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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820881/vector-competence-of-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-from-three-distinct-cities-in-kenya-for-chikungunya-virus
#1
Sheila B Agha, Edith Chepkorir, Francis Mulwa, Caroline Tigoi, Samwel Arum, Milehna M Guarido, Peris Ambala, Betty Chelangat, Joel Lutomiah, David P Tchouassi, Michael J Turell, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820740/subspace-based-interference-removal-methods-for-a-multichannel-biomagnetic-sensor-array
#2
Kensuke Sekihara, Srikantan S Nagarajan
OBJECTIVE: In biomagnetic signal processing, the theory of the signal subspace has been applied to removing interfering magnetic fields, and a representative algorithm is the signal space projection algorithm, in which the signal/interference subspace is defined in the spatial domain as the span of signal/interference-source lead field vectors. This paper extends the notion of this conventional (spatial domain) signal subspace by introducing a new definition of signal subspace in the time domain...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820722/house-structure-is-associated-with-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-a-low-transmission-setting-in-southern-zambia
#3
Matthew M Ippolito, Kelly M Searle, Harry Hamapumbu, Timothy M Shields, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss, For The Southern Africa International Center Of Excellence For Malaria Research
House structure may influence the risk of malaria by affecting mosquito entry and indoor resting. Identification of construction features associated with protective benefits could inform vector control approaches, even in low-transmission settings. We examined the association between house structure and malaria prevalence in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,788 children and adults residing in 866 houses in a low-transmission area of Southern Province, Zambia, over the period 2008-2012. Houses were categorized according to wall (brick/cement block or mud/grass) and roof (metal or grass) material...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820719/central-nervous-system-infection-associated-with-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-south-korea
#4
Han Sang Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Seon-Jae Ahn, Jangsup Moon, Jung-Ah Lim, Jin-Sun Jun, Woo-Jin Lee, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Orientia tsutsugamushi is a major cause of vector-borne infection in Asia. Prompt recognition and appropriate treatment are crucial because of its potentially fatal complications and lack of response to beta-lactam antibiotics. The present study retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of 16 patients with scrub typhus-related central nervous system (CNS) infections. Single titers ≥ 1:40 of total serum antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi detected by an indirect immunofluorescent assay were considered as positive results...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820716/evaluation-of-community-directed-operation-of-black-fly-traps-for-entomological-surveillance-of-onchocerca-volvulus-transmission-in-the-madi-mid-north-focus-of-onchocerciasis-in-northern-uganda
#5
Denis Loum, Charles R Katholi, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Thomas R Unnasch
Entomological measures of transmission are important metrics specified by the World Health Organization to document the suppression and interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. These metrics require testing of large numbers of vector black flies. Black fly collection has relied on human landing collections, which are inefficient and potentially hazardous. As the focus of the international community has shifted from onchocerciasis control to elimination, replacement of human landing collections has become a priority...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820715/limited-transmission-potential-of-takeda-s-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-candidate-by-aedes-albopictus
#6
Elizabeth A Dietrich, Yee Tsuey Ong, Janae L Stovall, Hansi Dean, Claire Y-H Huang
Recombinant live-attenuated chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine viruses, TDV-1, -2, -3, and -4, contain the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in the replicative background of the attenuated dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) PDK-53 vaccine strain. Previous results have shown that these recombinant vaccine viruses demonstrate limited infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti and are unlikely to be transmitted by the primary mosquito vector of DENVs. In this report, we expand this analysis by assessing vector competence of all four serotypes of the TDV virus in Aedes albopictus, the secondary mosquito vector of DENVs...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820695/prevalence-and-seroprevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-a-military-population-in-texas
#7
Bryant J Webber, Mary T Pawlak, Sandra Valtier, Candelaria C Daniels, Charla C Tully, Edward J Wozniak, Walter D Roachell, Francisco X Sanchez, Audra A Blasi, Thomas L Cropper
Recent biosurveillance findings at Joint Base San Antonio (JBSA), a large military installation located in south-central Texas, indicate the potential for vector-borne human Chagas disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in highest risk subpopulations on the installation, including students and instructors who work and sleep in triatomine-endemic field settings. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay were performed on enrolled subjects (N = 1,033), none of whom tested positive for T...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820690/scaling-up-of-an-innovative-intervention-to-reduce-risk-of-dengue-chikungunya-and-zika-transmission-in-uruguay-in-the-framework-of-an-intersectoral-approach-with-and-without-community-participation
#8
César Basso, Elsa García da Rosa, Rosario Lairihoy, Ruben M Caffera, Ingrid Roche, Cristina González, Ricardo da Rosa, Alexis Gularte, Eduardo Alfonso-Sierra, Max Petzold, Axel Kroeger, Johannes Sommerfeld
To contribute to the prevention of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, a process of scaling up an innovative intervention to reduce Aedes aegypti habitats, was carried out in the city of Salto (Uruguay) based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the eco-bio-social determinants. The intervention in one-third of the city included the distributions of plastic bags for all households to collect all discarded water containers that were recollected by the Ministry of Health and the Municipality vector control services. The results were evaluated in 20 randomly assigned clusters of 100 households each, in the intervention and control arm...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820490/the-potentiodynamic-bottom-up-growth-of-the-tin-oxide-nanostructured-layer-for-gas-analytical-multisensor-array-chips
#9
Fedor S Fedorov, Dmitry Podgainov, Alexey Varezhnikov, Andrey Lashkov, Michail Gorshenkov, Igor Burmistrov, Martin Sommer, Victor Sysoev
We report a deposition of the tin oxide/hydroxide nanostructured layer by the potentiodynamic method from acidic nitrate solutions directly over the substrate, equipped with multiple strip electrodes which is employed as a gas-analytical multisensor array chip. The electrochemical synthesis is set to favor the growth of the tin oxide/hydroxide phase, while the appearance of metallic Sn is suppressed by cycling. The as-synthesized tin oxide/hydroxide layer is characterized by mesoporous morphology with grains, 250-300 nm diameter, which are further crystallized into fine SnO₂ poly-nanocrystals following heating to 300 °C for 24 h just on the chip...
