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# Vectors

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#1
Z D Xu, H S Li, S Wang, W F He, J Wu, G X Luo
Objective: To explore the effects of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on P311 and its influence on the migration of murine epidermal stem cells (ESCs) under hypoxia in vitro. Methods: Two kinds of murine ESCs were isolated and obtained from 15 neonatal wild-type C57BL/6J mice and 5 congeneric source P311 gene knock-out mice, respectively. The first passage of cells were used in the following experiments after morphologic observation and detection of expression of cell surface markers CD71 and CD49f with flow cytometer...
May 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
#2
Aijaz Rasool Chaudhry, Ahmad Irfan, Shabbir Muhammad, Abdullah G Al-Sehemi, R Ahmed, Zhang Jingping
In the present study, we use the state of art density functional theory (DFT) techniques to calculate the structural, optoelectronic and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties for two novel chalcone derivatives. The geometrical structures of chalcone derivatives compound 1 and 2 are optimized using periodic boundary conditions (PBC) in solid-state phase as well as isolated single molecular geometry in the gas phase. The reasonable agreement is found among experimental, solid-state and gas phase single molecular geometries, which provide us, further confidence to explore the potential of above-entitled derivatives as good functional materials for electro-optical applications...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
#3
Chun-Na Li, Zeng-Rong Zheng, Ming-Zeng Liu, Yuan-Hai Shao, Wei-Jie Chen
In this paper, we propose a novel absolute value inequalities discriminant analysis (AVIDA) criterion for supervised dimensionality reduction. Compared with the conventional linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the main characteristics of our AVIDA are robustness and sparseness. By reformulating the generalized eigenvalue problem in LDA to a related SVM-type "concave-convex" problem based on absolute value inequalities loss, our AVIDA is not only more robust to outliers and noises, but also avoids the SSS problem...
June 9, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
#4
John M Humphrey, Natalie B Cleton, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marshall J Glesby, Marion P G Koopmans, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
#5
Shahid Karim, Khemraj Budachetri, Nabanita Mukherjee, Jaclyn Williams, Asma Kausar, Muhammad Jawadul Hassan, Steven Adamson, Scot E Dowd, Dmitry Apanskevich, Abdullah Arijo, Zia Uddin Sindhu, Muhammad Azam Kakar, Raja Muhammad Dilpazir Khan, Shafiq Ullah, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Abid Ali, Zafar Iqbal
BACKGROUND: As obligate blood-feeding arthropods, ticks transmit pathogens to humans and domestic animals more often than other arthropod vectors. Livestock farming plays a vital role in the rural economy of Pakistan, and tick infestation causes serious problems with it. However, research on tick species diversity and tick-borne pathogens has rarely been conducted in Pakistan. In this study, a systematic investigation of the tick species infesting livestock in different ecological regions of Pakistan was conducted to determine the microbiome and pathobiome diversity in the indigenous ticks...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
#6
Adaeze O Izuogu, Kristin L McNally, Stephen E Harris, Brian H Youseff, John B Presloid, Christopher Burlak, Jason Munshi-South, Sonja M Best, R Travis Taylor
Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs), including Powassan virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus cause encephalitis or hemorrhagic fevers in humans with case-fatality rates ranging from 1-30%. Despite severe disease in humans, TBFV infection of natural rodent hosts has little noticeable effect. Currently, the basis for resistance to disease is not known. We hypothesize that the coevolution of flaviviruses with their respective hosts has shaped the evolution of potent antiviral factors that suppress virus replication and protect the host from lethal infection...
2017: PloS One
#7
Sheena Francis, Karla Saavedra-Rodriguez, Rushika Perera, Mark Paine, William C Black, Rupika Delgoda
The emergence of novel diseases spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in Jamaica and the Caribbean, has prompted studies on insecticide resistance towards effective management of the vector. Though Jamaica has been using the organophosphate insecticide malathion in its vector control program for more than 30 years, resistance to the pesticide has not been tested in over a decade. We analyzed resistance to malathion and the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin on mosquitoes collected across St. Andrew, Jamaica, and analyzed the molecular basis of resistance...
