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effect of locomotor training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063935/effects-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-on-motor-functions-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#1
I A Solopova, I A Sukhotina, D S Zhvansky, G A Ikoeva, S V Vissarionov, A G Baindurashvili, V R Edgerton, Y P Gerasimenko, T R Moshonkina
Is it possible to regulate the functional properties of abnormally developed spinal neuronal locomotor networks using transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? This question has been studied in twenty-eight participants (∼9 yrs) with spastic cerebral palsy, and mainly Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy level III. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation at two spinal levels (over T11 and L1 spinous processes), combined with locomotor treadmill training, whereas the participants of the control group received locomotor treadmill training only...
January 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059803/whole-body-vibration-wbv-following-spinal-cord-injury-sci-in-rats-timing-of-intervention
#2
Marilena Manthou, Diana Saad Yousif Abdulla, Stoyan Pavlov Pavlov, Ramona Jansen, Habib Bendella, Klaus Nohroudi, Gregor Stein, Carolin Mmeyer, Ozlem Ozsoy, Umut Ozsoy, Yasemin Behram Kandemir, Levent Sarikcioglu, Oliver Semler, Eckhard Schoenau, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Nikolov Angelov
BACKGROUND: Following spinal cord injury (SCI), exercise training provides a wide range of benefits and promotes activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Whole body vibration (WBV) in SCI patients improves walking and spasticity as well as bone and muscle mass. However, little is known about the effects of timing or frequency of intervention. OBJECTIVE: To determine which WBV-onset improves locomotor and bladder functions and influences synaptic plasticity beneficially...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032253/effect-of-cadence-on-locomotor-respiratory-coupling-during-upper-body-exercise
#3
Nicholas B Tiller, Mike J Price, Ian G Campbell, Lee M Romer
INTRODUCTION: Asynchronous arm-cranking performed at high cadences elicits greater cardiorespiratory responses compared to low cadences. This has been attributed to increased postural demand and locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), and yet, this has not been empirically tested. This study aimed to assess the effects of cadence on cardiorespiratory responses and LRC during upper-body exercise. METHODS: Eight recreationally-active men performed arm-cranking exercise at moderate and severe intensities that were separated by 10 min of rest...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#4
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984832/-injuries-in-karate-sports-a-survey-performed-during-the-world-championship-2014
#5
T Tischer, B Lembcke, M Ellenrieder, Ä Glass, W Weigert, W Mittelmeier
Background: In literature, the competitive sport of modern karate is almost always characterised as a combat sport involving injuries caused by impact effects and physical contact with opponents. There is a lack of data regarding the outcome after karate injuries, specifically with a view to the contact-free Kata karate. Methods: Performing a random test using a questionnaire, we collected data concerning regular medical treatment, prior surgeries of the locomotor system, and medical care. This study included 300 athletes from 65 countries (average age: 24...
December 2016: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981907/the-utility-of-interappendicular-connections-in-bipedal-locomotion
#6
David McMillan, Ray de Leon, Pierre A Guertin, Christine Dy
Homo sapiens constitute the only currently obligate bipedal mammals and, as it stands, upright bipedal locomotion is a defining characteristic of humans. Indeed, while the evolution to bipedalism has allowed for the upper limbs to be liberated from ground contact during ambulation, their role in locomotion is far from obsolete. Rather, there is reason to believe that arm swing offers important mechanical and neurological advantages to bipedal locomotion. In this short review, we present some compelling findings on the neural connections between the arms and legs during human locomotion...
16, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981906/locomotor-training-and-factors-associated-with-blood-glucose-regulation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Philip D Chilibeck, Pierre A Guertin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have increased rates of glucose intolerance, insulin insensitivity, and type II diabetes caused mainly by the deconditioning of paralyzed muscle. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of locomotor training in individuals with SCI on blood glucose control. METHODS: We searched studies on locomotor training for individuals with SCI with outcomes of glucose, insulin, or outcomes that could change glucose handling (i...