August 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820478/detection-of-interactions-between-proteins-by-using-legendre-moments-descriptor-to-extract-discriminatory-information-embedded-in-pssm
#10
Yan-Bin Wang, Zhu-Hong You, Li-Ping Li, Yu-An Huang, Hai-Cheng Yi
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a very large part in most cellular processes. Although a great deal of research has been devoted to detecting PPIs through high-throughput technologies, these methods are clearly expensive and cumbersome. Compared with the traditional experimental methods, computational methods have attracted much attention because of their good performance in detecting PPIs. In our work, a novel computational method named as PCVM-LM is proposed which combines the probabilistic classification vector machine (PCVM) model and Legendre moments (LMs) to predict PPIs from amino acid sequences...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820323/non-surgical-model-for-alveolar-bone-regeneration-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-7-gene-therapy
#11
Mariko Kawai, Yo-Hei Kataoka, Junya Sonobe, Hiromitsu Yamamoto, Masakazu Inubushi, Takuya Ishimoto, Takayoshi Nakano, Hiroki Maruyama, Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Toshio Yamamoto, Kazuhisa Bessho, Kiyoshi Ohura
BACKGROUND: Alveolar bone is a critical tissue for tooth retention; however, once alveolar bone is lost, it may not spontaneously regenerate. Currently, bone grafts or artificial bone are commonly used for alveolar bone regeneration therapy. However, these therapies require surgical procedures, which present risks, particularly in aged patients. Therefore, the development of alveolar bone regeneration techniques that do not require surgical procedures is critical. It is well known that stem cells present in the periosteal and periodontal ligament may be induced to differentiate into osteogenic cells...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820183/technique-of-retinal-gene-therapy-delivery-of-viral-vector-into-the-subretinal-space
#12
K Xue, M Groppe, A P Salvetti, R E MacLaren
PurposeSafe and reproducible delivery of gene therapy vector into the subretinal space is essential for successful targeting of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors. The success of surgery is critical for the clinical efficacy of retinal gene therapy. Iatrogenic detachment of the degenerate (often adherent) retina in patients with hereditary retinal degenerations and small volume (eg, 0.1 ml) subretinal injections pose new surgical challenges.MethodsOur subretinal gene therapy technique involved pre-operative planning with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and autofluorescence (AF) imaging, 23 G pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane staining with Membrane Blue Dual (DORC BV, Zuidland, Netherlands), a two-step subretinal injection using a 41 G Teflon tipped cannula (DORC) first with normal saline to create a parafoveal bleb followed by slow infusion of viral vector via the same self-sealing retinotomy...
August 18, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820179/effects-of-dck-knockdown-on-proliferation-apoptosis-and-tumorigenicity-in-vivo-of-cervical-cancer-hela-cells
#13
Q-Y Shang, C-S Wu, H-R Gao
The present study explored the effect that deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) knockdown had on proliferation, apoptosis and tumorigenicity in vivo of cervical cancer HeLa cells. Human cervical cancer HeLa cells that had received no prior treatment were selected from the HeLa group. The HeLa-negative control (NC) group consisted of cells that had undergone an empty vector treatment, and finally the HeLa-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) group included cells that were treated by means of shRNA-DCK expression. DCK expressions were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in addition to western blotting assays...