2017: PloS One
#8
Ian H Mendenhall, Menchie Manuel, Mahesh Moorthy, Theodore T M Lee, Dolyce H W Low, Dorothée Missé, Duane J Gubler, Brett R Ellis, Eng Eong Ooi, Julien Pompon
BACKGROUND: Dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
#9
Neringa Jurkute, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic disorder in the population. We address the clinical evolution of the disease, the secondary etiological factors that could contribute to visual loss, and the challenging task of developing effective treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: LHON is characterized by a preclinical phase that reflects retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction before rapid visual deterioration ensues...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
#10
Carlos M Alaiz, Michael Fanuel, Johan A K Suykens
In this brief, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) is reinterpreted as the solution to a convex optimization problem. Actually, there is a constrained convex problem for each principal component, so that the constraints guarantee that the principal component is indeed a solution, and not a mere saddle point. Although these insights do not imply any algorithmic improvement, they can be used to further understand the method, formulate possible extensions, and properly address them. As an example, a new convex optimization problem for semisupervised classification is proposed, which seems particularly well suited whenever the number of known labels is small...
June 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
#11
Luke B Godfrey, Michael S Gashler
We present a neural network technique for the analysis and extrapolation of time-series data called neural decomposition (ND). Units with a sinusoidal activation function are used to perform a Fourier-like decomposition of training samples into a sum of sinusoids, augmented by units with nonperiodic activation functions to capture linear trends and other nonperiodic components. We show how careful weight initialization can be combined with regularization to form a simple model that generalizes well. Our method generalizes effectively on the Mackey-Glass series, a data set of unemployment rates as reported by the U...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
#12
Hangke Song, Zhi Liu, Huan Du, Guangling Sun, Olivier Le Meur, Tongwei Ren
This paper proposes a novel depth-aware salient object detection and segmentation framework via multiscale discriminative saliency fusion (MDSF) and bootstrap learning for RGBD images (RGB color images with corresponding Depth maps) and stereoscopic images. By exploiting low-level feature contrasts, mid-level feature weighted factors and high-level location priors, various saliency measures on four classes of features are calculated based on multiscale region segmentation. A random forest regressor is learned to perform the discriminative saliency fusion (DSF) and generate the DSF saliency map at each scale, and DSF saliency maps across multiple scales are combined to produce the MDSF saliency map...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
#13
Pengcheng Wang, Nicholas J Amato, Yinsheng Wang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting from endogenous metabolism and/or environmental exposure, can induce damage to the 2-deoxyribose moiety in DNA. Specifically, a hydrogen atom from each of the five carbon atoms in 2-deoxyribose can be abstracted by hydroxyl radical, and improper chemical repair of the ensuing radicals formed at the C1', C3', and C4' positions can lead to the stereochemical inversion at these carbons to yield epimeric 2-deoxyribose lesions. Although single-nucleobase lesions induced by ROS have been well characterized, few studies have been conducted to examine the biological consequences of the C3'-epimeric lesions of 2'-deoxynucleosides, i...
June 26, 2017: Biochemistry
#14
Dongmin Lee, Jung Ho Hyun, Kanghoon Jung, Patrick Hannan, Hyung-Bae Kwon
Despite recent advances in optogenetics, it remains challenging to manipulate gene expression in specific populations of neurons. We present a dual-protein switch system, Cal-Light, that translates neuronal-activity-mediated calcium signaling into gene expression in a light-dependent manner. In cultured neurons and brain slices, we show that Cal-Light drives expression of the reporter EGFP with high spatiotemporal resolution only in the presence of both blue light and calcium. Delivery of the Cal-Light components to the motor cortex of mice by viral vectors labels a subset of excitatory and inhibitory neurons related to learned lever-pressing behavior...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
#15
Susan J Dennis, Ann E Meyers, Alan J Guthrie, Inga I Hitzeroth, Edward P Rybicki
African horse sickness (AHS) is a debilitating and often fatal viral disease affecting horses in much of Africa, caused by the dsRNA orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV). Vaccination remains the single most effective weapon in combatting AHS, as there is no treatment for the disease apart from good animal husbandry. However, the only commercially available vaccine is a live attenuated version of the virus (LAV). The threat of outbreaks of the disease outside its endemic region and the fact that the LAV is not licensed for use elsewhere in the world, have spurred attempts to develop an alternative safer, yet cost-effective recombinant vaccine...