December 16, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977522/the-interface-of-clinical-decision-making-with-study-protocols-for-knowledge-translation-from-a-walking-recovery-trial
#8
Julie A Hershberg, Dorian K Rose, Julie K Tilson, Bettina Brutsch, Anita Correa, Joann Gallichio, Molly McLeod, Craig Moore, Sam Wu, Pamela W Duncan, Andrea L Behrman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite efforts to translate knowledge into clinical practice, barriers often arise in adapting the strict protocols of a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) to the individual patient. The Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) RCT demonstrated equal effectiveness of 2 intervention protocols for walking recovery poststroke; both protocols were more effective than usual care physical therapy. The purpose of this article was to provide knowledge-translation tools to facilitate implementation of the LEAPS RCT protocols into clinical practice...
January 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977000/spinal-microcircuits-comprising-di3-interneurons-are-necessary-for-motor-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-transection
#9
Tuan V Bui, Nicolas Stifani, Turgay Akay, Robert M Brownstone
The spinal cord has the capacity to coordinate motor activities such as locomotion. Following spinal transection, functional activity can be regained, to a degree, following motor training. To identify microcircuits involved in this recovery, we studied a population of mouse spinal interneurons known to receive direct afferent inputs and project to intermediate and ventral regions of the spinal cord. We demonstrate that while dI3 interneurons are not necessary for normal locomotor activity, locomotor circuits rhythmically inhibit them and dI3 interneurons can activate these circuits...
December 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973679/effect-on-body-composition-and-bone-mineral-density-of-walking-with-a-robotic-exoskeleton-in-adults-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Antony D Karelis, Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Manuel Jose Castillo, Dany H Gagnon, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect on body composition and bone mineral density of locomotor training using a robotic exoskeleton in individuals with spinal cord injury. STUDY DESIGN: Interventional study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Five adults with a non-progressive traumatic complete sensorimotor spinal cord injury who were using a wheelchair as a primary mode of mobility. Participants performed a personalized 6-week progressive locomotor training programme using a robotic exoskeleton 3 times/week for up to 60 min...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965006/effects-of-overground-locomotor-training-on-walking-performance-in-chronic-cervical-motor-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#11
Jared M Gollie, Andrew A Guccione, Gino S Panza, Peter Y Jo, Jeffrey E Herrick
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a novel overground locomotor training (OLT) program on walking performance in people with chronic cervical motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). DESIGN: Before-After Pilot Study. SETTING: Human performance research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (n=6; age>18 years) with chronic cervical iSCI C & D according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS)...
December 10, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940102/association-of-environmental-enrichment-and-locomotor-stimulation-in-a-rodent-model-of-cerebral-palsy-insights-of-biological-mechanisms
#12
André L F Meireles, Marília R Marques, Ethiane Segabinazi, Christiano Spindler, Francele V Piazza, Gabriela S Salvalaggio, Otávio A Augustin, Matilde Achaval, Simone Marcuzzo
Several physiotherapy approaches are used with different aims in the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP), such as the early stimulation and the locomotor training, but their biological effects, isolated or combined, are not completely known. In animals models, these strategies can be compared, with due translational restrictions, to the environmental enrichment (EE), that involves the enhancement of animal's physical and social environment, and locomotor stimulation (LS), that can be performed using the treadmill adapted for rats...
January 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914920/can-lowering-the-guidance-force-of-robot-assisted-gait-training-induce-a-sufficient-metabolic-demand-in-subacute-dependent-ambulatory-stroke-patients
#13
So Young Lee, Eun Young Han, Bo Ryun Kim, Min Ho Chun, Yong Ki Lee
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of guidance force (GF) and gait speed (GS) on cardiorespiratory responses and energy cost in subacute dependent ambulatory stroke patients. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: University rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Ten subacute stroke patients (mean age: 64.50±19.20), who were dependent ambulators (functional ambulation category [FAC] ≤2). INTERVENTIONS: Patients participated in cardiorespiratory tests during robot-assisted gait training...
