomat-improves-walking-function-and-activity-in-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Ki Yeun Nam, Hyun Jung Kim, Bum Sun Kwon, Jin-Woo Park, Ho Jun Lee, Aeri Yoo
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) induces several different neurophysiological mechanisms to restore walking ability, including the activation of central pattern generators, task-specific stepping practice and massed exercise. However, there is no clear evidence for the optimal timing and efficacy of RAGT in people with SCI. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of RAGT on improvement in walking-related functional outcomes in patients with incomplete SCI compared with other rehabilitation modalities according to time elapsed since injury...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316572/eccentric-ergometer-training-promotes-locomotor-muscle-strength-but-not-mitochondrial-adaptation-in-patients-with-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Norah J MacMillan, Sophia Kapchinsky, Yana Konokhova, Gilles Gouspillou, Riany de Sousa Sena, R Thomas Jagoe, Jacinthe Baril, Tamara E Carver, Ross E Andersen, Ruddy Richard, Hélène Perrault, Jean Bourbeau, Russell T Hepple, Tanja Taivassalo
Eccentric ergometer training (EET) is increasingly being proposed as a therapeutic strategy to improve skeletal muscle strength in various cardiorespiratory diseases, due to the principle that lengthening muscle actions lead to high force-generating capacity at low cardiopulmonary load. One clinical population that may particularly benefit from this strategy is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as ventilatory constraints and locomotor muscle dysfunction often limit efficacy of conventional exercise rehabilitation in patients with severe disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246896/melatonin-reduces-motivation-for-cocaine-self-administration-and-prevents-relapse-like-behavior-in-rats
#15
Tatiane T Takahashi, Valentina Vengeliene, Rainer Spanagel
RATIONALE: Melatonin is a hormone involved in the entrainment of circadian rhythms, which appears dysregulated in drug users. Further, it has been demonstrated that melatonin can modulate the reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse and may therefore play a role in drug addiction. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated whether administration of melatonin reduces relapse-like behavior and the motivation to seek cocaine in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to long-term cocaine self-administration training...
February 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216334/crocins-the-active-constituents-of-crocus-sativus-l-counteracted-apomorphine-induced-performance-deficits-in-the-novel-object-recognition-task-but-not-novel-object-location-task-in-rats
#16
Nikolaos Pitsikas, Petros A Tarantilis
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopaminergic (DAergic) system might be compromised in schizophrenia. Specifically, the mixed dopamine (DA) D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including disruption of memory abilities. Crocins are among the active components of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. plant) and their implication in cognition is well documented...
February 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210779/locomotor-activity-and-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-a-novel-series-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs-in-mice-and-rats
#17
Michael B Gatch, Sean B Dolan, Michael J Forster
RATIONALE: Recent years have seen an increase in the recreational use of novel, synthetic psychoactive substances. There are little or no data on the abuse liability of many of the newer compounds. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of a series of synthetic analogs of cathinone: α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP), α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), 3,4-methylenedioxybutiophenone (MDPBP), and ethylone...
April 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197192/subhypnotic-doses-of-propofol-impair-spatial-memory-retrieval-in-rats
#18
Hu Liu, Ting Wang, Wei Dai, Zheng Jiang, Yuan-Hai Li, Xue-Sheng Liu
Abundant evidence indicates that propofol profoundly affects memory processes, although its specific effects on memory retrieval have not been clarified. A recent study has indicated that hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity affects memory. Constitutively active GSK-3β is required for memory retrieval, and propofol has been shown to inhibit GSK-3β. Thus, the present study examined whether propofol affects memory retrieval, and, if so, whether that effect is mediated through altered GSK-3β activity...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188024/robotic-assisted-gait-training-improves-walking-abilities-in-diplegic-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#19
L Wallard, G Dietrich, Y Kerlirzin, J Bredin
The robotic-assisted gait training therapy (RAGT), based on intensity and repetition of movement, presents beneficial effects on recovery and improvement of postural and locomotor functions of the patient. This study sought to highlight the effect of this RAGT on the dynamic equilibrium control during walking in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) by analyzing the different postural strategies of the fullbody (upper/lower body) before and after this RAGT in order to generate forward motion while maintaining balance...
May 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167809/exercise-training-reveals-trade-offs-between-endurance-performance-and-immune-function-but-does-not-influence-growth-in-juvenile-lizards
#20
Jerry F Husak, Jordan C Roy, Matthew B Lovern
Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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