June 26, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
#16
Harikrishnan Sasidharan Nair, Michael O Ogunbunmi, Naveen Kumar Chogondalli Muniraju, D T Adroja, Pascal Manuel, Dominic Fortes, James Taylor, Andre M Strydom
The intermetallic compound \PFA\ that possesses a three-dimensional network structure of Al polyhedra centered at the transition metal element Fe and the rare earth Pr is investigated through neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering in order to elucidate the magnetic ground state of Pr and Fe and the crystal field effects of Pr. Our neutron diffraction study confirms long-range magnetic order of Pr below $T_N$ = 4.5~K in this compound. Subsequent magnetic structure estimation reveals a magnetic propagation vector $\bf k$ = {\bf ($\frac{1}{2}$~0~$\frac{1}{2}$)} with a magnetic moment value of 2...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
#17
Dan Sun, Linshu Zhao, Junzhong Lin, Yun Zhao, Yu Zheng
The increase in multidrug resistance among colon cancer cells presents a challenge for the development of effective therapies. Small-molecule analogs of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetic in association with mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-pDNA and z-VAD-fmk have shown ideal antitumor effects in colon cancer cells in vitro via induction of RIP3-dependent necroptosis. To achieve synergistic antitumor effects in vivo, liposomes loaded with SMAC mimetic, MLKL-pDNA and z-VAD-fmk have been developed using novel lipid fusion methods to co-localize the molecules of interest within the tumor cells...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
#18
Kendra H Steele, Barbara J Stone, Kathleen M Franklin, Xiufeng Zhang, Haobo Jiang, Bruce A Webb, Christoph Geisler, Angelika Fath-Goodin
The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is a widely used platform for the production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. However, the BEVS has limitations in comparison to other higher eukaryotic expression systems. First, the insect cell lines used in the BEVS cannot produce glycoproteins with complex-type N-glycosylation patterns. Second, protein production is limited as cells die and lyse in response to baculovirus infection. To delay cell death and lysis, we transformed several insect cell lines with an expression plasmid harboring a vankyrin gene (P-vank-1), which encodes an anti-apoptotic protein...
June 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
#19
Mark Livingstone, Lukas Folkman, Yuedong Yang, Ping Zhang, Matthew Mort, David N Cooper, Yunlong Liu, Bela Stantic, Yaoqi Zhou
Synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs), although they do not alter the encoded protein sequences, have been implicated in many genetic diseases. Experimental studies indicate that synonymous SNVs can lead to changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of DNA and RNA, thereby impacting translational efficiency, co-translational protein folding as well as the binding of DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the importance of these various features in disease phenotypes is not clearly understood. Here we have built a support vector machine model (termed DDIG-SN) as a means to discriminate disease-causing synonymous variants...
June 25, 2017: Human Mutation
#20
Luyan Liu, Han Zhang, Islem Rekik, Xiaobo Chen, Qian Wang, Dinggang Shen
High-grade glioma (HGG) is a lethal cancer, which is characterized by very poor prognosis. To help optimize treatment strategy, accurate preoperative prediction of HGG patient's outcome (i.e., survival time) is of great clinical value. However, there are huge individual variability of HGG, which produces a large variation in survival time, thus making prognostic prediction more challenging. Previous brain imaging-based outcome prediction studies relied only on the imaging intensity inside or slightly around the tumor, while ignoring any information that is located far away from the lesion (i...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
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