November 30, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899894/moderate-load-eccentric-exercise-a-distinct-novel-training-modality
#14
REVIEW
Hans Hoppeler
Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891256/scale-dependent-signal-identification-in-low-dimensional-subspace-motor-imagery-task-classification
#15
Qingshan She, Haitao Gan, Yuliang Ma, Zhizeng Luo, Tom Potter, Yingchun Zhang
Motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG) has been successfully used in locomotor rehabilitation programs. While the noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD) algorithm has been utilized to extract task-specific frequency bands from all channels in the same scale as the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), identifying and extracting the specific IMFs that contain significant information remain difficult. In this paper, a novel method has been developed to identify the information-bearing components in a low-dimensional subspace without prior knowledge...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888284/attenuation-of-the-anxiogenic-effects-of-cocaine-by-5-ht1b-autoreceptor-stimulation-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-of-rats
#16
Adam K Klein, Michael A Brito, Sayeh Akhavan, Dylan R Flanagan, Nikki Le, Tatum Ohana, Anand S Patil, Erin M Purvis, Carl Provenzano, Alex Wei, Lucy Zhou, Aaron Ettenberg
RATIONALE: Cocaine produces significant aversive/anxiogenic actions whose underlying neurobiology remains unclear. A possible substrate contributing to these actions is the serotonergic (5-HT) pathway projecting from the dorsal raphé (DRN) to regions of the extended amygdala, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) which have been implicated in the production of anxiogenic states. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the contribution of 5-HT signaling within the BNST to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine as measured in a runway model of drug self-administration...
February 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881723/intraspinal-microstimulation-and-diaphragm-activation-following-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Lynne M Mercier, Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi, Kristi A Streeter, Savannah S Posgai, Alexander S Poirier, David D Fuller, Paul J Reier, David M Baekey
Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS), using implanted electrodes, can evoke locomotor movements after spinal cord injury (SCI), but has not been explored in the context of respiratory motor output. An advantage over epidural and direct muscle stimulation is the potential of ISMS to selectively stimulate components of the spinal respiratory network. The present study tested the hypothesis that medullary respiratory activity could be used to trigger mid-cervical ISMS and diaphragm motor unit activation in rats with cervical SCI...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875927/what-is-being-trained-how-divergent-forms-of-plasticity-compete-to-shape-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
J Russell Huie, Kazuhito Morioka, Jenny Haefeli, Adam R Ferguson
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating syndrome that produces dysfunction in motor and sensory systems, manifesting as chronic paralysis, sensory changes, and pain disorders. The multi-faceted and heterogeneous nature of SCI has made effective rehabilitative strategies challenging. Work over the last 40 years has aimed to overcome these obstacles by harnessing the intrinsic plasticity of the spinal cord to improve functional locomotor recovery. Intensive training after SCI facilitates lower extremity function and has shown promise as a tool for retraining the spinal cord by engaging innate locomotor circuitry in the lumbar cord...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853668/the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-exoskeletons-as-assistive-and-rehabilitation-devices-in-the-treatment-of-neurologic-gait-disorders-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#19
Christian Fisahn, Mirko Aach, Oliver Jansen, Marc Moisi, Angeli Mayadev, Krystle T Pagarigan, Joseph R Dettori, Thomas A Schildhauer
Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) When used as an assistive device, do wearable exoskeletons improve lower extremity function or gait compared with knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) in patients with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury? (2) When used as a rehabilitation device, do wearable exoskeletons improve lower extremity function or gait compared with other rehabilitation strategies in patients with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury? (3) When used as an assistive or rehabilitation device, are wearable exoskeletons safe compared with KAFO for assistance or other rehabilitation strategies for rehabilitation in patients with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury? Methods PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases and reference lists of key articles were searched from database inception to May 2, 2016, to identify studies evaluating the effectiveness of wearable exoskeletons used as assistive or rehabilitative devices in patients with incomplete or complete spinal cord injury...
December 2016: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829315/transplants-of-neurotrophin-producing-autologous-fibroblasts-promote-recovery-of-treadmill-stepping-in-the-acute-sub-chronic-and-chronic-spinal-cat
#20
Alexander J Krupka, Itzhak Fischer, Michel A Lemay
Adult cats show limited spontaneous locomotor capabilities following spinal transection, but recover treadmill stepping with body-weight-supported training. Delivery of neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3) can substitute for body-weight-supported training, and promotes a similar recovery in a shorter period of time. Autologous cell grafts would negate the need for the immunosuppressive agents currently used with most grafts, but have not shown functional benefits in incomplete spinal cord injury models and have never been tested in complete transection or chronic injury models...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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