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effect of locomotor training

Markus Wirz, Orpheus Mach, Doris Maier, John Benito-Penalva, Julian Taylor, Ana Esclarin, Volker Dietz
The aim of this study was to evaluate if the effect of longer training times (50 instead of 25 minutes per day) using a robotic device results in a better outcome of walking ability of subjects with a sub-acute motor complete (AIS B) and incomplete (AIS C) spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-one patients were enrolled in the study whereof, 18 completed on average 34 trainings in eight weeks. Longer training times resulted in better locomotor function. The second important result of the study is that a beneficial effect can be achieved by the application of a robotic device for prolonged training sessions without requiring more personal resources...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
T George Hornby, Jennifer L Moore, Linda Lovell, Elliot J Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research findings from the fields of motor learning and exercise physiology suggest specific training parameters that can be manipulated during physical rehabilitation profoundly influence skilled task performance. This review details the rationale for some of these training variables and their application in selected intervention studies focused on improving walking function in patients poststroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Basic and applied studies have shown that the amount, intensity, and variability of specific task practice applied during rehabilitation interventions can affect recovery of walking poststroke...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Miriam Schrafl-Altermatt, Volker Dietz, Marc Bolliger
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous locomotor training on leg muscle EMG exhaustion during assisted stepping movements in a patient with motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). EMG exhaustion and loss of potentials starts to develop in non-trained patients usually around six months after injury. In the trained patient examined in this study exhaustion was also observed but occurred with a delay of several months. In contrast to a non-trained patient no more EMG exhaustion was observed in a very chronic stage...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Mohammad Nasehi, Parastu Morteza-Zadeh, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
In the current study, we examined the effect of bilateral intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) microinjections of GABAA receptor agents on amnesia induced by a β-carboline alkaloid, harmane in mice. We used a single-trial step-down passive avoidance task to assess memory retention and then, open-field test to assess locomotor activity. The results indicated that post-training intra-CA1 injections of bicuculline - a GABAA receptor antagonist - had no significant effect, while muscimol (0.01 and 0.1μg/mouse) - a GABAA receptor agonist - impaired memory consolidation...
October 8, 2016: Neuroscience
Weiqing Liu, Dong Wang, Wenjuan Hong, Yi Yu, Jinsong Tang, Jicai Wang, Fang Liu, Xiufeng Xu, Liwen Tan, Xiaogang Chen
Although N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists-induced hypoglutamate rodent models are the most well-established models for preclinical studies of schizophrenia-related deficits, they also evoke a wide spectrum of psychotomimetic side effects. It is significant to increase the specificity of hypoglutamate rodent models. In this study, the recognition memory was evaluated in rats by object recognition test (ORT), sensorimotor gating was evaluated by prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI), and locomotor activity was measured using open field test...
October 7, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Bryan F Singer, Nancy Bubula, Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska, Dongdong Li, Paul Vezina
Drug-paired stimuli rapidly enlarge dendritic spines in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). While increases in spine size and shape are supported by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and facilitate the synaptic expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptors, it remains unclear whether drug-related stimuli can influence signaling pathways known to regulate these changes in spine morphology. These pathways were studied in rats trained on a discrimination learning paradigm using subcellular fractionation and protein immunoblotting to isolate proteins within dendritic spine compartments in the NAcc shell...
October 6, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Evhen Y Strashko, Аnna A Kapustianska, Lyudmyla E Bobyreva
Matters of physical and medical rehabilitation of children with organic lesions of the nervous system, in particular, with cerebral palsy, are actual in countries around the world. Hippotherapy is neurophysiologically oriented therapy using horses. Determine whether a combination of hippotherapy as a method of rehabilitation in the aftermath of outpatient comprehensive impact on MS on a stationary phase; Study of the effect of hippotherapy as securing and preparation method for learning new postures and movements in children with spastic cerebral palsy forms; The study of the possible optimization of psychophysical state, activation motivations of patients; Determination of the optimal timing of hippotherapy sessions, the number of procedures, the study of possible fatigue factor children...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Angela Navarrete-Opazo A, Julio Alcayaga J, Oscar Sepúlveda, Gonzalo Varas
OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of combined intermittent hypoxia (IH) and body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on standing and dynamic balance in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). DESIGN: Randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: "Instituto Teletón Santiago" and "Hospital Clínico Mutual de seguridad" in Santiago, Chile. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with ASIA C and D chronic iSCI (> 1 year post-injury) were randomly assigned to either IH plus BWSTT (n=18) or continued normoxia (Nx, placebo) plus BWSTT protocol (n=17)...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Stefania Castello, Genesis D'Aloisio, Carlos Arias, Juan Carlos Molina
Drugs of abuse, as cocaine or amphetamine, induce locomotor sensitization during infancy and adulthood of the rat. This effect during the preweanling period is observed only after a short interval of time between training and testing. We recently reported short-term locomotor sensitization induced by ethanol in pups chronically exposed to the drug during the second postnatal week of life. The present series of experiments was designed to explore the persistence of the sensitization effect across the preweanling period...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Luyi Zhou, Haley Andersen, Adrian C Arreola, Jill R Turner, Pavel I Ortinski
Withdrawal from cocaine regulates expression of distinct glutamate re-uptake transporters in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In this study, we examined the cumulative effect of glutamate re-uptake by multiple excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on drug-seeking at two different stages of withdrawal from self-administered cocaine. Rats were trained on fixed ratio 1 (FR1), progressing to FR5 schedule of reinforcement. After one day of withdrawal, microinfusion of a broad non-transportable EAAT antagonist, DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA), into the NAc shell dose-dependently attenuated self-administration of cocaine...