August 18, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819703/novel-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-with-a-dna-encoded-anti-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-monoclonal-antibody
#14
Kar Muthumani, Liron Marnin, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Hyeree Choi, Sangya Agarwal, Veronica L Scott, Emma L Reuschel, Faraz I Zaidi, Elizabeth K Duperret, Megan C Wise, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Kenneth E Ugen, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, David B Weiner
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed at high levels on malignant prostate cells and is likely an important therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate carcinoma. Current immunotherapy approaches to target PSMA include peptide, cell, vector or DNA-based vaccines as well as passive administration of PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Conventional mAb immunotherapy has numerous logistical and practical limitations, including high production costs and a requirement for frequent dosing due to short mAb serum half-life...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819695/theoretical-modeling-of-mechanical-homeostasis-of-a-mammalian-cell-under-gravity-directed-vector
#15
Lüwen Zhou, Chen Zhang, Fan Zhang, Shouqin Lü, Shujin Sun, Dongyuan Lü, Mian Long
Translocation of dense nucleus along gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a eukaryotic cell. In our previous experiments, we quantified the impact of gravity vector on cell remodeling by placing an MC3T3-E1 cell onto upward (U)-, downward (D)-, or edge-on (E)- orientated substrate. Our experimental data demonstrate that orientation dependence of nucleus longitudinal translocation is positively correlated with cytoskeletal (CSK) remodeling of their expressions and structures and also is associated with rearrangement of focal adhesion complex (FAC)...
August 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819692/molecular-characterization-of-atypical-antigenic-variants-of-canine-rabies-virus-reveals-its-reintroduction-by-wildlife-vectors-in-southeastern-mexico
#16
Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Joanna M Ortiz-Alcántara, Elizabeth González-Durán, Sandra I Pérez-Agüeros, Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio, Belem Torres-Longoria, Irma López-Martínez, Lucía Hernández-Rivas, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is practically always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. In Mexico, the last case of human rabies transmitted by dogs was reported in 2006 and canine rabies has declined significantly due to vaccination campaigns implemented in the country. Here we report on the molecular characterization of six rabies virus strains found in Yucatan and Chiapas, remarkably, four of them showed an atypical reaction pattern when antigenic characterization with a reduced panel of eight monoclonal antibodies was performed...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819297/energy-free-machine-learning-force-field-for-aluminum
#17
Ivan Kruglov, Oleg Sergeev, Alexey Yanilkin, Artem R Oganov
We used the machine learning technique of Li et al. (PRL 114, 2015) for molecular dynamics simulations. Atomic configurations were described by feature matrix based on internal vectors, and linear regression was used as a learning technique. We implemented this approach in the LAMMPS code. The method was applied to crystalline and liquid aluminum and uranium at different temperatures and densities, and showed the highest accuracy among different published potentials. Phonon density of states, entropy and melting temperature of aluminum were calculated using this machine learning potential...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819261/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-preferentially-targets-antigen-presenting-cells-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo
#18
Arwen F Altenburg, Carolien E van de Sandt, Bobby W S Li, Ronan J MacLoughlin, Ron A M Fouchier, Geert van Amerongen, Asisa Volz, Rudi W Hendriks, Rik L de Swart, Gerd Sutter, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rory D de Vries
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising vaccine vector with an excellent safety profile. However, despite extensive pre-clinical and clinical testing, surprisingly little is known about the cellular tropism of MVA, especially in relevant animal species. Here, we performed in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments with recombinant MVA expressing green fluorescent protein (rMVA-GFP). In both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse lung explants, rMVA-GFP predominantly infected antigen presenting cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819225/cytochrome-p450-abc-transporter-inhibition-simultaneously-enhances-ivermectin-pharmacokinetics-in-the-mammal-host-and-pharmacodynamics-in-anopheles-gambiae
#19
Carlos J Chaccour, Felix Hammann, Marta Alustiza, Sandra Castejon, Brian B Tarimo, Gloria Abizanda, Ángel Irigoyen Barrio, Helena Martí Soler, Rafael Moncada, José Ignacio Bilbao, Azucena Aldaz, Marta Maia, José Luis Del Pozo
Mass administration of endectocides, drugs that kill blood-feeding arthropods, has been proposed as a complementary strategy to reduce malaria transmission. Ivermectin is one of the leading candidates given its excellent safety profile. Here we provide proof that the effect of ivermectin can be boosted at two different levels by drugs inhibiting the cytochrome or ABC transporter in the mammal host and the target mosquitoes. Using a mini-pig model, we show that drug-mediated cytochrome P450/ABC transporter inhibition results in a 3-fold increase in the time ivermectin remains above mosquito-killing concentrations...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819222/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-tomato-circrnas-derived-from-genes-involved-in-fruit-pigment-accumulation
#20
Jinjuan Tan, Zhongjing Zhou, Yujie Niu, Xiaoyong Sun, Zhiping Deng
CircRNAs, a class of widespread circular RNAs produced from precursor mRNA back-splicing, have been implicated in regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, but their biological functions in plants have not yet been elucidated. By deep sequencing of rRNA-removed and RNase R-digested RNA samples we have identified several thousands of putative back-splicing sites in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) and show that the abundance of some of these circRNAs derived from fruit pigment biosynthesis genes are regulated by fruit ripening...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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