2016: PloS One
Aranzazu Duque, Concepción Vinader-Caerols, Santiago Monleón
We have previously observed impairing effects of social defeat stress (CSDS) on inhibitory avoidance (IA) in mice. Given the similarity between changes produced by social stress in animals and symptoms of certain human psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, the effects of the antidepressant clomipramine on IA impairment produced by CSDS were evaluated in the present study. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to the groups: non-stressed+saline, non-stressed+clomipramine, stressed+saline and stressed+clomipramine...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
M Galli, V Cimolin, M F De Pandis, D Le Pera, I Sova, G Albertini, F Stocchi, M Franceschini
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the effects, on walking performance, of end-effector robotic rehabilitation locomotor training versus intensive training with a treadmill in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty patients with PD were randomly divided into two groups: 25 were assigned to the robot-assisted therapy group (RG) and 25 to the intensive treadmill therapy group (IG). They were evaluated with clinical examination and 3D quantitative gait analysis [gait profile score (GPS) and its constituent gait variable scores (GVSs) were calculated from gait analysis data] at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of the treatment...
July 2016: Functional Neurology
Nicolas Perret, Rolf Frischknecht, Stefano Carda, Françoise Sandoz, Aurelien Fauquex, Yannick Charrotton
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a robot assisted motor training program of the lower limbs on locomotor functioning of chronic stroke patients. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: After ethical committee approval, 5 women and 2 men with chronic hemiplegia 2, 20 years after stroke (1 right, 6 left), age 35 and 79, underwent a robot assisted training of their lower limbs twice a week for 6 weeks. During the 30's exercise sessions (leg press and cycling), the participants used an end effector type rehabilitation robot (Lambda Health System plc) and were asked to follow actively the robot-guided movements...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Edelle Field-Fote, Jaynie F Yang, D Michele Basso, Monica A Gorassini
Restoration of walking ability is an area of great interest in the rehabilitation of persons with spinal cord injury. Since many cortical, subcortical, and spinal neural centers contribute to locomotor function, it is important that intervention strategies be designed to target neural elements at all levels of the neuraxis that are important for walking ability. While to date most strategies have focused on activation of spinal circuits, more recent studies are investigating the value of engaging supraspinal circuits...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei, Masome Rashno, Shahab Ghaderi, Majid Askaripour
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of neuropathy. Although antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) (AEOP) have been demonstrated before by other researchers, we did not find any study that assessed the psychobiological effects of AEOP in diabetes induced animals. Thirty ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, Dia and Dia+AEOP. The latter group was orally treated by 300 mg/kg of AEOP for 35 days...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Farid Bardid, Matthieu Lenoir, Floris Huyben, Kristine De Martelaer, Jan Seghers, Jacqueline D Goodway, Frederik J A Deconinck
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 30-week fundamental motor skill program in typically developing young children and to investigate possible sex differences. DESIGN: A multicenter quasi experimental design was set up for this study which involved 992 children aged 3-8 years. METHODS: All participants received their typical Physical Education curriculum and habitual movement activities. The intervention group (n=523; 53...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Vennila Krishnan, Matthew Kindig, Mehdi Mirbagheri
OBJECTIVE: Ankle joint control plays an important role in independent walking. This study investigated the effects of robotic-assisted locomotor training on impaired ankle joint control in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. METHODS: Sixteen individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury underwent 12 one-h sessions of robotic-assisted locomotor training for 4 weeks, while 16 individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury served as inactive controls...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Jared M Gollie, Jeffrey E Herrick, Gino S Panza, Lisa M K Chin, Andrew A Guccione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jirawoot Srisontiyakul, Hanna E Kastman, Elena V Krstew, Piyarat Govitrapong, Andrew J Lawrence
Cigarettes and alcohol are the most abused substances in the world and are commonly co-abused. Nicotine primarily acts in the brain on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), which are also a target for alcohol. The alpha6 subunit of nAChR is expressed almost exclusively in the brain reward system and may modulate the rewarding properties of alcohol and nicotine. Recently, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI) was synthesized as a selective, brain penetrant α6 subunit antagonist that reduces nicotine self-administration...
August 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
José Luis Fernández-Alemán, Laura López-González, Ofelia González-Sequeros, Chrisina Jayne, Juan José López-Jiménez, Ambrosio Toval
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents an empirical study of a formative mobile-based assessment approach that can be used to provide students with intelligent diagnostic feedback to test its educational effectiveness. METHOD: An audience response system called SIDRA was integrated with a neural network-based data analysis to generate diagnostic feedback for guided learning. A total of 200 medical students enrolled in a General and Descriptive Anatomy of the Locomotor System course were taught using two different methods...
October 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
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